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Publication numberUS3766644 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 23, 1973
Filing dateSep 15, 1972
Priority dateSep 15, 1972
Publication numberUS 3766644 A, US 3766644A, US-A-3766644, US3766644 A, US3766644A
InventorsW Davis
Original AssigneeRadiant Devices Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of making an electric radiant heating panel
US 3766644 A
Abstract
An electric radiant heating device is self contained and is mounted on a surface of a room, such as on the studs or joists of a building and has an electrical resistance strip element of predetermined wattage spaced from the edges of and sandwiched between two thin pliable mylar sheets, with colored strengthening strips mounted along each edge of the panel, and a reflective surface mounted on the rear surface overlying the resistance strip.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

I United States Patent 91 1111 3,766,644 Davis Oct. 23, 1973 [5 METHOD OF MAKING AN ELECTRIC 2,719,213 9 1955 Johnson 219/528 RADIANT HEATING PANEL 3,889,445 6/1959 Wolf 219/345 3,129,316 4/1964 Glass et a1. 219/345 Inventor; Walter Davls, Utlca, 3,263,307 8/1966 Lund 6181... 29 611 3,336,557 8/1967 Lund et al. 219/528 X [73] f lncm'pm'ated 3,417,229 12/1968 Shompe et al. 219/528 Utlca, N.Y.

[22] Filed P 1972 Primary ExaminerVolodymyr Y. Mayewsky [21] APPL No 289,267 AttorneyHoward Miskin [52] 11.8. CI 29/611, 219/345, 219/347, ABSTRACT 219/213 219/528 219/544 An electric radiant heatin device is self contained 51 1111 C1 1-105b 3/00 g ol li v 6 6 6} I v v 6 I 6 6 6 i 6 6 6 6 6 a 6 6 a [581 Fla d 3 2?; ga g 2 studs or joists of a building and has an electrical resis- 2 I6 I tance strip element of predetermined wattage spaced R f from the edges of and sandwiched between two thin [56] e c d pliable mylar sheets, with colored strengthening strips UNITED'STAT'ES PATENTS mounted along each edge of the panel, and a reflec- 2,084,468 6/1937 Wach 219/345 tive surface mounted on the rear surface overlying the 2,512,875 6/1950 Reynolds 219/345 resistance strip, 2,540,295 2/1951 Schreiber 219/213 2,600,486 6/1952 Cox 219/528 X 4 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures ,ilji 11 1 -11 3 12 2o 28 1 12 12.1! I ;l" l

METHOD OF MAKING AN ELECTRIC RADIANT HEATING PANEL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates generally to electric heating apparatus for buildings and more particularly to a panel, which utilizes relatively low temperature radiant electric'heat, which uniformly heats a body within the room.

The advantages accruing to the use of radiant heating of rooms, especially large rooms with high ceilings, has been known. It is clean, comfortable, quiet and space saving. With the many advantages, this heating system has not been widely used because of many difficulties encountered in producing a workable, low cost, dependable unit. It has heretofore been proposed to incorporate electrical resistance heating elements in panels adapted to be mounted on a ceiling surface of; a building. In one such U. S. Pat., No. 3,095,491, the panel is provided with serpentine grooves in which the insulated resistance wire is laid and covered with a conductive cement or plaster. Also, high density electric panels provide radiant heat but concentrate the heat in relatively small areas and often scorch the surronding area and provide localized heating effects, i.e., hot and cold areas. Heretofore panels utilizing radiant heat required strong supports for the panels and the resistance elements. Formerly to utilize this type of heating unit required special tools for assembling, and special procedures for mounting the panel either on the ceiling or on the walls. Further, much of the heat of the resistance element escaped through the rear of the panel itself, which was wasteful with respect to the heat required to heat a body in the room. Many forms of radiant heating panels and heating elements have been employed and proposed, but these were complex, heavy, inefficient, relatively unreliable and possessed numerous drawbacks and disadvantages.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is the principal object of the present invention to provide an improved electric radiant heating panel.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an electric radiant heating panel which can be quickly and easily mounted on joists, studs and the like, and safely covered with conventional construction materials to provide a uniform and even heating effect in the interior of a room in which this panel is mounted.

A further object of the present invention is to provide an electric heating panel that can be used on various surfaces such as walls, ceilings or seats to provide a generally uniform and even heating within the interior of the room.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide an electrical radiant heating panel which is pliable, can be rolled up during production and shipping, safe and light and can be mounted safely and quickly and uniformly over the studs of a floor or wall in new construction.

An additional object of the present invention is to provide an efficient method of continuously making an electric radiant heating panel.

A still further object of the present invention is to provide a method of making a radiant heating device,

including positioning a reflective layer directly on an insulating layer for the resistance element, and with the electric resistance element having a predetermined heating effect and the heat from the panel can be easily determined by the general dimensions of the panel.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a radiant heating panel of the above nature, characterized by its reliability, simplicity, ruggedness, ease of op eration, efficient utilization of electric power, versatility and adaptability.

The above and other objects of the present invention will become apparent from a reading of the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate a preferred embodiment thereof.

In a sense the present invention comtemplates the provision of an electric radiant heating panel which can be mounted on the surface of a ceiling such as the studs of a building and include a serpentine electrical resistance strip spaced from the edges of and sandwiched between a pair of thin, pliable plastic mylar sheets with strengthening strips on each edge of the resistance strip and a reflective surface mounted on the rear surface overlying the resistance strip. An alternate construction uses a conventional panel for hung type ceilings, in which an electric resistance strip element is mounted. The panel contains the insulating and reflector surfaces to focus the heat interiorly into the room and does not depend on separate insulation or other surfaces. This self-contained heating unit is safe, reliable, simple but rugged, requires no additional support elements, can be readily handled even while operating without fear of shock, and is completely enclosed in its own insulating cocoon.

Since the resistance element is sandwiched between two pliable continuous strips, with supporting strips along each edge, it lends itself to efficient mass production techniques, and can be made in continuous lengths or the desired lengths or widths as required for a particular job.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. l is a prospective view of a ceiling construction showing a heating panel made in accordance with the present invention, secured to adjoining studs;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 2 2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a fragmented plan view of one embodiment of a panel partially broken away and illustrating the resistance element; and

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 4 4 of FIG. 3.

DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Heretofore, with radiant heating devices, it has been found that where the radiant heat impinges directly upon the body at a uniform rate, it causes discomfort, so that the quantity of heat either must be reduceed or the person moves to another area and hence becomes cool. With the present invention, the radiant heat, while being directed into the interior of the room is non-uniform and hence provides a more uniform heating comfort, since concentration of heat on the body is avoided. Essentially, the heating panel difuses the radiant heat to provide more comfort.

Panels made in accordance with the present invention may be made in varying widths and thicknesses. If desired, the panels can overlie several joists wit: the heating elements mounted between the insulating inner and outer layers at predetermined portions so as to fall between adjacent joists and thereby allow easy mounting of the panel to the joists without fear of contacting a resistance element. The panels can be made in continuous sheets from flexible, pliable material so they can be rolled during the fabricating process and unrolled during use. I

Referring now to the drawing which illustrates a preferred embodiment of the present inventioh, the reference numberal generally designates an electric heat radiating panel secured to the lower surfaces of a series of ceiling joists 12.

Referring particularly now to FIG. 4, there is shown panel 10 which has an electrical resistance element 14 sandwiched between two pliable layers 16 and 18. Element 14 is serpentine in shape to provide maximum heat for a given surface. The ends are enlarged to provide good conductivity. Element 14 is advantageously made of a lead tin combination to allow the material to fuse if overheated. Mounted on the outer surface of bottom layer 18 is a reflective surface which may be metallic foil, bright colored plastic, or the like, either carried on one surface or formed therein. Pliable layers 16 and 18 are electrically insulated. Mounted along the outer longitudinal edges of layers 16 and 18 are reinforcing strips 22 and 24 respectively, which advantageously are of a bright color and contrast with insulating layers 16 and 18 respectively, so as to be readily seen by the user or worker. Strips 22 and 24 do not overlie any electrical connectors or resistance elements and can be used to mount the panel directly to the joints or floor or 'wallboard quickly and easily. The panel 10 is'mounted to joists 12 by stapling through strips 22 and 24 to joists 12. The user of strips 22 and 24 allow very thin and essentially weak structural materials to be used as the insulating layers 16 and 18, since the strengthening strips 22 and 24 provide the holding power of the'panels. Since all of the layers are pliable and flexible, the finished panel illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 can be rolled for storage and transportation and predetermined heating size. Layers l4 and 18 are so fabricated and positioned to overlie the electrical heating resistance elements 14, to fabricate the entire panel 10 into a unitary article and theouter layers 16 and 18 are fastened together in anysuitable manner, such as by adhesive, heat sealing. or the like. When panels 16 and 18 are attached, they fix resistance element 14 with respect to the panels 16 and 18 and prevent unwanted movement. Similarly, reflector panel 20 and strengthening strips 24 and 26 are adhered to layers 16 and 18 respectively by any suitable means. 1

To'energize heating element 18, electrical current from a power source, not shown, can be conducted by means of wires such as indicated at 28. Wires or cable 28 are connected to the outer elements ofresistance element 14 and provide uniform heating throughout the panel as seen best in FIGS. 1 and 3. The current from the power source flows through the entire resistance element 14 resulting in a generation of heat due to the resistance of the element. The heatgenerate'd from element 14 flows into the room directly through layer 16 and is also reflected by reflector layer 20 again through both layers 18 and 16 providing a nonconcentrated diverse radiant heat into the interior of the room and essentially almost all of the heat into the room and little through the rearward surface of the reflective layer 20 to escape.

The panel shown in the drawing is extremely thin and flexible and can be fastened safely and quickly to wall joists and ceiling joists and the wall or ceiling panels and outer wall panels and ceilings can be mounted directly over the heating panels in new construction. The heating panels are completely self-contained and safe and resist moisture, mold, insects and the like. The multi-colored strips 22 and 24 provide the strength and quickly alert the user to where the panel can be mounted safely to the joist, such as by staples, nails, and the like. While a separate reflective panel 20 is shown, it can be combined with strip 18 by coating the outer surface of strip 18. This coating can be made by electro-disposition, painted or coated in a conventional manner, as shown in the art. Because of the relatively low concentration of heat from the panels, the ceiling panels mounted over the heating panels 10 act-as a heat bank, which holds and maintains the heat and thus heat continually radiates into the room to distribute warmth throughout the entire room, even after the thermostat is satisfied. For example, inch plasterboard will radiate heat for approximately one-half hour after the heatingunits are turned off. The operating costs are low 'with' panels mounted as described above, since the thermostatic controls react swiftly to changing conditions in the interior of the room and the heat generated is only on for a relatively small time, and the room is keptat the required temperature by reason of the heat bank characteristics. This type of heating is not restricted to a heat source being where a person stands or sits in the room but encompasses the entire room.

By reason of the panels being mounted behind the wall and ceiling panel, there is no lost space for radiators and the like. Further, the effectiveness of the heat transferred into the room is not influenced by the ceiling height.

One embodiment measures 33% X 113 inches and covers three normal conventional joists wide or runs across eight joists long. Two of these units are sufficient to heat an insulated 10X 12 room and maintain the desired heat when the outside temperature is minus 10 A further embodiment is designed for 2 X 4 feet tiles which fit a suspended ceiling and can be utilized in the conventional suspended or drop ceilings to provide specified heating areas. Panels of this type can be used with 300 watts and can go up to 600 watts if desired.

Advantageously, strips 16 and '18 are "made from mylar plastic material and the heating unit cable is nonferrous and non-magnetic,'so as to provide a silent systern with no hum. The desired heat obtainable can be quickly calculated from the heat emission from a predetermined length and width of the panel, and quickly be made to the desired size to provide the desired heat.

To produce the panel, the heating element is placed between two layers of mylar and the layers affixed to each other by an adhesive applied to the facing surfaces. The heating element is fixed between the layers. The strips can be made as long or as short or as wide or thin as desired. The reflective layers and strengthening strips can be affixed in the same manner. While various geometric configurations are illustrated, other shapes can be used.

While there has been described and illustrated a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is apparent that numerous alterations, omissions and additions may be made without departing from the spirit thereof.

What is claimed is:

1. The method of making a radiant heating panel comprising positioning a first thin pliable plastic panel to overlie a pair of narrow plastic strips, each on an opposite edge of said first panel, joining said edge strips to said first panel, positioning a serpentine electrical resistance element on said first panel on the surface opposite said edge strips and positioned between said edge strips, overlying said resistance element with a second thin pliable plastic pane], joining said second panel to said first panel to hold said resistance element in position therebetween, positioning edge strips along opposite side edges of the outer surface of said second panel, joining said edge strips to said second panel, electrically coupling a conductor to opposite ends of said serpentine resistance element, and positioning a reflective surface on the outer surface of one of said outer panels and overlying said resistance element.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein said reflective surface is provided by superimposing a third panel on the outer surface of one of said first or second panels, and providing a reflective surface on said third panel.

3. The method of claim 1 further including forming the edge strip with a color different from said first and second panels.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said heating panel is to be used in a structure containing joists and further including selecting the width of the resistance element to fall between consecutive joists

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2084468 *Oct 4, 1935Jun 22, 1937Wach Edward FThermoradiant heating unit
US2512875 *Jun 20, 1949Jun 27, 1950 Cellular radiant heating panel
US2540295 *Oct 25, 1947Feb 6, 1951Us Rubber CoElectrical heating panel
US2600486 *Feb 7, 1951Jun 17, 1952Cox Duncan BElectric heater
US2719213 *Jul 21, 1949Sep 27, 1955Johnson Oliver FHeat shield
US3129316 *Jul 30, 1962Apr 14, 1964Ferris N GlassHeating element for eliminating ice from a roof
US3263307 *Nov 4, 1963Aug 2, 1966Meinich PatentkonsortietMethod for making electrical heating mats and blanks therefor
US3336557 *Mar 4, 1966Aug 15, 1967Robert MeinichElectrical heating mats and blanks therefor
US3417229 *Oct 14, 1965Dec 17, 1968Sanders Associates IncElectrical resistance heating articles
US3889445 *Jun 3, 1974Jun 17, 1975Gen Mills IncWagon wheel package loader
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4173823 *Jun 23, 1978Nov 13, 1979American Can CompanyResistance heater for a pizza carton
US4355225 *Mar 30, 1981Oct 19, 1982Xerox CorporationInstant-on radiant fuser
US4363947 *May 20, 1981Dec 14, 1982International Standard Electric CorporationElectrical heating element
US4620085 *Aug 7, 1984Oct 28, 1986Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Floor coverings having built-in heater
US4641423 *May 17, 1984Feb 10, 1987Fast Heat Element Manufacturing Co., Inc.Method of making electrically heated nozzles and nozzle systems
US4650960 *Jun 27, 1985Mar 17, 1987Standard Telefon Og Kabelfabrik A/SElectrical heating foil element
US4833300 *Dec 11, 1987May 23, 1989Buchtal Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungSpace heating element having a ceramic body with an electrically resistive coating thereon
US5010234 *Dec 2, 1988Apr 23, 1991Fernand ScherrerDevice for air-conditioning premises with exchange of heat energy by low temperature infrared radiation
US5932124 *Apr 19, 1996Aug 3, 1999Thermion Systems InternationalMethod for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, or countertop surface
US6015965 *May 13, 1999Jan 18, 2000Thermion Systems InternationalMethod for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, roof, or countertop surface
US6087630 *Dec 7, 1999Jul 11, 2000Thermion Systems InternationalMethod for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, roof, or countertop surface
US6629396 *May 22, 2001Oct 7, 2003Gevorg AvetisyanCell adaptable for construction of a housing structure
US6664512Sep 10, 2002Dec 16, 2003Sunbeam Products, Inc.Warming blanket with heat reflective strips
US20050220446 *Apr 2, 2004Oct 6, 2005Matson Jerry KCeiling apparatus and method of reducing condensation in controlled atomosphere buildings
Classifications
U.S. Classification29/611, 392/435, 219/213, 219/544, 219/528
International ClassificationH05B3/34, F24D13/02, H05B3/22
Cooperative ClassificationH05B2203/026, F24D13/022, H05B2203/014, H05B2203/029, H05B3/22, H05B2203/013, H05B3/34, H05B2203/033
European ClassificationH05B3/34, F24D13/02B, H05B3/22