US 3766903 A
An air gun having an elongated tubular housing which is separated into a barrel-magazine chamber and an air compression chamber by a separating block assembly which provides a shot feed passage and firing chamber connected to both chambers while also serving as a cylinder head for the air compression chamber. A one-piece sliding rotatable shot loading plastic door is mounted on a barrel within the tubular housing intermediate the ends of the barrel. A pivotally mounted cocking lever carries a trigger for releasing a spring loaded plunger associated withthe air compression chamber by operative engagement with a sear only when the cocking lever is in a stowed position whereat the major portions of the cocking lever are loccated within a cocking lever slot in the gun.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 11 1 Fischer 1 Oct. 23, 1973 AIR GUN WITH ROTATABLE AMMUNITION LOADING DOOR  Inventor: Earl L. Fischer, Bentonville, Ark.
22 Filed: July 13,1970
 U.S. Cl 124/15, 124/41, 124/45  Int. Cl. F41b 11/00, F411 1/04  Field of Search 124/15, 41, 45, 49, 124/50, 51 R, 51 A, 52, 53,11 R, 13 A, 30 R  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 507,470 10/1893 Bailey 124/15 541,085 6/1895 Gunn .1 124/15 808,680 2/1906 Polley 124/30 R 944,188 12/1909 Heilprin.. 124/15 1,065,556 6/1913 Searle 124/15 2,554,116 5/1951 Monner.... 124/11 R 3,245,392 4/1966 Daniel 1 124/15 2,151,676 3 1939 Appleby... 124 15 2,633,838 4/1953 Seward.... 124/15 2,043,677 6/1936 Salomon 124/41 UX 1,978,799 10/1934 Lefever 124/49 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 360,259 2/1906 France .l 124/11 R Primary ExaminerRichard C. Pinkham Assistant Examiner-Richard T. Stouffer Attarneyl-larness, Dickey and Pierce  ABSTRACT An air gun having an elongated tubular housing which is separated into a barrel-magazine chamber and an air compression chamber by a separating block assembly which provides a shot feed passage and firing chamber connected to both chambers while also serving as a cylinder head for the air compression chamber. A one-piece sliding rotatable shot loading plastic door is mounted on a barrel within the tubular housing intermediate the ends of the barrel. A pivotally mounted cocking lever carries a trigger for releasing a spring loaded plunger associated withthe air compression chamber by operative engagement with a sear only when the cocking lever is in a stowed position whereat the major portions of the cocking lever are loccated within a cocking lever slot in the gun.
8 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures Tyr BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is related to air guns of .the type which fire BBs by compressed air and is the result of an attempt to provide a new and improved air gun which will be easier and cheaper to manufacture, as well as safer and more reliable in use.
One specific feature of the present invention is the provision of a new and improved barrel-shot bore-shot magazine and air compression cylinder combination which has reduced the number of parts and reduced assembly time. as well as improving operating characteristics.
Another specific feature of the invention is the provision of a new and improved magazine loading door made from one piece of resilient plastic materialto reduce parts and close tolerances, assembled in a more facile manner, and operable in a more efficient and trouble free manner.
Still another specific feature of the invention is the provision of a new and improved shot feed and firing chamber arrangement. In this connection, a new and improved assembly is provided in which the gun barrel and air tube are sandwiched between a connecting block formed in two halves with a shot holding cup resiliently supported in a firing chamber in the block by an axially extending arm also sandwiched between the block halves.
A further specific feature of the invention is the provision of a trigger-sear-cocking lever assembly wherein the trigger is mounted on the cocking lever and movable therewith so as to be completely .disassociated .from the sear during cocking movement to prevent any accidental firing of the gun during cocking movement. The scar is arranged to be operatively associated with the trigger in a firing position and to be operated by the trigger in the firing position by a simple camming engagement therebetween.
A further feature of the present invention is the provision of means for completely stowing the handle portion of the cocking lever in the gun stock so that only the trigger guard protrudes from the gun housing and stock.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a side elevational view partly in section illustrating the new and improved air gun of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1 taken along the line 2-2;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1. taken along the line 3--3;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1 taken along the line 4-4; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1 taken along the line 5--5.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION or THE INVENTION IN GENERAL The presently preferred forms of the inventive concepts are shown to be illustratively embodied in a rifle type gun adapted to fire ammunition, in the form of BB type shot, by compressed air. While the inventive conceptsprovide particular advantages in association with the illustrative type gun and ammunition, it will be understoodthat the inventive concepts are believed to be applicable in whole or in part to othertypes of guns including air ignition guns, pneumatic guns, play guns with only compressed air operated noise making mechanism, and other guns which operate on similar principles. The illustrative firing mechanism comprises air compression cylinder means in which air is compressed .by apiston means reciprocably mounted therein with an air tube extending forwardly into barrel means having a bore through which the ammunition is fired. The piston means is driven by a compression springand held in a cockedfiring position by a releasable sear. A
cocking lever means is provided to move the piston means to the cocked firing position and a trigger means is operably associated with the sear means to release the piston means.
trative gun is mounted with an elongated one-piece tubular housing 10 having a generally cylindricalv slightly tapered barrel portion 12 connected to an enlarged cylindrical air compression cylinder portion 14 by an integrally formed annular shoulder 16. Thus, the tubular housing member has a first portion with a smaller inside diameter than a second portion and includes a shoulder 16 connecting the first portion to the second portion. An annular chamber separating block means 18 separates the tubular housing into a barrel-magazine chamber 20 and an air compression chamber 22. As shown in FIG. 1, the block means 18 has a shoulder corresponding to shoulder 16 which locates the separating block within the tubular housing member. The front end of the housing is notched as at 24 to receive a front sight casting 26 suitably secured therein as by threaded fastening means 28. Integral depending generally paralgated side walls 38, 40 and interior support ribs 42, 44,
46 which cradle the tubular housing. The forward end of the forearm casting is secured to the tubular housing by threaded fastening means 48 received in the separation block 18. A receiver cover 50 surrounds and conmeets the rear of the tubular housing 10 and forearm casting 36 to a stock casting 52. The rear end tubular housing and the receiver cover are secured to one another by spot welding. Rivets 54, 56 extend through the housing and cover to provide pivot pins as hereinafter described. The stock casting is secured to the housing by screw means 58.
BARREL MEANS A barrel 60 having a shot bore '62 extends between and is supported by the front sight casting 26 and the separating block 18. An enlarged bore 64 in the front sight casting is aligned with the shot bore. The rear end of the barrel is secured within the separating block means 18 by an interlock comprising a slot in the barrel and a protruding rib 66 on the separating block means.
SHOT STORAGE MEANS The outside diameter of the barrel 60 is substantially less than the inside diameter of the tubular housing 10 so as to provide a shot chamber extending the length of the barrel.
A shot loading opening 68 is provided in the tubular housing between the ends of the barrel and has a general rectangular configuration. A movable loading door 70 is associated with the loading opening and movable relative thereto between a closed shot retaining position and an open shot loading position. The door is molded in one piece from resilient plastic material, such as Delrin or Nylon and comprises a shutter portion 72 of generally arcuate shape connected to a hinge portion 74 by a flexible arm portion 76. A generally annular bearing groove 78 is formed in the hinge portion by opposite flexible resilient wall segments 80, '82 which in an unflexed state define a bearing groove of lesser diameter than the outside diameter of the barrel and which are resiliently flexible to an open position for snap-on engagement with the barrel. The shutter portion is provided with a generally annular outside surface which in an inwardly flexed state has a diameter approximately equal to the inside diameter of the tubular housing and in an unflexed state is of somewhat larger diameter. Thus, in the assembled position, the shutter portion 72 is held under compression by resilient inward deflection of the arm portion relative to the hinge portion. Detent means are provided to locate and hold the door in the closed position which comprise integral abutment surfaces 84, 86 engageable with opposite edges of the loading opening. An integral release rib 88 is formed on the outermost end of the door so that the shutter portion may be pushed radially inwardly to release the detent means and pushed circumferentially by sliding rotating movement relative to the tubular housing and the barrel until an abutment 90 engages the edge of the loading opening. An arrow may be formed on the outer surface of the door by an integral rib 92 to indicate the direction of movement to open the door.
SHOT FEED AND HOLDING MEANS The separating block means 18 is formed by separable upper and lower die casting halves 94, 96 which are staked together or otherwise secured after assembly. A firing chamber 98 is centrally provided in the separating block means behind the rear end of the barrel and is connected to the shot magazine chamber by a loading chute comprising a curved bore 100 and an axially extending slot 102 integrally formed in the upper half. A shot holding means 104 of resilient plastic material, such as Delrin or Nylon, is flexibly mounted in the separating block means. A shot cup portion 106 is located in the firing chamber and a spring finger portion 108 extends forwardly beneath the barrel and is held by the barrel in an L-shaped retaining slot 110 in the lower half of the separating block means. A relief slot 112 extends beneath the rear portion of the shot holding means to permit downward resilient flexing movement. The shot cup provides a semi-spherical shot seat 114 surrounded by an annular rim 1 16 which surrounds and holds the shot on all sides. Thus, the shot holding means comprises a semi-spherical ammunition seat 114 providing an inclined annular rim 1l6'having a raised front portion located between the barrel means and the seat with a lowered rear portion located between the seat and the air tube 126. The shot holding means is separate from and movable relative to the separating block and the barrel means while being supported in cantilever fashion with spring means 108 normally biasing the seat portion toward a retaining position until a projectile is to be fired, at which time the seat is moved to a release position located radially outwardly relative to the bore 66 to permit the projectile to be driven off the seat and through the bore. This arrangement eliminates any possibility of jamming or double feeding and insures proper alignment of the shot. Also, the apparatus comprises a minimum number of parts which may be assembled in a new and improved manner.
AIR COMPRESSION MEANS The rear portion of the separating block means 18 provides a compression chamber head having a central bore aligned with the barrel bore and connecting the firing chamber to the air compression chamber through a sealing washer 122 suitably interlocked with the separating block means as by a rib and groove arrangement shown at 124. An air tube 126 is slidably mounted in bore 120 and fixedly attached at the rear to a plunger head assembly 128 including a plunger washer 130, a felt washer 132, and a rearwardly extending shaft 134. A hollow tubular plunger rod 136 is fixedly mounted over the shaft 134 by a plunger pin 138 and extends rearwardly within the tubular housing. A compression drive spring 140 is mounted circumjacent the plunger rod and held between the plunger pin and a fixed abutment plate 142 extending through aligned slots 144, 146 in the tubular housing and receiver housing. The upper portion 148 of the plate is rearwardly bent to extend along the upper surface of the gun and provide a rear sight flange portion 150. The rear portion of the plunger is reduced in size and extends through the spring abutment plate. A sear abutment 152 is provided at the rear of the plunger by inclined flange portions.
OPERATING MEANS A sear lever 154 is pivotally mounted on rivet 56 for movement of a keeper portion 156 into and out of retaining engagement with the sear abutment of the plunger rod. A spring 158 biases the sear toward a holding position relative to the plunger. A trigger 160 is pivotally mounted in a trigger slot 162 on a pin 164 carried by a cocking lever 166. A spring 168 biases the trigger forwardly to a holding position with a trigger abutment 170 operatively associated with the sear lever. When the trigger is pulled rearwardly, trigger abutment 170 forces the rear end of the sear lever upwardly to release the plunger rod and fire the gun. A trigger safety 172 is also carried by the cooking lever and is slidable into and out of blocking engagement with a trigger safety flange 174.
The cocking lever is pivoted about rivet 54 to move to a cocking position with a cam arm 176 in engagement with plunger abutment 152 to force the plunger rearwardly against the bias of the driving spring 140 over the front end of the sear to the cocked position. A handle portion 178 of the cocking lever extends rearwardly and downwardly within a handle slot 180 in the stock casting 52 as shown in FIG. 5 A retaining clip 182 is mounted in the handle slot and has resilient fingers 184, 186 which grippingly receive the handle in the stowed position. The handle is downwardly rearwardly curved and terminates in a transverse abutment flange 188 adapted to abuttingly engage a corresponding surface 190 on the stock casting. The rear portion of the flange .188 is offset relative to the adjacent portion of the stock casting to provide a grippable release lever.
1. An air gun comprising:
air compression cylinder means in which air is compressed for firing ammunition from the gun;
a barrel means having a bore through which ammunition is fired from the gun and a front end portion and a rear end portion;
a piston means reciprocably mounted in said cylinder means and having a forwardly extending air tube mounted thereon;
operating means associated with said piston means to move said piston means and said air tube between a cocked firing position and a released fired position;
separating block means mounted between and axially spacing said air compression cylinder means and the rear end portion of said barrel means;
a central bore extending through said spearating block means;
a rear portion of said separating block means providing a front end wall for said air compression cylinder means; i i
a rear portion of said central bore being aligned with and dimensioned to slidably receive said air tube and receiving the forward end of said air tube in the firing position;
a front portion only of said separating block means providing support for the rear end portion of said barrel means, the rear end portion extending within a front portion only of said central bore and terminating therewithin;
a firing chamber provided behind the rear end of said barrel means by an intermediatevportion of said central bore between said barrel means and the rear portion of said central bore and said air tube in the firing position;
the front end of said air tube and the rear end portion of said barrel means being spaced apart and located on opposite sides of said firing chamber in the firing position;
an ammunition storage chamber extending forwardly of said separating block circumjacent said barrel means; a
a loading chute in said separating block extending from said storage chamber to said firing chamber;
ammunition holding means mounted in said firing chamber withinsaid separating block opposite said loading chute to receive and hold a round of ammunition between said barrel means and said air tube;
said cylinder means comprising a one-piece tubular housing member extending forwardly to the front end of and mounted circumjacent said barrel said barrel means intermediate the front end pori 6 tion and the rear endportionthereofand being rotatable between a closed position and an open position relative to said opening.
2. The invention as defined in claim 1 and said door comprising a one-piece plastic member'having anointegral hinge portion mounted onthe barrel means and an integral shutter portion of generally arcuate shape slidably supported on an inner wall of said tubular housing member circumjacent said barrel means.
3. The invention as defined in claim 2 and said door further comprising:
an axially extending slot in the hinge portion having resilient expandable wall portions and a semicylindrical surface with a diameter approximately equal to the diameter of said barrel means;
said barrel meansbeing received in said slot with'said wall portions being resiliently expanded and retainingly grippingly pivotally holding said door on said barrel means;
said shutter portion being flexibly connected to said hinge portion;
a generally cylindrical outer surface on said shutter portion having a diameter approximately equal to the inside diameter of said tubular housing member; and
an outer surface on said shutter portion for applying a generally tangentially directed force to the door to cause pivotal movement about said barrel means to open and close said loading opening.
4. The invention as defined in claim 3 and there being detent means on said door and said tubular housing member to hold saiddoor in the closed position, said detent means being releasable by inward flexing of said shutter portion relative to said hinge portion.
5. An air gun or the like comprising:
a source of compressed gas for firing ammunition from the gun;
a barrel means having a bore through which ammunition is fired from the gun and having a front end portion and a rear end portion;
separating block means mounted between and axially spacingsaid source of compressed gas and the rear end portion of said. barrel means;
a firing chamber provided at the rear end of said barrel means;
gas passage means connecting said firing chamber and said source of compressed gas;
an ammunition storage chamber extending forwardly of said separating block means circumjacent said barrel means;
a tubular housing member extending forwardly from said separating block means and mounted circumjacent said barrel means;
a portion of said tubular housing member defining said storage chamber;
an ammunition loading opening in said tubular housing member intermediate said separating block means and the front end of said barrel means and connected to said storage chamber; and an ammunition loading door rotatably mounted on said barrel means intermediate the front end portion and the rear end portion thereof and being r0- tatable between a closed position and an open position relative to said opening. 6. The invention as defined in claim 5 and said door comprising a one-piece plastic member having an integral hinge portion mounted on the barrel means and an integral shutter portion of generally arcuate shape slidably supported on an inner wall of said tubular housing 1 a generally cylindrical outer surface on said shutter portion having a diameter approximately equal to the inside diameter of said tubular housing member; and
an outer surface on said shutter portion for applying a generally tangentially directed force to the door to cause pivotal movement about said barrel means to open and close said loading opening.
8. The invention as defined in claim 7 and there being detent means on said door and said tubular housing member to hold said door in the closed position, said detent means being releasable by inward flexing of said shutter portion relative to said hinge portion.
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