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Publication numberUS3768144 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 30, 1973
Filing dateMar 4, 1971
Priority dateMar 4, 1971
Publication numberUS 3768144 A, US 3768144A, US-A-3768144, US3768144 A, US3768144A
InventorsB Heinss
Original AssigneeAmerican Lava Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for ceramic composites
US 3768144 A
A process is provided by which metal, or other non-ceramic material, is inset into a ceramic structure to produce a composite structure having properties not attainable by previously available processes.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 [111 3,768,144

Heinss Oct. 30, 1973 [54] PROCESS FOR CERAMIC COMPOSITES 1,128,532 2/1915 Schmidt 29/432 UX m1 222,217. 24:22: 21:21:??? 32122:; Tenn- 3,422,173 l/1969 Bergstrom et al. 264/67 X [73] Assignee: American Lava Corporation,

Chattanooga, Tenn.

[22] Filed: Mar. 4, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 121,002

[52] [1.8. CI 29/432, 264/67, 264/118, 264/152, 29/l82.2 [51] Int. Cl. B23p 11/00 [58] Field of Search 29/432, 420, 182.2; 264/67, 118, 152

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 943,309 12/1909 Kohn 29/432 X Primary Examiner-Charlie T. Moon Attorney-Alexander, Sell, Steldt & Delahunt [57] ABSTRACT A process is. provided by which metal, or other nonceramic material, is inset into a ceramic structure to produce a composite structure having properties not attainable by previously available processes.

5 Claims, 20 Drawing Figures PROCESS FOR CERAMIC COMPOSITES This invention relates to a process for the insetting of metallic or other non-ceramic compositing materials into ceramic structures followed by firing to give integral composite ceramic articles. In particular, the invention relates to a process for the insetting of metallic via-holes in one or more layers of ceramic in composite substrates.

It is widely known to produce substrates from ceramics, such as alumina, for the attachment of electrical devices giving ceramic substrates which are commonly referred to as printed circuits although that term is possibly better reserved for circuits on polymeric bases. In fact, the circuitry of ceramic substrates is usually applied by silk screening processes on the ceramic base either before firing, in which case both are fired together, or subsequent to firing. In the later case, a further step is necessary to sinter the metallic circuitry and deformation of the ceramic may occur. Leads passing from one side to the other of a single ceramic sheet or from one sheet to another in multilayer structures pass through holes known as via holes.

In the screening operation, the filling of the via holes normally occurs as the result of capillary action or it may be assisted by application of suction or vacuum. This procedure is generally satisfactory for very small holes except that the ultimate density of the metal after firing may be less than desired and that bubbles may be occluded so that there is incomplete filling of the holes. In the case of larger holes, the procedure of screening is quite inadequate because the contraction in volume occuring during the drying of the paste results in incomplete filling of the holes often with a friable residue which may be badly cracked and generally unsatisfactory. Furthermore, adhesion of the screened metal to the ceramic base may be inadequate. If there is a thinning of the metallic conductors or incomplete filling of the via holes, the electrical conductivity of parts of the circuitry may be quite limited.

It is an aim of this invention to provide conductors in ceramic composites having uniform density of metal regardless of the size thereof. Other aims and objects will become apparent hereinafter.

In accordance with the above and other aims and objects of the invention, it has been found that a highly valuable process for the production of ceramic composites is the simultaneous punching of tapes of the basic ceramic and of the compositing material so that the piece punched out of the latter tape transfers to and is lodged in the basic ceramic tape. The tapes referred to are thin self-sustaining sheets of uniform thickness of the requisite ceramic and compositing materials re-- spectively combined with a small amount, usually less then percent by weight, of a thermoplastic polymeric binder.

The compositing material may be referred to as a non-ceramic although in some circumstances such materials might be considered as refractory ceramics. These materials are of two types, metallic and nonmetallic. The term non-ceramic is thus employed particularly to include materials such as metals but also embraces materials different from the basic ceramic composition. Some materials, e.g., titanates, may be considered as ceramic in certain applications and as non-ceramic in a different application. Because the materials employed are generally sintered at elevated temperatures, they may also be referred to as sinterable refractories which are thermally compatible. Not more than one will usually be metallic and at least one will usually be electrically non-conductive.

The volume percentage occupied by the components of the respective green tapes is apparently an important criterion in that they should be relatively closely matched. In general, each material used will fire to at least percent of theoretical density and preferably percent or more depending in part on the particle sizes used, and the extent of sintering at the firing temperature. I

In this process it is necessary that the male die be applied to the non-ceramic, e.g., metallic, tape so that pieces are punched from it and lodged in the ceramiccontaining tape.

The two tapes are die-stamped simultaneously to an extent sufficient only to offset the non-ceramic (e.g., metallic) tape into the ceramic tape. The two green ceramic tapes are termed tapes because produced in tape form by the process of U.S. Pat. No. 2,966,719. They may also be referred to as green sheets. They should be relatively closely matched with respect to the volume percentage of the respective components which will usually be at least 70 percent and is preferably higher. The non-ceramic tape may be further partially matches to the ceramic tape with respect to the coefficient of thermal expansion by the incorporation of moderate amounts of the ceramic material. The amounts will vary from 0 up to aboutjlQ percentor so by weight of alumina or other ceramic material in a molybdenum or tungsten metal tape and broadly will be of that range in any case. Those having skill in the art will recognize that such additions may be contraindicated by reactivity characteristics or where other more important properties would be sacrificed by such additions. In the event that slight adjustments are desired, one or the other of the green tapes may be slightly further compacted to effect some changes in the particle density, volume percent, or percent of theoretical density. In general, the tapes are not highly compactable because of the polymeric binder. It must also be recognized that the two sheets will usually have to be of substantially the same thickness or caliper within the range of about0.002 to 0.1 inches (0.05 to 2.5 mm.) at least thickness than about 5 percent may be employed to achieve specific results such as a protruding inset (nonceramic sheet of extra thickness) or a depressed inset (non-ceramic sheet of lesser thickness). Methods of operation with these special conditions will be evident from the other teachings herein.

The procedure of the invention offers the advantage of producing metallic insets which are of essentially the same particulate density and hence have about the same permeability to gases as .the ceramic itself. Hermeticity is thus more readily achieved particularly when a range of particles sizes are used. The process of the invention further offers the advantage of being able to provide relatively thick buried or exposed electrical conductors which therefore have relatively lower resistance than conductors produced solely by screening operations. The process of the invention also permits the use of compositing materials, i.e., other than the base ceramic, which are non-metallic such as, for example, titanates, beryllia, ferrites, as well as other useful materials for electrical, thermal or magnetic properties. Furthermore, the processes of the invention and 3 {768 la 33 green items produced employing this process may be that they will adhere under mild pressure and heating. further handled using conventional operations such as They should be self-sustaining as normally used. it will screen printing, punching, cutting, and the like. The be recognized that the process will give scrap metallic process of the invention is particularly adapted for intape and that scrap can normally be reprocessed to give sertions having a width of at least 0.002 inches (0.05 5 fresh tape. mm.) and upward. The process is now further described by reference to As pointed out, the process of the invention is not the accompanying drawings wherein: limited with respect to the use of particular materials FIGS. 1 and 2 show a top and side view respectively for ceramics and non-ceramics but it is illustrated ofasmall plug-in package unit produced employing the herein particularly in terms of alumina and tungsten to process of the invention. composites. The alumina may be of better than 90 per- Flt). shows the underside of the package unit of cent purity, for example, a 94 percent alumina contain- FlGS. .l and ing additions of greater or lesser amounts of talc, clay, FlG. l shows the cross section along line l-l of FIG. and/or calcium carbonate. A typical tape will contain about 90-95 percent of alumina of 90 percent or FIG 5 shows the bottom side of a differently degreater purity in a polymeric binder such as plasticized signed package unit from that shown in Flt]. l and; polyvinyl butyral. plasticizers include polyalkylene glyllG. shows the cross section along line ti-t5 of FlG. col ethers, dioctyl phthalate and other relatively nonii. volatile materials conventional to the field of polymers. lFlGS. I, 8 and 9 show the successive positions of the With molybdenum or tungsten as the conductors, dies in the process producing the article of FIGS. l higher purity alumina firing at higher temperatures may 4 inclusive. be used. Firing of these composites requires a non- Flt}. llfl shows the underside of the male die emoxidizing atmosphere and temperatures of about 1650 ployed in FlGS. 7 9. C. A typical tungsten tape may include about 95 to 99 Flt]. ll shows a green sheet produced in the process percent by weight of tungsten and alumina together of '7 inclusive before screening and FIG. ill. with a plasticized polyvinyl butyral binder. Both tapes shows the same sheet after the screening operation. contain about 70-8O volume percent of solids. Similar iFlGS. l3, l4 and 15 show the successive position of tapes are made using molybdenum and other metallic the dies and; and non-metallic compositing materials. FM}. 116: shows the configuration of the male die for Those skilled in the art will readily recognize that the production of one of the two green sheets employed in compositions used together must be thermally cornpatithe article of FlGS. 5, (a and '7. ble in the sense of being fir-able together. Some sinter- FlGS. 1'7, ill and 19 show by the die positions of the ing must occur in the higher melting before the other process and Fl fl. shows the male die configuration is melted entirely. Ceramics are commonly typified by for production of the second sheet employed in the aralumina. As noted above, non-metallic materials which ticle of lFllGS. 5 and 45. may be employed in the process of the invention in- .Teferring now to lFlGS. and 2, it will be seen that clude, but are not limited to, such materials as titathe plug-in unit illustrated has a mounting pad 12, connates, beryllia, and ferrites. Some of these may be emnection fingers i l, collar it), base it) and prongs it ployed together. The metals which are most used are The prongs T8 are shown with an enlarged head portion molybdenum and tungsten because they are compati- 2i} which is attached by brazing, soldering, or welding ble with alumina. it is contemplated that composites to the underside of base MB. The underside view is may include three or more component compositions. shown in lFlG. The cross section of the plug-in unit it is possible to use metals which sinter at lower temalong line 44 is shown in FIG. 4 and indicates that the peratures with suitably maturing ceramics. it is also pad l2 completely penetrates base lll as does also the contemplated to use substantial proportions of materivia hole 22 to the lower side of which the prong 18 is als melting at temperatures below that employed for attached as indicated. The surface of ring in may be firing if they are combined with a sufficient amount of provided with a metallic coating (not shown) for purhigher melting metal so that the metallic portions of the poses of attaching a suitable lid. structure maintain shape during tiring and do not bead A somewhat modified design of this plug-in package up or run out of the piece. Thus, a structure of molybis shown in lFlGS. 5 and the cross section thereof along denum impregnated with a lower melting metal may inline t5ti shown in FIG. s. ln FIG. 6, it will be seen that clude molten metal in a molybdenum matrix at the fir pad l2; penetrates only half way through base it) and ing temperature but will solidify on cooling. that contact fingers 114 also penetrate to the same depth In the production of green tapes which are used in through the base. This is attained by constructing base the process of the invention, organic binders are em- M in two layers which are then joined together. In the ployed which are thermoplastic polymeric materials one layer, the contact fingers lid and pad T2 are in which depolymerize at temperatures well below the ulserted through a sheet of green ceramic of suitable timate temperature of firing. lDepolymerization at least thickness and through the other sheet the via holes 22. below 500 C. is necessary and maximum temperatures are punches. Subsequently the two are joined in correct of about 350 C. are preferred. A useful illustrative register and pressed to consolidate. Because this conpolymer is polyvinyl butyral which may be piasticized solidation makes the ceramic material essentially intewith any desired plasticizer as may be needed for congral, no line of demarcation separating the two parts is venience in handling. Generally plasticizers are ofrelashown in this drawing. The production of these two tively low volatility. in general, the tapes which parts is illustrated in ."FlGS. it'll.

are used are described as having a leathery consistency. They are generally more or less tough at ambient temperatures and soften at more elevated temperatures so 'ieferring now to H65. '7, t3, 9 and M5, this describes a method for the production of the base piece used in Fl, 3 and 4. Male die 3b which is shown in its underside view in FIG. is provided with pins 32 and central square portion 34 and mating female die (30), now shown separately, is provided with square opening 44 and holes 42 corresponding to parts 34 and 32 respectively of the male die. In FIG. 7 these are placed with respect to a green ceramic sheet 50 and green non-ceramic and, in this case, metallic sheet 52. It will be seen that these two sheets are of substantially the same thickness. Exemplary of such sheet materials would be as indicated above, alumina 94 percent in a binder of a few percent of polyvinyl butyral and molybdenum metal to which may be added up to about 30 percent of the 94 percent alumina also in a similar or different binder, both being to an extent of approximately 70 80 percent by volume in the tape compositions. In FIG. 8 it will be seen that die 30 has been advanced to the point where the male member has penetrated through the metallic tape 52 and forced slugs 60 and 62 corresponding to the square pad and via holes respectively from metallic tape 52 into ceramic tape 50. At the same time, slugs 70 and 72 from the ceramic tape are forced into the female die. In FIG. 9 the male die has been withdrawn leaving the metallic slugs lodged in the ceramic tape. The two tapes are now separated and, as noted hereinabove, the metallic scrap can be reprocessed. The slugs knocked from the female die are of insufficient value to warrant recovery and moreover may bear some contamination with metal which would be undesirable in the ceramic base.

Referring to FIG. 11 is seen sheet 50'with plugs 60 and 62 corresponding to a pad and via holes lodged in it. The sheet is shown with broken edges to emphasize that these drawings are diagramatic to the extent that several such pieces may be made simultaneously using dies which are multiples of the single one shown in FIG. 10.

FIG. 12 shows the green sheet of FIG. 11 on which a pattern has been screened to provide the contact fingers of FIG. 1 and connect them to the via holes 62 and which has been cut out before application (not shown) of ring 16 in FIGS. 1 4.

FIGS. 13 to illustrate the operations for producing the plug-in package of FIGS. 5 and 6 by forming two ceramic layers which are then combined by basically conventional methods. First, male die 80 in FIG. 16 having central square portion 84 and connector pins 86 and female die 82 are positioned respectively over and under metallic sheet 90 and ceramic sheet 92 as shown in FIG. 13, then male die 80 is advanced by the thickness of sheet 92 to lodge slugs 94 and 96 from sheet 90 in sheet 92 and die is then withdrawn. The sheets 9@ and 92 are then separated (not shown).

Likewise, in FIGS. 17 to 20, male die 100 in FIG. 24) having pins 104 and female die 102 are positioned with respect to metallic sheet and ceramic sheet 112, and male die 100 is advanced by the thickness of sheet 112 and withdrawn thereby lodging plugs 106, corresponding to via holes, in sheet 112. The sheets are separated and sheets 92 and 112 are brought together in correct register and joined. Alternatively rings or collars 16 may be added before cutting from the sheets. After firing of the ceramic pieces, prongs 18 are attached by brazing to the undersides of the via holes.

It will be seen by those skilled in the art that the process of the invention may be employed with different combinations of leathery tapes to provide ceramic composites having extensive fields of utility.

What is claimed is:

1. In a process for production of a ceramic composite, the steps of:

l. preparing a first self-sustaining green tape of substantially uniform thickness consisting essentially of ceramic composition in thermoplastic polymeric binder at a volume percentage of from about 70 to 90 percent.

2. preparing a second self-sustaining green tape of substantially uniform thickness consisting essentially of compositing material selected from the group of metallic and non-metallic refractory compositions in thermoplastic polymeric binder to about the same volume percentage of from about 70 to 90 percent and;

3. simultaneously punching predetermined areas from said second green sheet and said first green sheet so that each piece punched from said second sheet is lodged in said first sheet.

2. Process according to claim 1 in which first and second green tapes are of substantially the same caliper.

3. Process according to claim 1 in which the second green tape consists essentially of metal of the group of tungsten and molybdenum with up to about 30 percent by weight of the ceramic essentially constituting the first green tape.

4. Process according to claim 3 in which the first green tape contains alumina of at least 90 percent purity in polymeric binder.

5. Process according to claim 1 wherein the second green tape is an essentially non-metallic refractory of the group of ferrites, beryllia and titanates.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3978248 *Jan 10, 1974Aug 31, 1976Hitachi, Ltd.Method for manufacturing composite sintered structure
US4472333 *Sep 30, 1981Sep 18, 1984Narumi China CorporationCeramic substrate for semiconductor package and method of manufacture
US4786342 *Nov 10, 1986Nov 22, 1988Coors Porcelain CompanyMethod for producing cast tape finish on a dry-pressed substrate
US4805280 *Feb 16, 1988Feb 21, 1989Honeywell Inc.Method of joining metals of different physical properties
US4916798 *Aug 8, 1989Apr 17, 1990Jack ToeringMethod of applying applique or like object to a baseplate
US5239744 *Jan 9, 1992Aug 31, 1993At&T Bell LaboratoriesMethod for making multilayer magnetic components
US5655209 *Mar 28, 1995Aug 5, 1997International Business Machines CorporationMultilayer ceramic substrates having internal capacitor, and process for producing same
US7018494 *Aug 28, 2003Mar 28, 2006Kyocera CorporationMethod of producing a composite sheet and method of producing a laminate by using the composite sheet
US7510619 *Jul 8, 2005Mar 31, 2009International Business Machines CorporationGreensheet via repair/fill tool
US8337646Aug 25, 2008Dec 25, 2012International Business Machines CorporationGreensheet via repair/fill tool
US20040099364 *Aug 28, 2003May 27, 2004Kyocera CorporationMethod of producing a composite sheet and method of producing a laminate by using the composite sheet
US20070006695 *Jul 8, 2005Jan 11, 2007International Business Machines CorporationGreensheet via repair/fill tool
US20070110956 *Jan 12, 2007May 17, 2007Tdk CorporationMultilayer ceramic substrate and its production method
US20090008020 *Aug 25, 2008Jan 8, 2009International Business Machines CorporationGreensheet via repair/fill tool
CN100484366CFeb 25, 2005Apr 29, 2009Tdk株式会社Method for preparing multilayer ceramic substrate
EP0607730A1 *Dec 3, 1993Jul 27, 1994International Business Machines CorporationMethod of direct transferring of electrically conductive elements into a substrate
EP1581035A2 *Feb 17, 2005Sep 28, 2005TDK CorporationMultilayer ceramic substrate and its production method
EP1581035A3 *Feb 17, 2005Aug 15, 2007TDK CorporationMultilayer ceramic substrate and its production method
U.S. Classification29/432, 174/557, 174/551, 264/152, 264/611, 264/642, 264/118
International ClassificationH05K1/09, H05K3/40, H05K1/03
Cooperative ClassificationH05K3/4061, H05K2203/0108, H05K1/092, H05K1/0306, H05K2203/033
European ClassificationH05K3/40D2B
Legal Events
Feb 19, 1991ASAssignment
Effective date: 19910214
Feb 19, 1991AS01Change of name
Effective date: 19910214
Oct 3, 1983ASAssignment
Effective date: 19830824