|Publication number||US3768183 A|
|Publication date||Oct 30, 1973|
|Filing date||Oct 30, 1972|
|Priority date||Oct 30, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3768183 A, US 3768183A, US-A-3768183, US3768183 A, US3768183A|
|Original Assignee||Fessenden F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (11), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
llnited States Patent [1 1 Fessenden 1 Get. 30, T973 CLEAT STRUCTURE Frank J. Fessenden,3l 136 Flying Cloud Dr., Laguna Niguel, Calif. 92677 - Filed: Oct. 30, 1972 [2i] Appl. No.: 301,889
 US. Cl 36/67 R  Int. Cl. A43c 15/00  Field of Search 36/67'A, 67 R, 67 D,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,4l3,737 12/1968 Kneebusch 36/67 D 1,796,399 3/1931 Rooclhouse 36/59 R 2,740,208 4/1956 Dye I 36/59 R 3,352,034 VII/I967 Braun 36/67 D FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,030,847 6/1953 France .L 36/67.l
Primary ExaminerPatrick D. Lawson Attorney-Thomas H. Jones  ABSTRACT A cleat structure comprising a base member having the configuration of a cleat and a friction surface on an exterior portion of the base member. In usage, the friction surface increases the frictional engagement of the cleat structure with a playing surface to reduce slipping between the cleat structure and the playing surface. The friction surface on the exterior portion of the base member is preferably formed from a coating of a particulate material on the base member.
A method of forming a cleat structure in which a base member having the configuration of a cleat is held and a frictional surface is then formed on an exterior portion of the base member. The position of the frictional surface with respect to the base member provides frictional engagement between the cleat structure and a playing surface when the cleat is in use.
5 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures I CLEAT STRUCTURE turf which has a mat-like construction and is made of plastic. The use of artificial turf as a playing surface has many advantages. In particular, if the game is played in inclement weather, the field does not become muddy, as would be the case with natural turf. Further advantages of artificial turf are its uniform consistency over the entire playing field, and the fact that it does not re quire the maintenance that is required of natural turf.
Artificial turf does, however, have drawbacks. In particular, it presents a hazard to the players and its use is believed to contribute to a higher incidence of injuries.
Many of the movements made by a'football player require a sharp change in direction, e.g a runner cutting sharply to one side or another to avoid a tackler, or a downfield receiver cutting sharply to one side or another to shake off a defenseman. To provide the needed traction for quick change of direction, football shoes are formed with cleats affixed to their lower surface with the cleats making contact with the playing surface.
Artificial turf is, unfortunately, much slicker than natural turf. Thus, the traction afforded by cleats is greatly reduced when the game is played on artificial turn. This has resulted in injury to the players, as by slipping and thereby being off balance when they are tackled. Also, the'reduction in traction, resulting from the use of artificial turf, reduces the quality of the players performance since it may result in accidental falls or an inability to cut sharply to avoid a tackle.
In providing a solution to the above problem, it would be desirable to increase the frictional resistance between a players feet and the artificial turf surface which now is frequently used as a playing surface. This would result in an improved quality of performance and also in increasedsafety for the players.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accord with the present invention, I have provided a means for increasing the traction between a football players feet and a playingsurface composed of artificial turf. ln accomplishing this result, I have provided a novel cleat structure with a base member having the configuration of a cleat having a friction surface on an exterior portion of the base member. The friction surface is positioned to engage the playing surface when the cleat structure is in use. Thus, the frictional engagement of the cleat structure with the playing surfaceis increased to provide increased traction for the players. This reduces the safety hazardsv of playing on artificial turf, and also improves the overall quality of performance by reducing the tendency of the players to slip.
Preferably, the friction surface on the base member comprises a coating of particulate material. A particulate material such as emery dust or any of the various abrasive grits provides a roughened surface coating which increases the coefficient of friction between the cleat structure and artificial turf. Also, however, the base member may have a portion of its surface roughened as, for example, by sand blasting, to increase the coefficient of friction at the roughened area.
The cleat base member may have a generally frusto conical configuration which includes a tapered peripheral surface and a tip surface. The frictional surface will generally extend about the tapered peripheral surface which surface is forced into the artificial turf playing surface during usage of the cleat. Also, however, the friction surface may extend over the tip surface of the cleat.
In forming a cleat structure having a friction surface on an exterior portion of a base member, the base member is first positioned or suitably held and the friction surface is then formed on an exterior surface of the base member. The friction surface is formed on the base member so that it will provide frictional engagement with the playing surface when the cleat is in use.
In applying a coating of a particulate material to an exterior portion of the base member to form the friction surface, the particulate material may, for example, be glued to the base member. Also, the particulate material may be embedded in the base member. If the friction surface comprises a roughened portion of the exterior surface, the base member may be roughened in any suitable manner, such as by sandblasting.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TI-IE DRAWINGS For purposes of illustration, an embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the enclosed drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a pictorial representation of the bottom of a football shoe illustrating cleats positioned thereon which have a roughened exterior friction surface;
FIG. 2 is a detailed view of a cleat having a roughened exterior friction surface;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view as taken along the line 3--3 of FIG. 2 illustrating a friction surface formed by a coating of a particulate material which covers a tapered side surface of the base member; FIG..4 is a sectional view similar to that of FIG. 3 illustrating a cleat construction in which the coating of particulate material covers the tip of the base member as well as its tapered peripheral surface; and
FIG. Sis a pictorial view illustrating the formation of .aroughened friction surface on the exterior of a cleat base member through use of sandblasting.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION FIG. 1 illustrates a football shoe having a bottom 3 to which are attached a plurality of cleats.6. A base plate 4 maybe attached to' the shoe bottom 3 by any convenient means to form support for the cleats 6.
Turning to FIG. 2, acle'at 6 is illustrated which has a friction surface 10 on its exterior and a tip surface 12 which is not roughened. A threaded shank 14 is positioned centrally within the cleat 6 and provides a means for mounting the cleat in a correspondingly threaded aperture (not shown) in the bottom of a shoe, such as the football shoe 2 whown in FIG. 1. The upper portion 8 of the cleat 6, is illustrated as having a polygonal outer surface with a plurality of evenly positioned faces. In attachment of the cleat 6 to a shoe, the upper cleat portion 8 may be used as a gripping surface for engagement by a wrench to apply a torque to the cleat.
FIG. 3 illustrates-the internal structure of a cleat 6 having a base member 18 with a conical tapered peripheral surface 20 and an upper surface 8 having a polygonal exterior configuration. As illustrated, the conical peripheral surface 20 is covered with a coating 16 of a particulate material such as emery dust or any of the various abrasive grits. In usage, the cleat 6 is forced into a playingsurface, such as artificial turf, by the weight of the user which imparts a downward force on the cleat 6. As the cleat 6 is embedded in the playing surface, the coating 16 is brought into frictional engagement with the playing surface. This increases the coefficient of friction between the cleat 6 and the playing surface to reduce slippage between the cleat and playing surface. This results in improved safety for the players by reducing the incidence of slipping and also improves the overall quality of play by permitting the players to move more confidently on the playing surface.
FIG. 4, which is a sectional view similar to FIG. 3, illustrates a further embodiment of the invention in which the cleat structure is formed by coating the entire cleat surface 24 including its tip surface with the exception of the upper cleat portion 8. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the friction surface provides even more frictional contact between the cleat 6 and playing surface by coating the tip of the base member 18 as well as its tapered peripheral surface.
In forming a friction surface on a base member to provide a cleat in accord with the present invention, a particulate material may be bonded to the base member by any convenient means such as gluing. The base member 18 may, for example, be formed of a hard, tough plastic or of rubber while the friction surface may be formed of a particulate abrasive material, such as emery dust, which is bonded to the base member. In bonding a particulate abrasive material to a plastic base member, I have found that a marine glue designed for bonding to plastic is quite suitable in bonding the particulate material to the base member.
FIG. illustrates a method for forming a roughened friction surface on the exterior of the base member 18. A sand blast nozzle 26 positioned in relatively'close proximity to the base member 18 may, for example, be used to direct a stream of sand 28 against the conical peripheral surface 20 or against the tip surface 12. This provides a roughened area 24 on the base member 18 as it is contacted by the stream of sand 20. If desired, the method illustrated in FIG. 5 may be used to embed particulate material in the exterior. surface of the base member 18. By adjusting the velocity of the stream 28, the size of the particles ejected against the base member 18, the hardness of the base member 18, etc., the
particulate material may be blown against the base member with sufficient force to become embedded therein and form a friction surface.
As illustrated by the foregoing description, the present invention provides a cleat structure and a method for its manufacture to improve the traction between the shoes worn by an athlete and the playing surface on which he performs. In describing the cleat structure of the invention, particular reference has been made to the game of football. However, in many countries, soccer or rugby are more popular than football and the cleat structure of the present invention may be used for these or other sports such as lacrosse or even baseball particularly where the playing surface is wet or slippery.
The cleat structure previously described has a generally frusto-conical configuration. However, it is not necessary that the cleat have any particular outer configuration. Rather, all that is necessary is that the cleat structure include an outer friction surface which is positioned to engage the playing surface when the cleat is used.
1. A cleat structure comprising:
a base member formed of a hard, tough material;
said base member having a smooth, conical, peripheral outer surface which terminates in a flattened tip, and
a finely divided, particulate abrasive material adherently bonded to said smooth conical peripheral surface,
whereby the peripheral surface provides increased frictional contact with artificial turf to reduce slippage between the cleat and the artificial turf.
2. The cleat structure of claim 1 including a finely divided particulate abrasive material adherently bonded to said flattened tip..
3. The cleat structure of claim 1 wherein said particulate abrasive material is emery grits.
4. The cleat structure of claim 1 wherein said finely divided particulate abrasive material is glued to said smooth conical peripheral surface.
5. The cleat structure of claim 3 wherein emery grits is glued to said smooth conical peripheral surface.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1796399 *||Mar 1, 1929||Mar 17, 1931||Roodhouse Benjamin T||Antislip device|
|US2740208 *||Oct 19, 1953||Apr 3, 1956||Cornell Aeronautical Labor Inc||Friction pad footwear|
|US3352034 *||Feb 23, 1966||Nov 14, 1967||Braun William E||Athletic shoe cleat|
|US3413737 *||Sep 11, 1967||Dec 3, 1968||Hy Production Inc||Football cleat|
|FR1030847A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5732484 *||Sep 18, 1996||Mar 31, 1998||Di-Coat Corporation||Shoe cleats and methods of producing and utilizing same|
|US5836091 *||Oct 22, 1997||Nov 17, 1998||Cook; Michael H.||Traction enhancing articles of manufacture|
|US5901473 *||Apr 4, 1997||May 11, 1999||Heifort, Iv; Ernest August||Method for converting a game shoe to a weighted training shoe|
|US6105282 *||Jul 16, 1998||Aug 22, 2000||Wiand; Ronald C.||Abrasive-filled polymer golf shoe spike|
|US6381878||Oct 31, 2000||May 7, 2002||Spalding Sports Worldwide, Inc.||Composite cleat for athletic shoe|
|US8291617 *||Oct 23, 2012||Heart And Sole Usa, Llc||Cushioned athletic cleated shoes|
|US8695234 *||Dec 27, 2010||Apr 15, 2014||Han-Ching Wu||Anti-slip spike structure|
|US20070042314 *||Aug 22, 2005||Feb 22, 2007||David Brosius||Crimpable orthodontic device|
|US20080201981 *||Feb 26, 2008||Aug 28, 2008||John Philip Halberstadt||Spray-formed reinforcement for footwear|
|US20120159816 *||Dec 27, 2010||Jun 28, 2012||Han-Ching Wu||Anti-slip spike structure|
|EP2877052A4 *||Jul 25, 2013||Mar 2, 2016||László Oroszi||A surface structure for sports boots with increased ball-contact properties and method for preparing the structure|
|International Classification||A43C15/16, A43C15/00|