US 3768266 A
This invention relates to a method of constructing shorelines for artificial water bodies at a reasonable cost and which will, at the same time, be highly wave resistant and provide adequate seepage and erosion control of the shoreline.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Glenn Oct. 30, 1973 SHORELINE CONSTRUCTION FOR ARTIFICIAL WATER BODIES  Inventor: J. Harlan Glenn, Villa Park, Calif.
 Assignee: Stabilization Chemicals, Anaheim,
 Filed: May 1, 1972  Appl. No.2 249,192
 U.S. Cl 61/37, 61/39, 61/49  Int. Cl E02h 3/04  Field of Search 61/3, 37, 35, 39, 61/49; 52/742, 169; 264/313, 31, 32, 35
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,616,649 11/1971 Laing 52/742 3,428,725 2/1969 Delmonte 264/338 3,426,122 2/1969 Gaudelli 264/297 2,960,745 11/1960 Wallace 52/742 2,873,505 2/1959 Sheldon 264/32 1,561,260 ll/l925 Mallery... 6l/.5 1,083,289 l/19l4 Mason 61/39 Judson 61/39 Primary Examiner-Mervin Stein Assistant Examiner-Alexander Grosz Att0rneyl. Morley Drucker  ABSTRACT This invention relates to a method of constructing shorelines for artificial water bodies at a reasonable cost and which will, at the same time, be highly wave resistant and provide adequate seepage and erosion control of the shoreline.
The method comprises the excavation of a trench in the outline of the periphery of the desired shoreline. The trench may have a depth of about 4 feet and a width of about eight inches. An elongated pre-molded plastic section is then secured to the upper portion of the trench sidewall closest to the body of water to be enclosed. The opposite side of the pre-molded plastic section is provided with surface irregularities and is thinner than the trench width so as to form an opening between the plastic section and the trench wall. Concrete is then poured through the opening and fills the trench and fully occupies the opening in the trench adjacent the exposed irregular surface of the pre-molded plastic section.
The soil adjacent the premolded section is removed after the concrete has initially set and the plastic sections are then also removed to reveal the irregular surface formed in the concrete. The irregular surface, in its preferred embodiment has a natural rock-like formation and forms the shoreline for the water body to be retained. The plastic sections are preferably made of polyurethane foam core material with a concrete release agent coated thereover.
12 Claims, 5 Drawing lFigures SHORELINE CONSTRUCTION FOR ARTIFICIAL WATER BODIES SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a method of constructing shorelines for artificial water bodies, at a reasonable cost, and which will be, at the same time, highly wave resistant and provide adequate seepage and erosion control of the shoreline. The favorable cost factor is mainly due to the fact that the present method eliminates some of the conventional aspects of constructing artificial seashores, including pile driving and capping.
Excavation of a trench to outline the periphery of the water body constitutes the first step in construction of the artificial shoreline. The dimensions of the trench may be adapted to specific requirement, although a depth of about 4 feet and a width of about 8 to inches are found to be the preferred dimensions of the trench.
The flat side of a pre-molded plastic section of perhaps 8-15 feet in length is then secured to an upper portion of the trench sidewall, its opposite side being pr5: vided with surface irregularaties or inequalities closely approximating natural sand or rock formations. The plastic section is thinner than the trench width so as to form an opening between the plastic section and the trench wall. Concrete is then poured into the trench through the opening and will first fill up the bottom portion of the trench below the plastic section and will thereupon occupy the opening in the trench opposite the exposed irregular surface of the pre-molded plastic section. The upper portion of the concrete will thus, while in the process of setting in the trench, receive the mirror image of the irregular surface of the plastic section. The plastic section is readily removed from the trench and the irregular surface formed of concrete is exposed. In this way, a natural rock-like formation emerges as the shoreline for the water body to be retained therewithin.
The plastic sections are preferably made of polyurethane foam core, irregular in appearance and having its irregular face impregnated with sand, stone, or gravel to approximate a natural shoreline appearance. These plastic sections may be reused a number of times.
Another embodiment of the invention comprises a method of preparing shorelines wherein two separate pourings of concrete are made. The first pouring of concrete occupies the lower portion of the trench and serves as a footing for the plastic section. The plastic section is then placed on the concrete footing against the trench wall as described above and concrete is then poured, a second time, into the remaining void of the trench. The concrete above the footing has imparted to it the decorative impression of the plastic section, as aforedescribed.
More particularly, the invention refers to a novel method of outlining and erecting a substantially vertical shoreline, primarily, to enclose artificial lakes and other bodies of water.
The heretofore utilized constructions for shorelines call for the pouring of rigid material over the sloping outlines of soil surrounding the water body. This method has proven impractical, in that it is difficult to operate working equipment on the sloping sides and seepage and erosion controls become inadequate. These drawbacks have, at least partially, been overcome by the construction of so-called seawalls; however, this method is unduly time consuming, and therefore, the cost of their construction becomes almost prohibitive.
Thus, it is the primary object of the invention to streamline the operational steps in excavating the soil outlining the water body and accommodating therein a highly wave resistant concrete shoreline, being actually formed and simultaneously provided with the appearance of a naturally occurring shoreline in situ within the walls of a trench, within a very short period of time.
It is also a major object of the invention to provide such a shoreline at minimal cost, while, at the same time maintaining adequate control of seepage and ero sion of such shoreline.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a sectional view in perspective of a portion of a completed natural looking concrete shoreline outlining the periphery of an artificial body of water.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of an empty trench, excavated adjacent the periphery of a water body, preparatory to the erection of the shoreline.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the trench, wherein a decorative molding means has been placed and the concrete has been poured, according to a first preferred embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 4 shows, in a cross-sectional view, the completed shoreline facing the body of water with a lining of compacted material placed on the bottom of the water site.
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the trench, wherein a decorative molding means has been placed and concrete has been poured in two separate steps, according to a second preferred embodiment of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring especially to FIGS. 1 and 2, a portion of the soil 10, outlining the area for the artificial water body to be enclosed, is first excavated so as to form a trench 12, defined by sidewalls 12a, 12b and a bottom wall 12c. The trench 12 should, preferably, be about 8 to 10 inches in width and 4 to 8 feet deep. The dimensions of the trench 12 may, obviously, differ from what is suggested here, dependent on their individual requirements of construction. The trench is, preferably, excavated in a substantially rectangular cross-section; however, it is found advantageous to angle the wall of the trench facing the waterside progressively toward the bottom 12c by about 1 to 2 inches per foot of the depth, so as to increase the stability of the resultant concrete wall 18 to be poured into trench 12.
By means of appropriate trenching equipment, it is generally desired to additionally provide the trench 12 with an irregular periphery as shown in FIG. 1, thereby imparting a waxy appearance to the trench and consequently, to the planned shoreline.
The excavation of the trench 12 thus defines the outline of the water body to be retained therein and serves to establish reference points for subsequent excavation of the water body proper.
In FIG. 3, an elongated molded plastic section 16 of perhaps 10 feet to 15 feet in length, is shown, having a flat surface 16b and an opposed irregular surface 16a. The flat side 16b of molded plastic section or mold 16 is secured against the interior wall 12b of trench 12 by means of any appropriate fastening means and covers approximately the upper half of wall 12b. One fastening means 17 shown in FIG. 3, takes the form of paddles affixed to mold 16 at intervals. The irregular surface 16a of mold 16, faces the void in the trench 12. The mold 16 may be made of a polyurethane foam core or other lightweight material which is provided with surface irregularities on side 16a, for example, copied directly from natural rock formations or being imitations thereof, or side 16a may have a sandstone surface, or other natural shoreline type of surfacing affixed thereto.
Mold 16 has an average thickness less than that of the width of the trench so that an opening will be formed for the pouring of concrete into the trench 12. Mold 16 is preferably made of a fairly rigid but very light polyurethane foam, having a density of about l.52.5 lbs. per cubic foot; it can be made in stable shapes and is found to possess sufficient flexibility to yield and conform to the irregular contours of trench 12. The polyurethane foam mold is mentioned by way of example only; other foams or materials may serve the purpose equally well. Mold surface 16a is also preferably coated with a cement release agent of a conventional type, e.g., diesel oil, form oil, or silicone release agents.
Once mold 16 is securely positioned, the remaining void of trench 12 is then filled with concrete 18. The portion of concrete 18, which fills the upper part of trench 12, comes in contact with the decorative and irregular side of mold surface 16a and the concrete will have imparted to it a mirror image thereof. For example, if the mold 16 has been provided with a surface 16a imitating rock formations, then the concrete 18, when set, will appear as a stoney rock formation ultimately facing the body of water.
The concrete 18 may be colored to enhance the natural look of the artificial shoreline. Furthermore, reinforced steel (not shown) may be placed within the concrete 18 to add to its stability and durability. Upon the initial setting of concrete 18, one may, without delay, remove the earth, adjacent trench wall 12b, thereby exposing the flat side 16b of molding means 16, which now may be pulled away from the further concrete shoreline leaving the decorative impression 21 of mold 16 on the then exposed surface of the concrete. FIG. 4 shows the completed shoreline, in section, with the earth adjacent trench wall 12b removed.
The texture of the impression 21 will vary with the time elapsed before removal of mold 16. Thus, it would be possible to achieve certain desirable textures of surface 21 by simply accelerating or delaying the removal thereof. It should, however, be noted that a delay in withdrawing the molding means 16. may make its removal progressively difficult because of the hardening surface of concrete 18. It is also possible to reuse mold means 16 for other areas of the concrete shoreline 18 when the mold 16 is coated with a suitable releasing agent, as mentioned previously.
Referring to FIG. 4, in particular, it will be'seen that the level of water 20 reaches approximately the halfway point of the decorative surface 21 of the concrete shoreline 18; the remaining upper half of the surface 21 will, thus, constitute the exposed natural looking shoreline.
The underside or bottom 40 of the water body is excavated so as to slope downwardly from the concrete shoreline l8 and is provided with a lining 42, consisting, for example, of compacted soil or the like, so as to form an optional safeguard against seepage and erosion of the shoreline.
If the total depth of the trench is estimated at 4 feet with 2 feet of colored decorative shoreline concrete exposed 1 foot above and 1 foot below the normal level of the water body, it is estimated that the colored shorelines will require about 0.04 cubic yards of colored concrete and about 0.067 cubic yards of concrete footing per linear foot of shoreline.
FIG. 5 illustrates another embodiment of the invention, in which concrete 30 is first poured into the lower half of trench 12, so as to form a footing for the shoreline; the molding means 16 is then placed on the concrete footing against trench wall 12b, as described above. A second quantity of colored concrete 32 is then poured into the remaining void of trench l2 and will, while in the process of setting, receive the mirror image of the surface of the irregularities 16a of molding means 16. The removal of the soil and molding means 16 to expose the decorative concrete shoreline surface 34 is carried out in the same manner as described above with reference to FIGS. 1-4.
While the foregoing has illustrated and described what is now contemplated to be the best mode of carrying out the invention, the embodiments of the invention are, of course, subject to modification without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Therefore, it is not desired to restrict the invention to the particular form of construction illustrated and described, but to cover all modifications that may fall within the scope of the appended claims.
1. In the construction of shorelines to enclose bodies of water, the method comprising the steps of:
a. excavating a trench, having opposed first and second sidewalls, along the periphery of a water body to be enclosed;
b. placing elongated molding means in said trench, one side of said molding means having an irregular surface of decorative qualities and the other side being generally flat, the flat side of said molding means being held against the upper portion of the first sidewall of said trench closest to said water body to be enclosed, said molding means having an average thickness less than that of the width of the trench to form a void between the molding means and said second sidewall;
c. pouring sufficient concrete into said void of said trench to substantially fill said void;
d. allowing said concrete to initially set;
e. excavating the soil adjacent said first sidewall so as to expose the flat side of the molding means; and
f. removing the molding means subsequent to the initial setting of the poured-in concrete, whereby the concrete facing the irregular surface of the molding means has imparted to it the impressions of said irregular surface thereby resulting in a natural looking shoreline for the body of water to be retained therewithin.
2. The method of claim 1, including excavating at least one of the trench walls angularly.
3. The method of claim 1 including excavating the trench non-linearly so as to impart an irregular apearance to the shoreline.
4. The method of claim 1, including using a polyurethane foam core in the molding means.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said irregular surface resembles a natural rock-like surface.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein said irregular surface resembles a sandstone surface.
7. The method of claim 1, including delaying or accelerating the removal of the molding means from the concrete adhering thereto so as to vary the texture impressed by the molding means on said concrete.
8. The method of claim 1, including pouring concrete to a level substantially above the level of the water body to be retained therewithin.
9. The method of claim 1, including providing a release agent to facilitate removal of the molding means from the concrete.
10. The method of claim 1, including placing a lining of compacted material on the bottom of the water body for control of seepage and erosion in the shoreline, said lining extending to a level substantially below the exposed concrete portion of the shoreline.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein said trench is sloped inwardly towards the body of water to be enclosed from the top to the bottom thereof.
12. In the construction of shorelines for artificial water bodies, the method comprising the steps of:
a. excavating a trench in soil bordering the periphery of a water body;
b. pouring a first quantity of concrete into the trench so as to fill up the lower portion of the trench and form a footing;
c. placing molding means, one side of which has a surface of decorative irregularities, on said footing adjacent the wall of the trench bordering the pe riphery of the water body, said irregular surface of the molding means facing the oppositely situated wall of the trench;
d. pouring a second quantity of concrete into the remaining void of the trench;
e. excavating the soil of the wall of the trench bordering the periphery of the water body, whereby the molding means are exposed; and
removing the molding means subsequent to the setting of the second quantity of concrete, whereby said concrete facing the side of the water body, having received a mirror image of the decorative inequalities of the molding means, is exposed so as to emerge as a natural looking shore-line for the water body to be retained therein.