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Publication numberUS3771658 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 13, 1973
Filing dateOct 20, 1971
Priority dateOct 20, 1971
Also published asDE2251644A1, DE2251644B2, DE2251644C3
Publication numberUS 3771658 A, US 3771658A, US-A-3771658, US3771658 A, US3771658A
InventorsBrumfield R
Original AssigneeBrumfield R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Blood transport membrane pump
US 3771658 A
Abstract
A slow speed drive rotates a cylindrical exchanger pump which operates as a blood oxygenator, and also operates alternatively as a blood dialyser. The pump has a cylindrical rotor permanently mounted in a closely fitting internally cylindrical stator housing. The rotor has a coaxial shaft which is eccentrically disposed parallel to the internal axis of symmetry of the stator housing. Admitted patient blood is pumped as a thin blood film in laminar flow between the rotor and stator as the rotor exterior surface eccentrically approaches the stator surface, and in eddy flow as the rotor surface recedes from the stator surface. The blood is introduced into the pump through a manifolded blood inlet having a longitudinal groove disposed in the inner face of the stator housing, the groove distributing blood to the annular space between the rotor and stator. A second similar blood outlet combination includes a longitudinal groove in the inner stator face, facilitating blood removal from the pump. The rotor has permanent shallow depth passageways disposed in its exterior surface parallel to the rotor shaft axis of symmetry, providing controlled patterned flow of an admitted secondary fluid. The fluid is secured in the rotor passageways by a thin fluid-permeable membrane tightly adjacently covering the passageways. The secondary fluid can be oxygen gas or a liquid dialysate. When oxygenating gas is used, the exchanger pump is a blood oxygenator. When a liquid dialysate is used, the exchanger pump is a blood dialyser. The manifolded and and jacketed stator housing provides heat transfer means for controlling the temperatures of treated-blood of the patient.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Brumfield [111 3,771,658 51 Nov. 13, 1973 BLOOD TRANSPORT MEMBRANE PUMP [76] Inventor: Robert C. Brumfield, 73 Emerald Bay, Laguna Beach, Calif. 92651 [22] Filed: Oct. 20, 1971 [21] Appl. No.2 190,800

Primary Examiner-Frank A. Spear, Jr. AttorneyJ. L. Jones [57] ABSTRACT A slow speed drive rotates a cylindrical exchanger pump which operates as a blood oxygenator, and also operates alternatively as a blood dialyser. The pump has a cylindrical rotor permanently mounted in a closely fitting internally cylindrical stator housing. The rotor has a coaxial shaft which is eceentrically disposed parallel to the internal axis of symmetry of the stator housing. Admitted patient blood is pumped as a thin blood film in laminar flow between the rotor and stator as the rotor exterior surface eccentrically approaches the stator surface, and in eddy flow as the rotor surface recedes from the stator surface. The blood is introduced into the pump through a manifolded blood inlet having a longitudinal groove disposed in the inner face of the stator housing, the groove distributing blood to the annular space between the rotor and stator. A second similar blood outlet combination includes a longitudinal groove in the inner stator face, facilitating blood removal from the pump. The rotor has permanent shallow depth passageways disposed in its exterior surface parallel to the rotor shaft axis of symmetry, providing controlled patterned flow of an admitted secondary fluid. The fluid is secured in the rotor passageways by a thin fluid-permeable membrane tightly adjacently covering the passageways. The secondary fluid can be oxygen gas or a liquid dialysate. When oxygenating gas is used, the exchanger pump is a blood oxygenator. When a liquid dialysate is used, the exchanger pump is a blood dialyser. The manifolded and and jacketed stator housing provides heat transfer means for controlling the temperatures of treated-blood of the patient.

5 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures mimmuv 13 I975 SHEET 2 OF 2 MWVA M 1 BLOOD TRANSPORT MEMBRANE PUMP BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A patients blood can be treated to saturate venous blood with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, as during advanced patient treatment and .during radical cardiopulmonary surgery. Likewise, there is well established need for blood dialysis, to remove waste products accumulating in blood during renal failure.

Apparatus for treating blood are classified in Class 23 Subclass 258.5. Blood oxygeneratoi's are listed in this class. Kidney dialysers are also listed in Class 23 Subclass 258.5. Y

Typically, in a rotary blood oxygenator, Thomas, in U.S. Pat. 3,026,871, discloses an apparatus in which a rotating horizontal cylinder has a peripheral wall formed of silicone coated fabric. The rotating fabric wall externally dips into a pool of patient blood, which is then disposed on the cylinder surface. The blood film is oxygenated by the oxygen diffusing from the cylinder interior. Additional tubular spray means are'provided for spraying blood on the exterior wall of the cylinder fabric, thus increasing the oxygenation rate of the blood.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A slow speed drive rotates a cylindrical exchanger pump which operates as a blood oxygenator, and also could operate in principle as a blood dialyzer apparatus, with the required secondary fluid. The pump has a cylindrical rotor permanently mounted in a closely fitting internally cylindrical stator housing. The rotor has a coaxial shaft which is eccentrically disposed parallel to the internal axis of symmetry of the stator housing. Admitted patient blood is pumped by the exchanger pump, between the eccentrically disposed rotor and the stator. The blood flows laminarly in a thin film as a position on the eccentrically disposed rotor surface approaches the stator surface. Eddy flow occurs as a position on the rotor surface recedes from the stator surface. The rotor has permanent passageways disposed in its exterior surface parallel to the rotor shaft'axis of symmetry, providing controlled patterned flow of an admitted secondary fluid, which is secured in the rotor passageways by a thin membrane tightly adjacently covering the passageways, the membrane being permeable to the required secondary fluid. The secondary fluid can be oxygenating gas or a liquid dialysate. When oxygen gas is used, the exchanger pump'is a blood oxygenerator. When a liquid dialysate is used, the exchanger pump is a blood dialyzer. Typically, the perme able membrane can be a thin silicone rubber, in a'blood oxygenator; or a selected cellophane, in a blood dialyser. The stator housing is manifolded and jacketed to provide heat transfer means for controlling the patients circulating blood temperature. Hollow shaft means provide for the admittance of secondary fluid to the passageways and for the waste fluid exit from the passageways. Blood inlet and outlet conduits are conductively secured to the stator housing. The blood is introduced into the pump through a manifolded blood inlet having a longitudinal groove disposed in the inner face of the stator housing, the groove distributing blood to the annular space between the rotor and stator.- A second similar blood outlet combination also includes a longitudinal blood distribution groove for blood removal from the pump.

Included in the objects of this invention are:

To provide a general type of apparatus for treating patient blood which can be utilized separately as a blood oxygenator and also as a blood dialyser.

To provide a blood exchanger membrane pump capable of pumping blood during treatment in a blood oxygenating procedure, or in a blood dialysing procedure.

To provide a blood exchanger membrane pump utilizing separately oxygen gas in blood oxygenation procedure, or utilizing a blood dialysis fluid in a blood dialysis procedure.

To provide an effective thin blood film for rapid mass transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a blood oxygenation pump.

To provide rapid transport of urine excreta products from the blood in a blood dialyser.

Other objects and advantages of this invention are taught in the following description and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The description of this invention is to be read in conjunction with the following drawings;

FIG. 1 is an elevational sectional and partial perspective view of the blood transport membrane pump.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective partial sectional view through 2-2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view through 3-3 of FIG. 1 illustrating the overall cross sectional configuration of the blood transport membrane pump.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Refer to FIG. 1, FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 is indetail as required. In FIG. 1 the blood transport membrane pump 10 is shown inside elevational view detail, having a tubular rotor shaft 11 centrally disposed substantially throughout a major fraction of the length of pump 10. A concentric tubular aperture 12 is disposed in the shaft 11. A rotative drive pulley 13 and shaft key 13a are secured adjacent a first shaft terminus 16. A first rotative sealing gland 14 for a secondary fluid is securely disposed on the shaft terminus 14 and a second rotative sealing gland 15 is disposed on the shaft terminus 17 at the opposed shaft terminus. Tubular securing nipples l8 and 19 are respectively disposed on rotative sealing glands l4 and 15, supplying means for conducting a secondary fluid into the pump 10. Typically the flow direction 20 of the secondary fluid is that shown in the arrow direction-indicated. A pair of rotor shaft bearing supports 21 and ,22 are each adjacently disposed to shaft terminus l6 and 17 respectively. The bearing supports 21 and 22 are secured in precise positions on the rotor shaft 11, each said bearing support being removably securely locked to the shaft 11 by conventional means. A rigid tubular pump base 23 has a precise internal diameter 35 adaptively providing an internal cylindrical stator housing for the pump 10. Precisely ground guide pin screws 24 and 25 are shown threaded into precision threaded apertures 28 and 29 respectively in the pump base 23, through the precisely located apertures 26 and 27 respectively in the bearing supports 21 and 22. As in conventional precision bearing supports, a second pair of ground guide pin screws secure the pair of bearing supports 21 and 22 on opposed bases of bearing supports, not shown. The pair of unseen ground guide pin screws likewise are precisely screwed into threaded apertures in the pump base 23, precisely locating unseen opposed apertures in the bearing supports 21 and 22 respectively, providing precise location of 21 and 22.

A pair of shaft eccentricity adapters 30 and 31 are adaptively disposed between the pair of bearing supports 21 and 22 respectively and the rigid tubular pump base 23. The shaft eccentricity adapters 30 and 31 are secured by the respective guide pin screws 24 and 25, disposing the rotor shaft 11 in a precisely fixed eccentricity 32 parallel with the internal axis of symmetry 33 of the precision diameter 35 of the internally cylindrical stator housing 23. The shaft eccentricity adapters 30 and 31 can be metal shims, they can also be equivalent well known means for precisely locating the eccentricity 32 of shaft 11 with respect to the axis of symmetry 33 of the pump stator housing 23. Thus the eccentricity 32 of shaft 11 is shown displaced vertically upward. The eccentricity can equivalently be disposed along any internal radius of the 360 arc of the pump stator housing 23, for the purpose of rapidly positioning the shaft 11 in a pre-determined eccentricity 32 or the equivalent. Other securing means can be used, replacing shims as shaft eccentricity adapters, such as securing indexing pins, precisely machined lands or grooves, or the like.

A rigid cylindrical rotor shell 34 is coaxially disposed on the rotor shaft 1 l, the shell 34 having an external diameter 108, a precisely fixed value less than the internal diameter 35 of the station housing 23, as will be discussed later. The precision diameter 108 of the rotor shell 34 is cooperatively related to the internal precision diameter 35 of the tubular base 23. A multiplicity of shallow depth patterned passageways 36 are disposed in the cylindrical rotor shell 34 exterior face 37, providing a patterned secondary fluid flow inside the multiple patterned passageways 36 from a rotor shell entrance end 38 to a rotor shell exit end 39 oppositely disposed on the rotor shell. The passageways 36 are disposed parallel to the rotor shaft 11 axis of symmetry, with the lands 105 therebetween.

A thin secondary fluid-permeable membrane 40 completely covers the exterior cylindrical shell face 37 of the rotor shell 34, providing a fluid-permeable cover over all of the multiple passageways 36. The tightly drawn fluid-permeable cover membrane 40 is shown in further enlarged detail in FIG. 2. Typically, the thin membrane 40 is folded over the opposed ends of the rotor shell 34 and the pair 40 and 34 flushly secured by membrane retaining means, being a slip-fit pair of retaining rings 41 and 42 respectively. Thus the subcombination 43 consisting of the rotor shell 34, the cover membrane 40, and a the pair of retaining rings 41 and 42 is a unit which can be factory assembled, prepared ready for quick replacement in a blood transport membrane pump. Each one of the retaining rings 41 and 42 flushly secure the membrane 40 to an opposed rotor end 38 and 39. Specifically, a pair of slip-tit retaining rings 41 and 42 are illustrated; however, a pair of compressible wire retaining rings or other membrane retaining means can be equivalently disposed flushly in the exterior face 37 of the rotor shell 34, securing the membrane.

Again referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 in detail, a pair of removable circular end plates 44 and 43 are respectively disposed at opposed rotor shell entrance end 38 and exit end 39. Each of the end plates 44 and 45 precisely fit respectively into the rotor entrance end 38 and rotor exit end 39, coaxially disposed inside the pair of retaining rings 41 and 42 respectively. Two pairs of removable securing bolts, the pair of bolts 46 and 47 together with the pair 48 and 49 are shown securing the removable circular end plates 44 and 45 respectively. The pairs of bolts 46 and 47 together with the pair of bolts 48 and 49 are shown threaded into the fixed inlet plates 62 and 63, as will be discussed later. Obviously each removable end plate 44 and 45 can be secured with the required number of removable securing bolts as is necessary to secure the rotor shell end fluid tight.

To maintain the removable end plates 44 and 45 fluid tight during rotation, a pair of removable fluid seals 50 and 51 are respectively secured against the plates 44 and 45. Securing means 52 and 53 applied against the pair of removable fluid seals 50 and 51 respectively are disposed internally in the tubular stator housing 23. Typically the securing means 52 consists of an annular support ring 54 precisely disposed in the tubular stator housing 23, the support ring 54 being locked in position by a removable retainer ring 56, which in turn holds multiple spring guide pins 58, each guide pin 58 being loaded by one of multiple expansion springs 60. In a similar manner the removable fluid seal 51 is secured in position by the means 53. The means 53 comprising as above, the annular rigid support ring located in position by the removable retainer ring 57, which in turn positions the multiple spring guide pins 59, each one of the guide pins having a single expansion spring 61 disposed thereon.

A pair of fixed circular end plates, the fixed circular end plate 62 and the fixed circular outlet plate 63 are permanently coaxially secured in position on the motor shaft 11, providing a pair of precisely fixed index support positions. The fixed inlet plate 62 is disposed inside a rotor subcombination inlet end 38 and the fixed outlet plate 63 is disposed inside a rotor subcombination outlet end 39. The plate 62 is secured to the tubular shaft 11 as by the weldment 64, and the outlet plate 63 is secured to the shaft 11 by the weldment 65. The fixed inlet plate 62 has at least one inlet plate passageway 66 radially disposed therein, providing a secondary fluid flow passageway through a wall aperture 67 in the tubular shaft 11, through the at least one radial passageway 66 and then through a manifold groove 68 in the rotor shell 34. The serial plurality of secondary fluid flow passageways form a subcombination 74, providing secondary fluid flow through the tubular shaft aperture 12, thence through the wall aperture 67, thence through the radial passageway 66, thence through the manifold groove 68, finally into the multiplicity of shallow depth passageways 36 at the rotor shell entrance end 38. After the secondary fluid is distributed through all of the shallow passageways 36, it flows through the passageways 36 into the manifold groove 71 in the shell 34, thence through the at least one radial flow outlet passageway 69 into the wall aperture 70 in shaft 11, and thence out the shaft aperture 12. The direction of the secondary fluid flow is ordinarily that indicated by the arrow 20; however; the fluid flow subcombination 74 may be utilized providing for fluid flow in the opposed direction.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 3 together in detail, a blood inlet conduit is shown conductively secured to a blood inlet manifold 81. The manifold 81 in turn is permanently secured to a heat transfer shell jacket 82 which cylindrically encircles the rigid tubular pump base 23 over that length of the pump base 23 which comprises the stator housing. The multiple blood inlet vents 83 are radially disposed through the heat transfer jacket 82 and the stator housing 23 providing sealed vents 83 from the blood manifold 81 into the inlet blood groove 108 distributing blood into the blood laminar flow arc sector 75, shown in FIG. 3. Thus patient blood can be conductively flowed through the conduit 80, serially through the blood inlet manifold 81, then through the multiple blood inlet vents 83 and inlet groove 108, into the blood laminar flow are sector 75. When the rotor shell subcombination 43 rotates in the direction of the arrow 77, blood laminar pumping means 76 are generated over the blood laminar flow are sector 75 for the length of the rotor shell subcombination 43. The blood laminar flow arc sector 75 is mechanically activated by disposing the rotor shell subcombination 43 eccentrically on the bearing support combinations 21 and 22, the shaft eccentricity adapters 30 and 31 cooperatively fixing the arc sector 75 value, thus providing a relatively thin blood laminar pumping means 76. The blood pumping means 76 is a gap of thickness t, formed between the subcombination 43 and the internal diameter 25 of the stator housing 23. The Reynolds number defining the above flow conditions is further modified to a Reynolds-Couette number, as for a coaxial cylinder viscometer apparatus, wherein the Reynolds-Couette number R is R pwfi/pt n a where p is the blood density, in is the angular velocity of the rotor subcombination 43, t is the gap, and u is the effective dynamic viscosity of the blood. At low values of R the flow between the cylindrical surfaces of the rotor subcombination 43 and the stator housing 23 in the gap 76=t will be laminar. At high values of R, local eddy currents will be generated in the gap 79. Thus the eccentricity 32 produces laminar pumping of the blood in a non-- uniform pressure distribution, in addition to providing a transition to a mixing effect at the wider annular gap 79 by the eddy flow in arc sector 78, as illustrated in FIG. 3. Typically, the mixing gap thickness value 79=t in the eddy flow arc sector 78 has a value of 0.050 inches, as compared to the value of the gap thickness 76=t in the laminar flow are sector 75 of 0.010 inches. N

As is known in pumping technology, the laminar flow are sector 75 expands to the transitional arc sectors 111 and 112, over the laminar arc sector 113. It is difficult to-precisely limit the arc sectors in which laminar, transitional and mixing flows begin and end. A graphical pressure representation 110 of the outlet conduit 86 blood pressure performance is shown, illustrating the arc sector required position of conduit 86 for maximum blood outlet pressure flowing in the direction 85. The blood manifold outlet 87 conductively secured to the blood outlet conduit 86, is in turn disposed parallel along the external surface of the heat transfer jacket 82, as is the blood inlet manifold 81. The multiple blood outlet vents 88 are similarly disposed through the heat transfer jacket 82 venting. into the outlet groove 109. The pair of heat transfer fluid inlet and outlet conduits 89 and 90 respectively areattached to the jacket 82 as shown in FIG. 3. The conduits 89 and 90 permit the desired heat transfer fluid to be circulated in the jacket 82, as will be later discussed, maintaining the patient's blood at the desired temperature.

Further details of the blood transfer membrane pump construction are outlined below. The O-ring grooves 91 and 92 are respectively disposed in the fixed inlet plate 62, sealed by the O-rings 93 and 94, preventing leakage of secondary fluid flow. The snap retaining ring 95 fits in the retaining ring groove 96, providing an index position for the shell rotor subcombination 43. At the opposed end of the pump 10 a second pair of O-ring grooves 97 and 98 are tilled by the O-rings 99 and 100 respectively, again providing seals, preventing leakage of the secondary fluid. The snap retaining ring 101 is disposed in the retaining ring groove 102, which in turn is located in the rotor shell subcombination 43, providing a second indexing position for the shell 34. Conventional O-rings and groove combinations 103 and 104 are disposed in the seals 50 and 51 respectively, providing sealing means. In more detail, the lands 105 are shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, providing rotor shell 34 structure between the multiple passageways 36. The stator housing extension 106 can be that length which is required to provide a working platform for work on the assembly and dis-assembly of the pump 10. The internal cylindrical surface of stator housing 23, defined by the stator diameter 35,'can be coated with a polyurethane coating physiologically compatible with patient blood. The support base 107, extending the length of the stator housing provides a support .base for the pump.

In application, the blood transport membrane pump can be operated as a blood oxygenator, or, separately alternatively, it can also be operated as a blood dialysis apparatus. When the pump 10 is operated as a blood oxygenator the thin secondary fluid permeable membrane 40 is typically a thin flexible membrane permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide. When the pump 10 is operated as a blood dialysis apparatus, the thin permeable membrane 40 is typically permeable to aqueous dialysis solutions, and to the wate products exchanged from patient blood. For both types of operative procedure the thin fluid permeable membrane is typically 0.0020.003 inches thick. Typically the rotor shell 34, the selected desired permeable membrane 40, and the pair of retaining rings 41 and 42 are assembled at a factory, ready for placement in a pump 10 as required. The subcombination 43 is to be used as required in a medical procedure and then discarded, the remainder of the pump cleaned as necessary, and a second subcombination 43 replaces the first subcombination 43.

Typically in a patient blood dialysis a selected cellophane membrane 40 is disposed on the rotor shell 34 secured in the pump 10. The patients arterial blood secured from a hand, arm or leg, conductively flows through the blood inlet 80, the blood manifold 81, vents 83, into the blood gap 76 where the blood is rotatively pumped in the direction 77 to exit through the multiple vents 88 into the blood manifold 37, out through the outlet conduit 86 into the patients body. While the blood is in the pump it is in contact with the membrane 40 where the blood is subjected to the diffusional washing of the secondary dialysis fluid flowing through the fluid flow passageway subcombination 74, on the opposite face of membrane 40. Thus the patient may be subjected to blood dialysis, utilizing well established blood dialysis fluids as a secondary fluid in the apparatus 10, removing waste products from patient blood. The dialysis procedure can be carried on for the length of time required. In the dialysis procedure the patients blood circulating through the pump will be held at approximately 37C by the required heat transfer fluid flowing through the heat transfer jacket 82. The pump 10 can be refrigerated in storage between dialysis procedures, eliminating the requirement that the machine be cleaned every time it is used consecutively by a selected patient.

When the machine is used as a blood oxygenator, a selected silicone type rubber is commonly used as a semi-permeable membrane, permeable to oxygen and to the exchange of carbon dioxide from the blood. Other selected oxygen and carbon dioxide permeable membranes may be used, such as a dimethyl siliconepolycarbonate block copolymer. When used as a blood oxygenator pump, the secondary fluid input is typically oxygen gas containing the requisite amount of carbon dioxide, flowing through the fluid flow passageway subcombination 74. The blood is conductively circulated as indicated above for blood dialysis. Since the membrane is freely permeable to oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas, oxygen flows through the membrane and is fixed by the blood, releasing in turn carbon dioxide gas, which flows out through membrane 40 as part of the exhaust gas from the passageway subcombination 74.

A pump 10 having a rotor subcombination 43, whose diameter is approximately 4 inches and whose length is approximately 8 inches, provides a membrane suitable for continuous dialysis at typically 100 RPM of an adult patient. Such a size machine, used as a blood oxygen ator is most suitable for perfusion of an organ, such as a heart or kidney, prior to surgical transplant procedure. When required, as in transplant procedure or the like, a refrigerant such as water or a Freon as is necessary, can be used to cool blood and organs to temperatures typically 28C or less for hypothermia. Likewise warmer water can be provided to warm patients and patients blood as becomes necessary. The machine stores small amounts of patients blood during medical procedures and has the advantage of decreasing patient blood loss under critical conditions. It is possible to bloat the permeable membrane 40 slightly at the end of the medical procedure, squeezing blood out of the pump cavity, further decreasing the blood loss.

The pump 10 can be a permanent apparatus suitable for use in medical procedures, with a replaceable essentially single use plastic rotor hell, membrane and pair of retaining rings subcombination 43. The subcombination 43 can be separately prepared in a factory for use as required in a specific medical procedure.

Many modifications and variations in the improvement in a blood transport membrane pump can be made in the light of my teaching. it is therefore understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as has speciflcally been described.

I claim:

1. In an apparatus for treating extra-corporeal patient blood, said apparatus having a right cylinder rotor coaxially secured on a rotor shaft, an internally cylindrical stator housing cylindrically enclosing said rotor, and means providing cooperative bearing support for said rotor shaft, the blood transport membrane pump combination comprising:

a pair of rotor shaft bearing supports, each one of said pair of bearing supports disposed adjacent one shaft terminus, said bearing supports secured to precise positions on said rotor shaft,

a pair of shaft eccentricity adapters, each one of said adapters cooperatively securing one of said pair of bearing supports, disposing said rotor shaft in a precisely fixed eccentricity parallel with the internal axis of symmetry of said internally cylindrical stator housing,

a rigid cylindrical rotor shell coaxially disposed on said rotor shaft, said rotor shaft adaptively disposed in said stator housing, said shell having an external diameter precisely less than said internal diameter of said stator housing, multiplicity of shallow patterned passageways disposed in the cylindrical rotor shell exterior face parallel to the rotor shaft axis of symmetry, providing a patterned secondary fluid flow inside said passageways from a rotor shell entrance end to a rotor shell exit end,

a thin membrane, permeable to a secondary fluid, covering the exterior cylindrical shell surface of said rotor shell, providing a fluid permeable cover over all said passageways, said membrane and said rotor shell coaxially flushly secured together by membrane retaining means, said membrane, said rotor shell and said retaining means providing a rotor subcombination,

a blood laminar flow arc sector precisely disposed between said rotor subcombination and said stator housing, said pair of shaft eccentricity adapters cooperatively fixing the laminar flow arc sector value, said are sector providing blood pumping means during rotation of said rotor subcombination, and

a blood eddy flow arc sector precisely disposed between said rotor subcombination and said stator housing, said pair of shaft eccentricity adapters cooperatively fixing said eddy flow arc sector value, said arc sector providing blood film mixing means during rotation of said rotor subcombination;

whereby the rotating said rotor subcombination provides laminar blood flow in said laminar flow arc sector and provides transitional and eddy flow in the remainder of the pump arc sector.

2. An apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein a heat transfer shell jacket covers the external cylinder face of said stator housing, said jacket having a fluid inlet conduit and a fluid outlet conduit secured to said jacket, said inlet conduit, said jacket and said outlet conduit together providing a serial passageway for a heat transfer fluid suitable for controlling patient blood temperature.

3. A blood transport membrane pump combination comprising: a

a slow speed drive and a hollow rotor shaft means coaxially secured together,

a cylindrical pump rotor coaxially mounted on and secured to said rotor shaft means, together providing a blood pump rotor means, multiplicity of shallow patterned passageways permanently disposed in the exterior cylindrical rotor shell face parallel to the rotor shaft axis of symmetry, providing a patterned flow inside said passageways for a secondary fluid flow from a first rotor cylinder end to a second opposed cylinder end,

a thin secondary fluid-permeable membrane completely covering the exterior cylindrical shell surface of said pump rotor, membrane retaining means flushly securing said membrane and said rotor together, providing a fluid permeable cover for said passageways, said membrane, said membrane retaining means, and said pump rotor forming a rotor subcombination,

an internally cylindrical stator pump housing fitting around and cylindrically enclosing said pump rotor and membrane subcombination, said rotor shaft means secured to said subcombination being eccentrically disposed parallel to theinternal axis of symmetry of said stator pump housing, said pump housing and said pump rotor proportioned and cylindrically axially copositioned providing'a substantial thin annular laminar flow arc area during rotor rotation, and cooperatively providing a substantial eddy flow arc sector area during rotor rotation.

means providing cooperative bearing support, securing said rotor shaft means and said stator housing,

means providing cooperative blood sealing support, securing said rotor shaft means and said stator housing,

means providing heat transfer control disposed in the wall of said stator pump housing, providing temperature control of blood pumped,

means conductively secured-to said satator housing,

adjacent to said area of laminar flow of blood, providing a blood inlet conduit,

means conductively secured to said stator housing disposed in said area of laminar flow of blood, providing a blood outlet conduit,

means conductively secured to said hollow rotor shaft means, adjacent said blood inlet conduit means, providing a secondary fluid inlet conduit,

means conductively secured to said hollow rotor shaft means, adjacent said blood inlet conduit means, providing a secondary fluid inlet passageway to said shallow passageways disposed in the exterior face of said rotor,

means conductively secured to said hollow rotor shaft means, adjacent said blood outlet conduit means, providing a secondary fluid outlet passageway from said shallow passageways in the exterior face of said rotor, and

means conductively secured to said hollow rotor shaft means, adjacent said blood outlet conduit means, providing a secondary fluid outlet conduit,

whereby the rotating said rotor subcombination provides laminar blood flow in said laminar'flow arc sector and provides transitional and eddy flow in the remainder of the pump arc sector.

4. The blood transport membrane pump combination comprising:

a tubular rotor shaft, cooperatively adapted to a rotative drive, having each one of a pair of rotating sealing glands disposed at one shaft terminus, each said gland adapted to conducting the flow of a secondary fluid,

a pair of rotor shaft bearing supports, each one of said pair of bearing supports disposed adjacent one shaft terminus, said bearing supports secured to precise positions on said rotor shaft,

a rigid tubular pump base having precisely positioned securing means for said pair of bearing supports, the precise internal diameter of said tubular base adaptively providing an internally cylindrical stator housing,

a pair of shaft eccentricity adapters, each one of said adapters cooperatively securing one of said pair of bearing supports, disposing said rotor shaft in a precisely fixed eccentricity parallel with the internal axis of symmetry of said internally cylindrical stator housing, I,

a rigid cylindrical rotor shell coaxially disposed on said rotor shaft, said rotor shell adaptively disposed in said stator housing, said shell having an external diameter precisely less than the internal diameter of said stator housing, I

a multiplicity of shallow patterned passageways disposed in the cylindrical rotor shell exterior face parallel to the rotor shaft axis of symmetry, providing a patterned secondary fluid flow inside said passageways from a rotor shell entrance end to a rotor she'll exit end,

a thin secondary fluid-permeable membrane completely covering the exterior cylindrical shell surface of said rotor shell, providing a fluid permeable cover over all said passageways, said membrane and said rotor shell coaxially secured by membrane retaining means, said membrane retaining means flushly securing said membrane to said rotor, said membrane, said rotor shell and said membrane retaining means together providing a rotor subcombi nation,

means associated with said shaft providing a pair of removable circular end plates, each one of said end plates coaxially securing one rotor shell end fluid tight,

means internally secured on said tubular. stator housing providing a pair of fluid seals, each one of said seals cooperatively sealing one said removable end plate,

a pair of fixed circular end plates, one being a fixed inlet end plate and one being a fixed outlet end plate, said plates being permanently coaxially secured and positioned on said rotor shaft providing a pair of index support positions, one plate disposed inside a rotor subcombination inlet end and one plate disposed inside a rotor subcombination outlet end, each said index position providing a secondary fluid flow passageway through wall aperture means in the tubular wall of said rotor shaft, then conducting through aperture'means in one said fixed end plate, then conducting through a distributing manifold passageway disposed in the inner face of said rotor shell, venting into said multiplicity of shallow patterned passageways disposed in said rotor shell exterior face, the above subcombination of said fluid flow passageways, blocked by a fluid flow plug disposed in said rotor shaft between the inlet wall aperture means and the outlet wall aperture means, providing a reversible secondary fluidflow passageway subcombination through said membrane pump,

a blood laminar flow arc sector precisely disposed between said rotor subcombination and said stator housing, said pair of shaft eccentricity adapters cooperatively fixing the arc sector value, said laminar flow arc sector providing blood pumping means during rotation of said rotor subcombination,

a blood eddy flow arc sector precisely disposed between said rotor subcombination and said stator housing, said pair of shaft eccentricity adapters cooperatively fixing said eddy flow arc sector value, said eddy flow arc sector providing blood mixing meansduring rotation of said rotor subcombination,

sector and provides transitional and eddy flow in the remainder of the pump arc sector.

5. An apparatus in accordance with claim 4 wherein a heat transfer shell jacket completely covers the external cylinder face of said stator housing, said jacket having a fluid inlet conduit and a fluid outlet conduit secured to said jacket, said inlet conduit, said jacket and said outlet conduit together providing a serial passageway for a heat transfer fluid suitable for controlling patient blood temperature.

Patent Citations
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US3479280 *Jan 15, 1968Nov 18, 1969Fmc CorpMethod of and apparatus for liquid handling and dialysis
US3674440 *May 7, 1970Jul 4, 1972Tecna CorpOxygenator
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3841837 *Oct 5, 1972Oct 15, 1974Tecna CorpOxygenator
US3977976 *Aug 5, 1974Aug 31, 1976Spaan Josef A EApparatus for exchange of substances between two media on opposite sides of a membrane
US4094792 *Sep 8, 1976Jun 13, 1978Bentley Laboratories, Inc.Membrane fluid transfer method and apparatus
US4212741 *Apr 10, 1978Jul 15, 1980Brumfield Robert CBlood processing apparatus
US4490331 *Feb 12, 1982Dec 25, 1984Steg Jr Robert FExtracorporeal blood processing system
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US4755300 *Dec 23, 1985Jul 5, 1988Haemonetics CorporationLocating facing surfaces of filter coaxially, mounting semiporous membrane on one surface, increasing gap size, adding fluid suspension, rotating one surface coaxially, controlling speed for constant shear stress
US4808307 *Feb 16, 1988Feb 28, 1989Haemonetics CorporationCouette membrane filtration apparatus for separating suspended components in a fluid medium using high shear
US5034135 *May 8, 1987Jul 23, 1991William F. McLaughlinApparatus for the separation of blood which contains a filter, rotors and spacings
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Classifications
U.S. Classification210/186, 210/321.68, 422/48, 210/321.78, 415/90
International ClassificationA61M1/16, A61M1/10, A61M1/26, A61M1/32, B01D63/16
Cooperative ClassificationB01D63/16, A61M2001/1006, A61M1/101, A61M1/1698
European ClassificationA61M1/16S, A61M1/10C, B01D63/16