US 3777900 A
A crane for construction of buildings and the like including a climbing support structure adapted to be raised as the building is constructed, a carrier ring on the climbing support structure for rotatably mounting the crane, a boom base platform rotatably mounted on the ring for supporting the base end of a boom, a boom mounted at a base end for movement across a diameter of the ring and rotation with the boom platform, a gantry assembly, a boom topping bridle between the free end of the boom and the gantry assembly for boom support and manipulation, an extension platform for supporting a counter-weight, and a drive apparatus for rotating the boom on the base ring. The boom together with the climbing support structure are lifted and secured at desired heights as a building is erected with the crane. The movement of the lower end of the boom permits adjustments in the working area of the crane.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Brewer Dec. 11, 1973 Primary ExaminerEvon C. Blunk Assistant Examiner-Johnny D. Cherry Attorney-H. Mathews Garland way  ABSTRACT A crane for construction of buildings and the like in cluding a climbing support structure adapted to be raised as the building is constructed, a carrier ring on the climbing support structure for rotatably mounting the crane, a boom base platform rotatably mounted on the ring for supporting the base end of a boom, a boom mounted at a base end for movement across a diameter of the ring and rotation with the boom platform, a gantry assembly, a boom topping bridle between the free end of the boom and the gantry assembly for boom support and manipulation, an extension platform for supporting a counter-weight, and a drive apparatus for rotating the boom on the base ring. The boom together with the climbing support structure are lifted and secured at desired heights as a building is erected with the crane. The movement of the lower end of the boom permits adjustments in the working area of the crane.
PATENTEI] DEC! 7 1975 saw 1 0f 8 ATTORNEY PAIENTEBM SHEET 3 [If 8 Fig-5 ATTORNEY Pmminw w SMETKNS lllllillllllll "w ll I A95 INVENTOR L/ao Jack L/. re /er K Fl 8 BY \Q- %RNEY PAIENTEU 1 9 SHEUSUF8 INVENTOR Jae/ flrewer BY W\@ M ATTORNEY PAIENTED saw 5 or a BOOM PEHDANTS 'TOPPIHG LINE T0 RAKSE AND LOWER BOOM MULTI-PART TOPPHJG- L\FT LNE Ans suEAvES LOAD LIME TOPPIHG LHJE Wl-HP LINE 5 DRUM HO \ST awe a 5%22 BY W nM QM ATTORNEY PAIENIEB 1 SHEET 8 UF 8 FIGJ5 INVENTOR jack (1 firewer ATTORNEY BUILDING CRANE This inventionrelates'to cranes and m'oreparticularly relates to a building crane movable upwardly as erection progresses and rotatable to provide full access to all areas of the building around the crane.
In accordance with the invention there" is provided a crane having a rotatable b'asesupported on a' climbing structure secured to vertical guide rails on a building and raised as the building is erected. The crane includes a carrier ring, a boom base support platform rotatably mounted on the carrier ring'incl'uding support beams for the base end of the boom, a= boom movably secured at a base end to the platform so that the base end of the boom is movable along a line across the full' diameter of the base ring, and boom supporting and balancing structure including a boom backstop, a: gantry assembly, a boom topping bridle, boom counterweight structure, and a drive system for rotating the boom and platform on the base ring.
It is a particularly important object of the invention to provide a new and improved building crane.
It is another object of the invention to provide a new and improved building crane which is rotatably mounted on a carrier ring of minimum diameter.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane having a boom base end mounted on a carrier ring and movable across the ring so that the resultant forces on the boom from a supported load are applied either directly to the ring or within the limits of the ring.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane adapted to climb and be supported from the structural steel of the parent structure.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane which is rotatable a full 360.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane which has a boom having a base end adjustable relative to the supporting structure for the boom whereby loads are efficiently handled by the boom either at substantial distances from the rig or di rectly over or under the rig itself.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane of increased lifting capacity due to the capability of the boom base to be moved from a normal centralized position to the outer perimeter of the carrier ring and because of a movable counterweight adapted to be positioned outside the limits of the carrier ring.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane which does not require the guy lines normally used with guy derricks.-
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane which does not require the use of the lay legs normally used with stiff leg derricks.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane which may be progressively raised as the parent structure is erected and which is capable of erecting parent structure steel within a space limited only by boom length.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building crane which is movable upwardly and downwardly along a parent structure along guide rails and, thus, is positionable at any height along such rails and is, therefore, not limited to particular structure floor elevations and does not require lifting in given increments, such as floor heights, as in available cranes.
It is another object of the invention to provide a building. crane which may be compactly constructed of a minimum number of components to reduce the weight and size of the crane, and thereby permit it to be readily assembled and dismantled and shipped by such forms of transportation as trucks, thereby eliminating the expensive rail transportation required by many conventional rigs.
A more thorough understanding of the invention together with its objects and advantages will be apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view in elevation of a preferred form of building crane embodying the invention with the boom of the crane positioned for supporting a working load in close proximity to the carrier ring of the crane;
FIG. 2 is a front view in elevation of the crane shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged top view of the crane with the boom and related structure removed to show only the carrier ring together with the boom platform supporting beams;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged top view of the carrier ring only of the crane;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section and elevation along the line 5-5 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section along the line 6-6 of FIG. 3 showing the drive system for rotating the boom and boom platform on the carrier ring;
FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section along the line 7-7 of FIG. 3 showing the bearing supporting system between the carrier ring and the boom base platform;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary view in elevation of the carrier ring and boom platform as seen along the line 8-8 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a schematic perspective view of the load lifting and boom position control line systems; 11.
FIG. 10 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section taken along the line 10-l0 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 11 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section taken along the line llll of FIG. 3;
FIG. 12 is a side view in elevation of the building crane showing the boom base end at an intermediate forward position and the extension platform folded to a maximum load balancing position;
FIG. 13 is a side view in elevation showing the crane mounted in a building on a climbing support structure;
FIG. 14 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section along the line l4-14 of FIG. 13; and
FIG. 15 is a top view in elevation along the line 15-l5 of FIG. 13 showing a phantom representation of the rotation circle of the crane in the operating location illustrated in FIG. 13.
Referring to the drawings, a crane 20 embodying the invention includes a boom 21 movably secured at a lower end 22 on a rotatable boom platform 23 supported on a stationary carrier ring 24 which is mounted, in the preferred form of the invention, on a climbing support structure 25. A gantry 30 on the platform 23 and a topping rig 31 connected between the gantry and the free end of the boom move the boom and hold it at various desired positions. The boom is operatively connected with a hoist 32 which is schematically represented in FIG. 9 but comprises no part of the present invention and is physically located either at ground level or on some supporting structure below or on the building crane. An extension platform 33 is pivotally connected with the cantilever outward end of the platform 23 to provide a base for a movable counterweight 34 when the crane is supporting a substantial load at a distance from the ring 24 which requires counterbalancing. A load handling rig 36 including a line 40 is connected from the hoist over the upper end of the boom for supporting and manipulating a load.
The crane is rotatable a full 360 degrees on the ring 24 and by virtue of the adjustability of the base end 22 of the crane can manage work loads ranging from the immediate proximity of the crane to substantial distances from it. As shown in FIG. 12 with the extension platform 33 lowered and the counterweight 34 at an outward end, the base end 22 of the boom is supported near the ring 24 on the opposite side of the ring from the counterweight. The boom base may be supported immediately over the ring for handling loads at a distance from the ring whereby the force imposed on the boom from the work load is applied directly to the ring structure. In contrast, the boom may be moved to the opposite side of the ring 24 from a load as shown in FIG. 1 for supporting a work load immediately adjacent the carrier ring and platform with the force of the load on the boom still being applied essentially directly to the ring. It will be evident that the crane is raisable on the frame structure which is lifted and secured at various elevations in a building as the building is erected.
The boom 21 is a suitable, conventional, open framework type member designed for maximum strength at a minimum weight. The upper end of the boom is provided with a sheave assembly 35 which is used to support the load hoisting cable of the load handling rig 36 which also includes a suitable block 41 having a load handling hook 42. The lower end 22 of the boom is bifurcated as shown in FIG. 2 having spaced legs 220 which are pivotally supported on a shaft 43 mounted in spaced bearing members 44 secured on a slidable boom base plate or support member 45 for supporting and positioning the boom base end.
The boom base plate 45 is slidable along the boom platform 23 which comprises a pair of elongated parallel spaced members connected together by cross members 51, 52, 53 and 54 forming a rectangular, rotatable platform for supporting the boom, the gantry, the counterweight and the counterweight extension platform. The members 50 have a plurality of spaced bolt holes 55 along a bearing surface portion which register with holes in the boom base plate 45 for securing the boom base plate at any desired location along the members 50 across the diameter of the carrier ring assembly 24. As shown in FIG. 11, each end of the boom base plate 45 has a U-shaped return hold-down portion 45a which fits around an upper outwardly extending flange 50a of the member 50 for holding the boom base plate on and securing to the member 50. The spaced holes 55 of the members 50 are provided along the flange portion 50a while the corresponding spaced holes 60 in the boom base plate 45 are provided through the portion 45a of the plate. Bolts 61 are secured through the holes 60 and the holes 55 for firmly securing the base plate to the members 50 when the base end of the boom is at the desired working location. Lugs 47 on the plate 45 and lugs 57 on the members 50 aid in positioning the plate.
A pair of identical boom backstop bearing plates 62 are secured in parallel spaced relationship at the ends of and perpendicular to the base plate 45 as best seen in FIG. 3. Each of the bearing plates 62 has an upstanding bearing bracket 63 comprising a pair of spaced bearing plates fora short shaft 64. A bifurcated handle 65 is pivotally supported at opposite ends on the shaft 64 for supporting a boom backstop secured at a lower end to the center of the handle 65. The backstop 70 is a suitable, conventional, telescoping. pin-lock assembly having an extendable shaft 71 secured at an upper end to the boom 21 by a bracket 72 connected along the back side of the boom as best seen in FIG. 12. The backstop serves to limit the angle of elevation of the boom depending upon the positioning of the pin 73 along the shaft 71.
The mast 21 is raised and lowered by pivotal movement about the base end of the mast on the shaft 43 and is supported at selected angles by the rigging assembly 31 secured to the gantry 30 formed by a pair of spaced forward legs 75 secured to brackets mounted on outwardly disposed base plates 81, each comprising a part of one of the platform members 50 as shown in FIG. 3. The legs 75 are connected at upper ends to a shaft 82 which secures the legs with the upper ends of legs 83 of a rear frame 84. The legs 83 are connected together by upper and lower cross members 85 and and X-positioned angular cross members 91 and 92. The lower ends of the legs 83 are connected to bearing brackets 93 mounted on the outward ends of the boom base frame members 50 as best seen in FIG. 3.
A sheave block 94 connected on the shaft 82 and a similar sheave block 95 are included in the rigging 30 for positioning and supporting the boom 21 from the gantry. A 1 boom lift line from the hoist 32 is threaded around the sheaves of the blocks 94 and 95 and the block 95 is connected by boom pendants 101 to a bracket 102 on the back side of and near the upper end of the boom. Manipulation of the line 100 from the hoist controls the spacing of the blocks 94 and 95 to pivot the boom about the shaft 43 for raising and lowering the boom upper end portion by means of the boom pendants.
As best seen in FIG. 3, sheaves 103, 104, and 105 are mounted on a shaft supported by brackets lll secured within the platform 23 to the cross member 52. Similarly, another set of sheaves 112, 113, and 114 are mounted on a shaft 115 supported on brackets extending between cross members 121 and 122 between the platform members 50 near the center of the carrier ring assembly 24. These sheaves guide the lines including the mast topping line 100, the load line 40, and a whip line 123 along the platform and downwardly toward the hoist 32. The whip line extends over a sheave 35c at the upper end of the mast and is provided with a hook 124.
The extension platform 33 includes a pair of spaced members interconnected by a plurality of cross members 131 to which a floor 132 is secured for supporting the counterweight 34 at various positions along the platform to counterbalance work loads supported from the boom. The extension platform is connected with the platform 23 by hinged fittings 133 between outward ends of the members 130 so that the platform 33 is raised and lowered or folded between the vertical position of FIG. 1 and the extended horizontal position of FIG. 12. A pair of support cables 134 are secured be- An attendant station 150 is secured on the side of the platform 23 to one of the members as best seen in FIG. 3. The station consists of a floor 151 and a surrounding guard rail 152 sothat an attendant may be on the crane in a safe position removed from the operating members of the device.
The carrier ring 24 includes an annular hollow member having an upper circular bearing plate 161 providing a downwardly and outwardly sloping upper bearing surface as shown in FIGS. 6-and 7. The boom platform 23 is supported on the ring assembly 24-by four bearing units 162 symmetrically spaced and secured to the platform. Each of the bearing units is connected on the bottom of a support plate 163 secured along the outside of one of the members 50 of the frame 23 as seen in FIG. 3. Two plates 163, each with a bearing, are secured in spaced relation on each of the members 50 to provide a 90 symmetrical spacing of the bearings. The bearings are positioned on the plates so that they roll on the sloping upper surface of the ring plate 161 in the relationship shown in FIG. 7. Each of the bearings 162 comprises an inverted .I-shaped bracket 164, two tapered roller bearings 165 and a cylindrical retainer roller 170. Each roller bearing 165 is mounted on a shaft 171 while the roller is on a shaft 172 with the shafts being vertically spaced to position the tapered roller bearing above and the retainer roller below the plate 161 in a sufficiently close relationship that the platform is rotatable on the ring without beinding. The bearing units support the full weight of the building crane on the ring plate 161 while the retainer rollers 170 hold the crane against tipping in situations when a condition of unbalance occurs.
The crane platform 23 is rotated on the carrier ring 24 by a drive unit which includes a motor 181 on a support bracket 182 secured on the cross member 54 between the members 50 at the front end of the platform. The motor is coupled with a gear box 183 which drives a pinion gear 184 meshing with an external ring gear or annular rack 185 mounted on the ring member 160. The gear 184 drives the platform 23 on the ring assembly 24 to rotate the crane on the carrier ring.
As shown in FIGS. 3 and 5, the carrier ring assembly 24 includes a pair'of spaced cross members interconnected by another pair of shorter cross members 91 to which are secured upper and lower square plates 192 and 193, respectively. The upper and lower plates have aligned central holes through which a flanged bushing 194 is secured. The platform 23 includes a cross plate 200 secured between the members 50 at the lower edges of the members as seen in FIG. 5. A sleeve bearing is secured through the plate 200 concentrically disposed in a rotatable or slip-fit arrangement through the bushing 194 and held in the bushing by a retainer ring 202 threaded on the lower end of the bushing below the lower plate 193 of the carrier ring assembly. Reinforcing webs 203 are secured between an upper end portion of the bushing20l and the top surface of the plate 200. The bearing 201 rotates with the frame 23 within the bushing 194 as the frame and crane turn on the supporting carrier ring so that a clear, unobstructed well is provided through the support platform and carrier ring for the topping, whip, and load lines as they extend from the boom to the drum hoist 32. This arrangement permits the control lines for the crane to pass downwardly without fouling, irrespective of the position and the rotation of the boom and platform on the carrier ring.
In the preferred form, the crane 20 is supported during the construction of a building from the climbing support structure 25 which is lifted as building progresses. Referring to FIGS. 13, 14, and 15, the climbing support structure includes four vertical 1 beams 210 suitably interconnected by upper and lower cross member l beams 211 and strengthened by a plurality of diagonally disposed reinforcing members 212 to define an open rectangular box-like structure. A pair of lugs 213 are bolted along the center of opposite lower members 211 to provide means for the attachment of falls for connecting cables for raising and lowering the structure 25. A pair of spacer I beams 214 are bolted to two of the vertical beams 210 along one side of the structure 25 to be secured to the parent structure for supporting the climbing structure from the parent structure in a spaced relation to provide adequate room for the crane to be mounted on and operate from the structure 25. One pair of flanges of the I beams 214 are provided with a plurality of spaced U-shaped guide clips 215 which are welded to the beams 214 as shown in FIG. 14 and are provided with bolt holes, not shown, registering with bolt holes in the flanges of the I beam 214 for the securing of bolts 220 through the clips 215 and flanges of the I beams 214 to connect the support structure 25 to flanges on a pair ofI beam 221 which serve as vertical guide columns for the securing and lifting of the crane along the building being constructed.
The guide columns 221 are bolted as shown in FIG. 13 to brackets 222 on the parent building structure 223 being erected by the crane. The parent structure includes vertical columns 224and horizontal beams 225 to which the brackets 222 are connected. The parent structure 223 is, of course, the permanent structure being erected with the crane while the guide columns 221 are temporary members which are lifted and bolted to the horizontal beams 225 as the building progresses upwardly. The support structure 25 is thus secured in spaced relation from the permanent members of the building being erected to eliminate interference between the parent structure and crane climbing guide columns and the rotatable crane platform, including the drive unit 180 as particularly evident in FIG. 15.
In operation, the crane may be employed either on the climbing support structure 25, which is the preferable mode of operation, or with another form of base, not shown, which will provide a sufficiently stable mounting for the crane to be operated either with the extension platform 33 in the folded relationship of FIG. 1 or extended as represented in FIG. 12. The operation of the crane shall be described in terms of its use with the climbing support structure 25 in the erection of a building, such as the building 223 shown in FIG. 14. The crane is basically used for structural steel erection and is lifted along and supported by the structural steel of the parent structure as the erection progresses. The lower levels of the building structure 223, such, for example, as thefirst floor level, is erected by means of any suitable, conventional ground-supported crane,
such as one on a crawler track, which is readily obtainable and movable from site to site under its own power. The guide columns 221 are then secured as by bolting in the manner shown in FIG. 13- to the cross beams 225. The spacer beams 214 and the climbing frame structure 25 are then secured to the guide columns in the manner shown in FIG. 14 so that the structure 25 is positioned along the parent structure as shown in FIG. 13 and FIG.'15. The crane including its carrier ring 24 is positioned on and secured to the support frame 25 in the relationship shown in FIG. 13 so that the crane may be used to erect parent steel as high as the length of the boom 21 will permit. The drum hoist 32 may be supported on a platform, not shown, on the structure 25, may be supported on a platform on the parent structure 223, or at ground level. With the crane mounted on the climbing structure, the various lines, as shown schematically in FIG. 9, are rigged for manipulating and supporting the boom 21 and for raising and lowering loads by means of the load and whip lines. The whip line 123 extends from the hoist around the sheave 113 through the well 201 in the carrier ring center, horizontally along the boom platform around the sheave 104, and upwardly over the sheave 350 at the upper end of the boom and downwardly to the hook 124. The load line is also run from the drum hoist upwardly through the well 201, around the sheave 112, along the boom platform to the sheave 103, around such sheave upwardly to the upper end of the boom, around the sheave 35b downwardly and around the sheave in the block 41, upwardly around the sheave 35a, and downwardly back to and connected with the upper end of the block 41, for raising and lowering the hook 42. The topping line 100 is run from the drum hoist over the sheave 114 in the carrier ring well, along the boom platform to the sheave 105, and around the sheave upwardly over the sheaves and the blocks 94 and 95 for control of the boom pendants 100 for raising and lowering the boom. The pin 73 in the boom backstop 70 is positioned in the rod 71 to limit the movement of the boom backstop for setting a predetermined position beyond which the boom 21 may not be pivoted backwardly toward the gantry assembly.
The base end 22 of the boom is positioned along the boom platform 23 at a location dependent upon the particular work to be performed by the boom, controlled, especially, with respect to the nearness of the structure to be erected to the crane itself. For very close erection the boom is backed off from the forward end of the crane toward the counterweight over the ring member 161 nearest the counterweight as shown in FIG. 1. As the boom is raised toward the vertical, work may be handled close to or essentially over the carrier ring and boom platform. For work to be performed farther from the crane the base end of the boom may be moved along the boom platform toward or over the other side of the carrier ring to an intermediate position across the carrier ring near the front of the crane as represented in FIG. 12. Obviously, at this position work cannot be swung in as near to the base of the crane structure as can be accomplished in the boom position of FIG. 1. The boom is moved along the platform members 50 by sliding the boom base plate on the members with the base plate being held in a sliding relationship on the members 50 by the plate end portions 45a as shown in FIG. 11 To release the base of the boom for movement along the platform members 50, the bolts 61 are removed; and when the base plate is positioned at the desired location along the members, the nearest holes 55 in the members 50 and the holes 60 in the base plate are aligned, and the bolts 61 are reinserted for securing the base plate of the boom with the platform members. The boom backstop 70, of course, is secured integral with the boom base plate 45 and is moved along with the shifting of the base end of the boom. The boom base plate 45 along with the base end of the boom is preferably relocated by suitable lines or falls and pulleys, not shown, connected between the lugs 47 on the base plate 45 and the lugs 57 on the forward ends of the members 50, as seen in FIG. 3. It will be understood that the positioning of the plate 45 is not a function carried out frequently in the sense of making changes in the plate and boom base between every load handled; but, rather, the boom base is relocated for handling close-in loads as distinguished from far away loads. It will be apparent that, if desired, such lines or falls might be run over the pulleys 112, 113, or 114 to the hoist being used to normally operate the crane for use of such hoist for boom base positioning. The base end of the boom and the base plate 45 are moved toward the forward ends of the members 50 by pulling the-plate toward the lugs 57 by means of the lugs 47, and when the plate is at the desired position, it is re-secured by bolting to the members 50. When movement of the boom base and plate 45 away from the forward ends of the members 50 in a direction toward the counterweight 34 is desired, the same arrangement of falls and pulleys between the lugs;47 and 57 may be used for control purposes. When the boom 21 is at a forwardly sloping angle, such as shown in FIG. 1, gravity forces on the boom tend to push the base end 22 of the boom along the members 50 toward the counterweight 34 so that the resultant forces on the boom, due to its own weight, are utilized to move the base end of the boom and the plate 45 back away from the forward ends of the members 50. With the plate released from the members 50, the lines or falls connected between the lugs 47 and 57 may be held firmly, such as by the hoist, and paid out slowly allowing the boom weight to slide the boom base end and the plate 45 in the desired direction toward the back end of the platform members 50. When the plate and boom base end are at the desired position, the lines between the lugs are held firmly until the plate is rebolted to the members 50.
With the boom rigged and positioned as desired, such as in the relationship of FIG. 1, the lifting of a work load on the hook 42 of the block 41 and the raising and lowering of the boom by changing the position or angle of the boom on the boom platform are accomplished by means of the load line 40 and the topping line 100, respectively. It will be apparent that when a load is picked up some distance from the crane and is to be raised and moved to some position closer to the crane, the load and topping lines may be operated in simultaneous coordinated steps whereby the load is lifted and the boom is raised toward the vertical for bringing the load up and toward the crane. The weight of the load and the boom 21 are applied partly through the base end 22 of the boom to the boom platform from which the load is transferred to the carrier ring while other component forces from the load and boom weights are applied to the boom pendants through which the force components are applied to thegantry assembly with such force components being transferred to the boom platform through the members 75 and-83 of the frames 74. If the load being handled by the crane must be moved to some other position around the crane other than that from which it is initially lifted, then the boom platform is rotated on the carrier ring 24 to the required position of rotation of the crane. The boom platform is rotated by the drive unit 180 which turns the pinion gear 184 meshing with the ring gear 185 driving the platform 23 on the carrier ring 24 to the desired position. As the boom platform rotateson the ring, the tapered bearings 165 roll along the ring plate 161 supporting the combined weight of the load, the boom platform, and related structure as it turns on the carrier ring to the desired position. Any forces tending to raise or tip the boom platform are resisted by the retainer follers 170 on the bearing units. The operator of the crane may be located on the platform 150 or may be at any other desired location such as within the parent structure or on the ground with, of course, the control station for the various operational functions of the crane being located at the place where .it is desired to position the operator. As all of these functions may be remotely controlled at a control station, not shown, such control station may be located as desired and electrically interconnected with the various power units of the crane. When the crane is located on the parent structure along the horizontal beams 225 at a mid position between the vertical columns 224, as shown in FIG. 15, the crane may rotate a full 360 with the extension platform folded to the vertical angle of FIG. 13.
On those occasions when an extremely heavy load located a maximum distance from the crane is being handled, the crane is rigged as shown in FlG. 12 with the extension platform 33 folded downwardly to a horizontal position and the counterweight 34 moved outwardly along the platform to the extreme end of the platform, if necessary, to aid in counterbalancing the crane against the heavy load supported from the block 41. The lines 134 support the extension platform from the upper ends of the frames 74. Generally, of course, the vertical columns 224 of the parent structure when erected above the platform would preclude a full 360 rotation of the crane with the counterweight extension platform lowered.
After the parent structure is erected to the maximum elevation above the crane base platform permitted by the length of the boom, the entire crane including the climbing structure 25 is lifted to a new height along the parent structure. The lifting is accomplished by securing additional vertical guide columns 221 to the horizontal beams 225 of the parent structure above the existing elevation of'the crane to provide means for guiding and supporting the climbing frame 25 as the crane and frame are lifted upwardly to the next working height. Suitable falls or lines are connected with the lugs 213 of the climbing structure, extended over sheaves, not shown, at a suitable location in the parent structure above the newly positioned guide columns 221 and to a suitable hoist, which may be the hoist 32, for lifting the crane and structure 25 to the new working height. The equipment and some techniques used in jumping" or climbing the crane are not necessarily considered part of the invention and are those used in other existing crane systems for raising cranes as a building is constructed. With additional guide columns aligned above the existing guide columns 221 shown in FIG. 13 and the lugs 213 connected with the falls for lifting the crane and structure 25, the bolts 220 securing the structure 25 to the guide columns 221 are removed to release the climbing structure for raising. The falls attached to the lugs 213 are then used to lift the crane upwardly to a new position along the newly added guide columns, at which position the bolts 220 are re-secured between the clips 215 and the flanges of the newly added guide columns to fix the structure 25 and the crane at the new working elevation. The variousoperative systems of the crane are secured in positions to interfere least with or to enhance the crane raising operation, such as by having the boom and the extension frame 33 in vertical positions as in FIG. 13. By so arranging the crane systems, the crane and climbing structure are more nearly balanced, and a minimum of structure extends outwardly to possibly interfere with the lifting operation. The dimensions of the crane structure, such as the length of the boom platform 23 and the standard spacing of the vertical columns and horizontal beams of the parent structure, are so related that the crane is readily manipulated within the parent structure for both assembling the structure by means of the crane and for lifting the crane to new elevations as required, and subsequently, of course, for lowering the crane to remove it from the structure when the erection task is completed.
It will now be seen that a new and improved crane for the erection of structural steel and similar members to form a building structure has been described and illustrated. It will be understood that the crane is capable of being supported from any desirable base and is particularly adapted to support from the parent structure being erected and moved upwardly as the erection procedure is carried out so that the crane may be classed as what is known as the climbing" type. The crane is capable of rotation a full 360 and includes a movable boom which permits steel erection at a substantial distance from ranging up to essentially directly under or over the crane itself. A particularly novel feature of the crane is the movable mounting of the base or foot end of the boom along a path extending across the boom carrier ring which enhances both the weight or load handling capabilities of the crane and the ability of the crane to handle loads at distances and close in to the crane structure. A retractable counterweight platform additionally increases the load capabilities of the crane. The position of the counterweight beyond the carrier ring counteracts an increased overturning moment produced by large loads. The carrier ring may be supported either from a climbing structure or directly on the existing or parent steel of the structure being erected. The crane design eliminates the need for the guy lines normally used with guy derricks or lay legs used with conventional stiff leg derricks. Where guy derricks now used must be jumped every two floors, the crane of the present invention can be raised as high as steel can be erected within the limits of the length of the boom so that time is saved by less raising and relocating the derrick during the erection of a building. The design of the crane permits minimum size and weight with maximum load and handling capabilities. The crane is readily dismantled and shipped by truck or other suitable transportation more effectively than presently available rigs of a similar type.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A building crane'comprising: means providing a mounting base for said crane; boom platform means rotatably supported on said base; boom means having a base end; support means pivotally connected with the base end of said boom means and movable along a line on said boom platform means for supporting and selectively positioning said base end of said boom means at a plurality of load handling positions on said boom platform means; and means for supporting said boom means at a desired angular position relative to said boom platform means and for moving said boom means between angular positions on said boom platform means for manipulating a load supported from the upper free end of said boom means.
2. A building crane in accordance with claim 1 including well means positioned substantially at the center of said mounting base for passage of boom control and load handling lines from a hoist to said boom.
3. A building crane in accordance with claim 2 including drive means operatively connected between said boom platform means and said mounting base for rotating said boom platform means on said mounting base.
4. A building crane in accordance with claim 3 including a climbing support structure secured with said mounting base for supporting said mounting base and adapted to move along a building erected by said crane for supporting said crane at selected heights along said building as said building is erected by said crane.
5. A building crane in accordance with claim 4 wherein said climbing support structure is movable along guide columns secured with said building being erected by said crane.
6. A building crane in accordance with claim 5 wherein said climbing structure comprises an open network of interconnected structural members for supporting said mounting base and having securing means for removably connecting a portion of said structural members with said guide columns for selectively positioning said climbing structure on said guide columns for supporting said crane at selected heights along said building being erected by said crane.
7. A building crane adapted for movement along members of a parent structure being erected by said crane comprising: a carrier ring including an annular bearing surface adapted to be mounted on a suitable base; a plurality of bearing units secured on said carrier ring for movement around said bearing surface of said ring; a boom platform mounted on said bearing units for supporting a boom for rotation on said carrier ring including a linear bearing surface for a boom base plate; drive means operatively connected between said platform and said carrier ring for rotating said platform on said carrier ring; a boom base plate movably secured on said platform and adapted to be positioned at and secured with said platform along said linear bearing surface at a plurality of selected locations along said platform across said carrier ring; bearing means on said boom base plate; a boom secured at a base end thereof with said bearing means on said boom base plate pivotally supporting said base end of said boom on said base plate whereby said base end of said boom is movable across said ring on said platform and said boom is adapted to be pivoted to any selected angular position between vertical and substantially horizontal positions; well means secured at the center of said carrier ring for passage of boom control and load handling lines from said boom to a hoist; sheave means carried by said platform for guiding said boom control and load handling lines from said boom into said well of said carrier ring; a gantry assembly carried by said platform for supporting and moving said boom to selected positions on said platform; line handling sheave means connected with said gantry assembly; and boom control and support lines running over said sheave means of said platform and said sheave means of said gantry assembly for positioning said boom at and holding said boom in selected positions relative to said boom base plate.
8. A building crane in accordance with claim 7 wherein said boom base platform extends at one end substantially beyond said carrier ring, and a portion of said gantry assembly is connected with the extended end of said platform.
9. A building crane in accordance with claim 8 wherein said sheave means carried by said boom base platform comprises a first sheave assembly supported over said well means of said carrier ring and a second sheave assembly spaced from said first sheave assembly and secured at a location along the extension of said platform from said carrier ring for directing said boom control and support lines and said load handling lines from said gantry assembly and from the upper end of said boom into said well means toward a hoist.
10. A building crane in accordance with claim 9 including a foldable platform extension secured pivotally to the extended outward end of said boom platform for movement between a substantially vertical position and an extended horizontal position for supporting a counterweight at said horizontal position for use under pre determined substantial load conditions imposed on said boom.
11. A building crane in accordance with claim 8 in combination with a climbing support structure providing a movable mounting for said carrier ring, said climbing structure being releasably connectible with members of a building being erected by said crane for supporting said crane and moving said crane to selected heights along said building as said building is erected with said crane.
12. A building crane in accordance with claim 11 wherein said climbing structure includes members forming a base for mounting said carrier ring of said crane and members having releasable securing and guide means for connection with guide columns secured along said building whereby said climbing structure is movable along and securable at desired elevations along said guide columns.
13. A building crane in accordance with claim 12 wherein said climbing structure comprises an open network of vertical column and horizontal beam members interconnected to form said base for said carrier ring and including securing and guide brackets having flange means engageable with a flange on guide column means connected with said building for guiding said climbing structure and securing said structure along said flange means of said guide columns during movement of said climbing structure and said crane along said guide columns on said building.
14. A building crane adapted to be raised with and supported by a building being erected by said crane comprising: a climbing support structure adapted for movable connection with and along a building erected by means of said crane; a crane base supported on said climbing support structure for rotatably supporting a boom; a boom base plate supported on'said crane base for longitudinal movement along a line across said base; a boom pivotally secured at a base end to said base plate for longitudinal movement at said base end across said crane base and angular movement relative to said crane base; a gantry assembly connected between said crane base and said boom for supporting