Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3779706 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 18, 1973
Filing dateOct 4, 1971
Priority dateOct 4, 1971
Also published asCA963984A, CA963984A1, DE2249190A1, DE2249190B2, DE2249190C3
Publication numberUS 3779706 A, US 3779706A, US-A-3779706, US3779706 A, US3779706A
InventorsNablo S
Original AssigneeEnergy Sciences Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for bulk sterilization, minimizing chemical and physical damage
US 3779706 A
Abstract
Technique for bulk-sterilizing a wide range of substances by pulsed monochromatic electron beams of rather critical irradiation dose values and rates that enable effective destruction of viable micro-organisms and the like but without significant chemical or physical damage to the substance.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Nablo Dec. 18, 1973 PROCESS FOR BULK STERILIZATION, MINIMIZING CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DAMAGE Inventor: Samuel V. Nablo, Lexington, Mass.

Energy Sciences, Inc., Burlington, Mass.

Filed: Oct. 4, 1971 Appl. No.: 186,427

Assignee:

US. Cl 21/54 R, 99/221, 162/192, 99/212 Int. Cl. A231 3/26, A611 1/00, A230 3/06 Field of Search 21/54 R; 99/221, 99/212; 250/495 TE References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 7/1952 Robinson 21/54 R X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 945,801 1/1964 Great Britain 21/54 R Primary Examiner-Joseph Scovronek Assistant Examiner-Tim Hagan Att0rneyRines and Rines 4 Claims, No Drawings PROCESS FOR BULK STERILIZATION, MINIMIZING CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DAMAGE The present invention relates to electron-beam bulk sterilization techniques, being more particularly concerned with pulsed electron beams. The invention teaches new methods of sterilizing and preserving substances whereby the destruction or inactivation of harmful or undesirable micro-organisms can be conducted without causing significant damage or other del eterious effects in the host or carrier medium, including bacteria, virus, yeasts, molds, enzymes and a number of other radiation-sensitive chemicals and protein-rich materials, including blood serum.

Previously, physical sterilization or other treatment of products has been effected by the use of radiation from high-energy machines or from radioisotope sources, such as cobalt 60, at reduced dose rate, as described, for example, in Proc. Symposium on Radiosterilization of Medical Products, Budapest, June 1967; IAEA Publication STl/PUB/l57, Vienna, Austria, 1967. For the case of radioisotope sources, because of the limited radiation intensity possible per unit volume of the source (specific activity), the dose rates available from large sources of industrial interest are typically in the range of 10 l rads per second. For the usual treatment levels of -10 rads for inactivation of microflora, to levels above rads used for sterilization, these rates indicate treatment periods of the order of hours which are presently used in such installations as, for example, in the terminal sterilization of some medical goods. Because of the inefficiences involved in machine-made X-radiation sources, these systems have not enjoyed wide commercial application for sterilization higher process efficiencies being possible using electron beams directly. Industrial electron beam accelerators (both of the dc. and pulsed linear type) can provide dose rates over limited fields of the order of 10 rads/second. In spite of their apparent improvement in process capacity, and the great commercial advantages of room temperature processing, however, such machinery has found limited application for industrial sterilization or similar processing due to the deleterious effects encountered in the processed material. Such effects have ranged from severe organoleptic changes in foodstuffs, denaturation of proteins, chemical alteration of carbohydrates, hydrolysis of aqueous solutions, discoloration of cellulose and other natural products, and other disadvantageous effects.

Product sterilization by such prior techniques has often produced deleterious physical changes in the product such as cross-linking of plastic films, degradation of adhesive coating and discoloration.

In U. 5. Pat. Nos. 2,429,217; 2,807, 551; 2,456,909; 2,617,953 and 2,796,545, treatment techniques are described involving high-speed wide-spectrum electrons with irradiation periods less than 10 seconds. These equipments enable the production of intense beams of unknown quality (energy distribution), generally over large areas and at energies of up to 6 million volts. Practical demonstrations with minimal analytical support were described and it was concluded that the bactericidal and material properties of the process were little affected by repetitive treatment so long as the individual period of exposure was held short. This pioneering work, however, possibly because, among other reasons, of the inherent concurrent damage to the chemical and physical properties of the treated substances, did not find commercial usage.

In accordance with the present invention, however, it has been discovered that it is possible effectively to destroy viable micro-organisms and pathogens and the like in a wide variety of substances without damage to the physical and chemical structure, and properties of such substances by using pulsed, controlled-spectrum electron beams with rather critically adjusted irradiation doses and rates.

An object of the invention, accordingly, is to provide a new and improved process of electron-beam sterilization or irradiation, not subject to the disadvantages, before discussed, but effective without damage to the irradiated substance structure.

A further object is to provide a novel electron-beam technique of more general applicability, as well.

Other and further objects will be explained hereinafter and are delineated more fully in the appended claims. In summary, from one of its broad aspects, the invention contemplates a process for bulk sterilization involving selectively destroying viable micro-organisms and the like in a medium, such as cellulose-containing products, blood, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foodstuffs and other substances, but without effecting substantial chemical and physical damage to the media, that comprises, disposing a medium to-be-sterilized at a predetermined region, generating pulsed substantially monochromatic electron beam energy and directing the same to said region substantially uniformly to irradiate the medium, and adjusting the pulses of energy to produce an irradiation dose of value within the range of from substantially a few tenths to several megarads and with a dose rate greater than substantially l0 rads per second. Preferred details are hereinafter set forth.

In accordance with the invention, apparatus of the types described in my copending United States applications, Ser. Nos. 31,530, filed Apr. 24, 1970, and now US. Pat. No. 3,612,941 issued Oct. 12, 1971, for Pulsed Field Emission Cold Cathode With Means For Replacing Stripped Adsorbed Gas Layer, and 64,734, filed Aug. 18, 1970, now US Pat. No. 3,720,838, issued Mar. 13, 1973, for Apparatus For and Method of Controlling Relativistic Charged Particle Beam Distribution and Transport and in Observations of Magnetically Self-Focusing Electron Streams," S. V. Nablo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, No. 1, 18 (1966), and The Generation and Diagnosis of Pulsed Relativistic Electron Beams Above 10 Watts, S. E. Graybill and S. V. Nablo, IEEE Trans. Nuc. Sci. NS-l4, No. 3,782, (1967), may be used with rather critically adjusted and controlled small-area pulsed electron beams of high current density (as distinguished from high current) and consequently of very high dose rates, to effect these novel results. In view of the known and published characteristics of such controlled electron-beam generators, it is not deemed necessary to illustrate the same in this application, the invention being concerned rather with the novel and unexpected application of this type of equipment, operated within certain novel adjustments, to attain such results.

While, as later explained, dose rates considerably in excess of 10 rads per second are required for the purposes of the invention, with irradiation doses of from a few tenths to several megarads for substantially monochromatic, short-period, high intensity beams, producing single-pulse doses for a 50 nanosecond system, for

example, typical dose rates here-employed are of the order of 4 X 10" rads/second. Rigorous demonstration of the retention of micro-organism destructive efficacy at dose rates up to 10 rads/sccond, however, was achieved, for example, on anaerobic spore formers, aerobic spore formers, vegetative bacteria, yeast, virus, enzymes, molds and the like. Comparative studies for vegetative bacteria and spore formers, (bacillus pumilus and subtilis, micrococcus radiodurans, and streptococcus faecium) with conventional treatment technique at 10 l rads/second (before-mentioned) and with the present invention (at rads/second) demonstrated equivalent killing results and demonstrated that the resistance of these micro-organisms is quite insensitive to the rate of treatment, their survival being determined, rather, by the integrated dose or energy per unit mass which they receive. In the case of some process applications, enhanced effects were seen with the pulsed high rates of the invention, as, for example, in enzyme inactivation. Inactivation of the enzyme phosphatase in whole milk by the invention, again compared favorably with the conventional radiation treatment techniques. In this instance, a very large reduction in organoleptic and color changes were observed, as the whole milk, known to be the most radiationsensitivc of foodstuffs, showed no detectable alteration in these properties at pulsed monochromatic beam sterilization treatment levels (2 megarads at 10' rads/second). Similar comparative results were obtained in thus inactivating the enzymes catalase L and lysozyme.

These unexpected results on the response of an animal protein-rich system led to studies on other radiation-sensitive structures, such as the quaternary ammonium surface active germicides, an example of which is alkydimethylbenzylammonium chloride. Comparative studies of radiation induced damage in this compound at high and low dose rates were conducted. Electron irradiations were performed with a 2.2 MeV beam, a fixed pulse duration of 30 nanoseconds and integrated single-pulse doses of 760 and 1,500 kilorads on 5 ml aliquots at room temperature. The studies were performed using apparatus similar to that before described with dose rates in the 10 rads/second range. Total sample thicknesses under I gm/cm were employed permitting adequately uniform irradiation for this application; i.e., front-to-back surface doses of unity using unidirectional irradiation. The low level Co irradiations were performed at a fixed dose rate of 100 rads/second, again at room temperatures and to integrated levels of 800 and 3,000 kilorads. These levels were chosen since lethality studies have shown the 1,500 kilorad figure to be adequate for the sterilization application with the pulsed electron beam although tests have also been conducted at higher levels. Ultraviolet spectroscopic evaluation of the material was used to determine the degree of damage to the active benzyl ammonium group; and the structures in the 2,000-2,200 A and in the 2,500-2,800 A regions characteristic of the benzylammonium radical demonstrated severe damage under low rate (C0 irradiation and negligible change under the high rate (electron) treatment of the invention.

Equally conclusive results were obtained for three megarad treatment levels. No change in the effective zone of inhibition was observed (standard ATCC method) for the electron-processed and for control samples (13.5 mm), while a severe degradation of the bacteriostatic activity of the cobalt-processed sample (7 mm) was observed.

The decreased chemical damage associated with the high rate electron beam treatment of the invention bears out the results of other experiments, moreover, particularly with proteins. It appears that the rapid quenching of the free radicals formed during the radiation pulse or bursts, ameliorates (in fact may eliminate) secondary damage effects in the system; while those primary damage mechanisms which dominate the bactericidal action are unaltered. The extensive lethality studies described with vegetative bacteria, aerobic spore formers, enzymes and virus have confirmed this latter effect; i.e., that the dose required to reduce the micro-organism population by a factor of ten varies little with rate in some cases it has been found to decrease. The radiation sensitivities of bacteria and microflora are known to be very dependent upon environment, notably oxygen availability. It is for this reason that parallel comparative studies were performed.

Based on these results, the effect of the techniques of the invention on the various fractions of human bloodplasma proteins was investigated. Plasma proteins and their fractions have been used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes for many years. Since they are usually used parenterally, a sterile preparation is required. Conventional methods for protein sterilization are not completely satisfactory due to loss of proteins and their relative ineffectiveness in preventing virus contamination. The application of the present electron sterilization for cold treatment of proteins can eliminate losses currently involved in the filtration techniques commonly used. Results from comparative experiments on human fibrinogen and human plasma showed that significant reduction in the destruction of clottable protein in these blood fractions is attainable by the invention (l0 rads/second), as compared with the rads/second treatment level for Co.

Similar studies have been conducted on complex molecular structures of medical and commercial interest. Insulin has been given like treatment with similar results and is considered as a representative proteinbased injectable. Similar results for comparative treatment studies in commercially available pork insulin were obtained, using the iodine l25-labelled radioimmunochemical assay technique in determining the degree of irradiation-induced inactivation. Procaine hydrochlon'de has also been studied at sterilization levels with the technique of the invention and has been found to suffer no deterioration. This material represents an important base for a number of injectables in widespread daily use. Similar injectables which cannot be heat-sterilized because of their susceptibility to hydrolysis (such as thiopentol sodium, pentabarbitol sodium, penicillin, etc.) and which must be refrigerated in order to extend their shelf life, can also be successfully treated by the high dose rate technique taught herein.

In summary then, the invention has provided a process whereby materials sensitive to heat or hydrolysis can readily be sterilized without physio-chemical damage to the treated compound.

While the process has been described in application to sterilization and preservation of various substances, including foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals, it is not limited to these areas, alone, since the single-pulse high dose rate processing of materials otherwise sensitive to physio-chemical damage offers a practical technique to their sterilization or pasteurization (radappertization or radurization In the latter application, for example, the decreased sensitivity of animal protein to the process will permit the increased storage time of meats to several months without freezing; e.g., with storage at 3C and a treatment level of 0.5 megarads. The radappertization of whole milk, cultured dairy products and other foods ispossible with the enhanced enzyme inactivation (and equivalent lethality to bacteria and microflora) demonstrated with phosphatase and catalase. In its application, moreover, one need not resort to the use of sensitizers to decrease the effective dose (because of organoleptic effects); such sensitizers have involved freezing, chemicals, antibiotics, chemical preservatives, etc.

Further modifications will occur to those skilled in this art and all such are considered to fall within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

I claim:

I. A process for bulk sterilization involving selectively destroying viable micro-organisms and the like in a medium but without effecting substantial chemical and physical damage to the medium, that comprises, disposing a medium-to-be-sterilized at a predetermined region, said medium being selected of sample thickness of the order of approximately one gram per square centimeter and under, generating pulsed substantially monochromatic electron beams and directing the same to said region substantially uniformly to irradiate the medium, and adjusting the pulses of electron beam energy to produce an irradiation dose of value within the range of from substantially a few tenths to several megarads and with a dose rate greater than substantially l0 rads per second.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1 and in which the electron beam energy is adjusted to a value in excess of substantially 1 MeV.

3. A process as claimed in claim 1 and in which the dose range is adjusted between substantially l and 4.5 megarads.

4. A process as claimed in claim 1 and in which the said medium comprises at least one of blood, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foodstuffs and cellulosecontaining products.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2602751 *Aug 17, 1950Jul 8, 1952High Voltage Engineering CorpMethod for sterilizing substances or materials such as food and drugs
GB945801A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3901807 *Jun 27, 1973Aug 26, 1975High Voltage Engineering CorpHigh energy electron treatment of water
US4246295 *Sep 15, 1978Jan 20, 1981Crihan Ioan GSterilization and structural reinforcement of art objects made of organic material
US4367412 *Sep 16, 1980Jan 4, 1983Tetra Pak Developpement SaProcess of and apparatus for cold-cathode electron-beam generation for sterilization of surfaces and similar applications
US4439686 *Sep 28, 1982Mar 27, 1984Tetra Pak Developpement Ltd.Electron beam-irradiating apparatus with conical bushing seal-support
US4620908 *Jun 18, 1984Nov 4, 1986Biocell Laboratories, Inc.Method for destroying microbial contamination in protein materials
US5096553 *Feb 13, 1990Mar 17, 1992Ionizing Energy Company Of Canada LimitedTreatment of raw animal hides and skins
US5250257 *Oct 22, 1991Oct 5, 1993Adatomed Pharmazeutische Und Medizintechnische Gesellschaft MbhProcess for the sterilization of implants
US5418130 *Jul 13, 1993May 23, 1995Cryopharm CorporationMethod of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants
US5489783 *Apr 18, 1994Feb 6, 1996Tetra Laval Holdings & Finance S.A.Electron accelerator for sterilizing packaging material in an aspetic packaging machine
US5989498 *Oct 21, 1996Nov 23, 1999St. Jude Medical, Inc.Electron-beam sterilization of biological materials
US5998155 *Aug 1, 1997Dec 7, 1999E.R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.Stable composition of immobilized protein having affinity for biotin
US6187572Apr 14, 1993Feb 13, 2001Baxter International Inc.Method of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants
US6203755 *Mar 4, 1994Mar 20, 2001St. Jude Medical, Inc.Electron beam sterilization of biological tissues
US6524528 *Mar 2, 1999Feb 25, 2003Suzanne C. GottusoMethod of sterilizing a tattooing solution through irradiation
US6551794 *Nov 9, 1995Apr 22, 2003E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.Stable biotinylated biomolecule composition
US6623706Jun 18, 2001Sep 23, 2003Advanced Electron Beams, Inc.Air sterilizing system
US6635222Nov 5, 2001Oct 21, 2003Clearant, Inc.Method of sterilizing products
US6682695Jul 18, 2002Jan 27, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials by multiple rates
US6696060Jun 14, 2001Feb 24, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing preparations of monoclonal immunoglobulins
US6749851Aug 31, 2001Jun 15, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing preparations of digestive enzymes
US6783968Sep 24, 2001Aug 31, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing preparations of glycosidases
US6822250Mar 4, 2002Nov 23, 2004Steris Inc.Mobile radiant energy sterilizer
US6908591Jul 18, 2002Jun 21, 2005Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials by irradiation over a temperature gradient
US6946098Aug 10, 2001Sep 20, 2005Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials
US7189978May 4, 2005Mar 13, 2007Advanced Electron Beams, Inc.Air sterilizing system
US7252799Aug 31, 2001Aug 7, 2007Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing preparations containing albumin
US7323137Sep 19, 2003Jan 29, 2008Advanced Electron Beams, Inc.Air sterilizing system
US7547892Feb 7, 2007Jun 16, 2009Advanced Electron Beams, Inc.Air sterilizing system
US7848487Nov 3, 2008Dec 7, 2010Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials containing non-aqueous solvents
US7932065 *Apr 23, 2009Apr 26, 2011Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8052838 *Nov 30, 2010Nov 8, 2011Xyleco, Inc.Functionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US8070912 *Feb 1, 2011Dec 6, 2011Xyleco, Inc.Cellulosic and lignocellulosic structural materials and methods and systems for manufacturing such materials
US8168038 *Oct 13, 2010May 1, 2012Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8198344Jun 20, 2008Jun 12, 2012Adhezion Biomedical, LlcMethod of preparing adhesive compositions for medical use: single additive as both the thickening agent and the accelerator
US8221585 *Jan 19, 2011Jul 17, 2012Xyleco, Inc.Functionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US8277607 *Dec 2, 2011Oct 2, 2012Xyleco, Inc.Cellulosic and lignocellulosic structural materials and methods and systems for manufacturing such materials
US8293838Jun 20, 2008Oct 23, 2012Adhezion Biomedical, LlcStable and sterile tissue adhesive composition with a controlled high viscosity
US8492128Sep 15, 2011Jul 23, 2013Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8597921 *Mar 30, 2012Dec 3, 2013Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8603451May 22, 2012Dec 10, 2013Adhezion Biomedical, LlcAdhesive compositions for medical use: single additive as both the thickening agent and the accelerator
US8603787 *Oct 26, 2010Dec 10, 2013Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8609128Feb 12, 2009Dec 17, 2013Adhezion Biomedical, LlcCyanoacrylate-based liquid microbial sealant drape
US8609384 *Aug 20, 2012Dec 17, 2013Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8613952Nov 14, 2007Dec 24, 2013Adhezion Biomedical, LlcCyanoacrylate tissue adhesives
US8641864Jul 11, 2012Feb 4, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Funtionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US8652510Jul 29, 2013Feb 18, 2014Adhezion Biomedical, LlcSterilized liquid compositions of cyanoacrylate monomer mixtures
US8709768Feb 13, 2012Apr 29, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8729121Jun 25, 2007May 20, 2014Adhezion Biomedical, LlcCuring accelerator and method of making
US8846356Apr 9, 2013Sep 30, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8852905Feb 13, 2012Oct 7, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8900407Dec 13, 2011Dec 2, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Cellulosic and lignocellulosic structural materials and methods and systems for manufacturing such materials
US8900839Mar 13, 2013Dec 2, 2014Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US8980947Mar 31, 2014Mar 17, 2015Adhezion Biomedical, LlcCuring accelerator and method of making
US9018254Nov 22, 2013Apr 28, 2015Adhezion Biomedical, LlcCyanoacrylate tissue adhesives with desirable permeability and tensile strength
US9023628Sep 11, 2014May 5, 2015Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US9062413Jan 8, 2014Jun 23, 2015Xyleco, Inc.Functionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US9175443Apr 23, 2015Nov 3, 2015Xyleco, Inc.Functionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US9254133Feb 18, 2014Feb 9, 2016Adhezion Biomedical, LlcSterilized liquid compositions of cyanoacrylate monomer mixtures
US9309019May 20, 2011Apr 12, 2016Adhezion Biomedical, LlcLow dose gamma sterilization of liquid adhesives
US9347661Apr 2, 2015May 24, 2016Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US9421297Apr 2, 2014Aug 23, 2016Adhezion Biomedical, LlcSterilized compositions of cyanoacrylate monomers and naphthoquinone 2,3-oxides
US9422667Oct 21, 2015Aug 23, 2016Xyleco, Inc.Functionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US9439809Mar 16, 2011Sep 13, 20163M Innovative Properties CompanyMethod of sterilization of wound dressings
US9487915Nov 17, 2014Nov 8, 2016Xyleco, Inc.Cellulosic and lignocellulosic structural materials and methods and systems for manufacturing such materials
US20030031584 *Aug 10, 2001Feb 13, 2003Wilson BurgessMethods for sterilizing biological materials using dipeptide stabilizers
US20030095890 *Sep 24, 2001May 22, 2003Shirley MiekkaMethods for sterilizing biological materials containing non-aqueous solvents
US20030099743 *Oct 7, 2002May 29, 2003Brey Richard R.Method of inhibiting sprouting in plant products
US20030161753 *Jul 18, 2002Aug 28, 2003Macphee MartinMethods for sterilizing biological materials by multiple rates
US20030162163 *Mar 6, 2003Aug 28, 2003Clearant, Inc.Method of sterilizing heart valves
US20030164285 *Mar 4, 2002Sep 4, 2003Steris Inc.Mobile radiant energy sterilizer
US20030174810 *Mar 12, 2002Sep 18, 2003Steris Inc.Method and apparatus for destroying microbial contamination of mail
US20030185702 *Feb 1, 2002Oct 2, 2003Wilson BurgessMethods for sterilizing tissue
US20040013562 *Jul 18, 2002Jan 22, 2004Wilson BurgessMethods for sterilizing milk.
US20040033160 *Jul 18, 2002Feb 19, 2004Macphee MartinMethods for sterilizing biological materials by irradiation over a temperature gradient
US20040060811 *Sep 19, 2003Apr 1, 2004Tzvi AvneryAir sterilizing system
US20040067157 *Jun 10, 2003Apr 8, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials
US20040086420 *Jun 13, 2003May 6, 2004Macphee Martin J.Methods for sterilizing serum or plasma
US20040091388 *Oct 29, 2003May 13, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials by multiple rates
US20040101436 *Oct 29, 2003May 27, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing biological materials
US20040249135 *Oct 10, 2003Dec 9, 2004Teri GriebMethods for sterilizing preparations of monoclonal immunoglobulins
US20060076507 *May 4, 2005Apr 13, 2006Advanced Electron Beams, Inc.Air Sterilizing system
US20070145291 *Feb 7, 2007Jun 28, 2007Tzvi AvneryAir sterilizing system
US20080176306 *Aug 22, 2007Jul 24, 2008Macphee Martin JMethods for Sterilizing Biological Materials
US20090202039 *Nov 3, 2008Aug 13, 2009Shirley MiekkaMethods for Sterilizing Biological Materials Containing Non-Aqueous Solvents
US20100112242 *Apr 23, 2009May 6, 2010Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US20110027837 *Oct 13, 2010Feb 3, 2011Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US20110039317 *Oct 26, 2010Feb 17, 2011Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US20110067830 *Nov 30, 2010Mar 24, 2011Xyleco, IncFunctionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US20110124846 *Feb 1, 2011May 26, 2011Xyleco, IncCellulosic and lignocellulosic structural materials and methods and systems for manufacturing such materials
US20110139383 *Jan 19, 2011Jun 16, 2011Xyleco, IncFunctionalizing cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials
US20120074337 *Dec 2, 2011Mar 29, 2012Xyleco, IncCellulosic and lignocellulosic structural materials and methods and systems for manufacturing such materials
US20120237984 *Mar 30, 2012Sep 20, 2012Xyleco, Inc.Processing biomass
US20120309060 *Aug 20, 2012Dec 6, 2012Xyleco, Inc.Processing Biomass
WO2003075964A1 *Mar 3, 2003Sep 18, 2003Steris Inc.Portable radiant energy sterilizer
WO2003077957A1 *Mar 7, 2003Sep 25, 2003Steris Inc.Method and apparatus for destroying microbial contamination of mail and paper currency
WO2004009138A2 *Jul 18, 2003Jan 29, 2004Clearant, Inc.Methods for sterilizing milk
WO2004009138A3 *Jul 18, 2003Mar 11, 2004Clearant IncMethods for sterilizing milk
Classifications
U.S. Classification422/22, 426/240, 162/192
International ClassificationA01M1/00, A61L2/00, A01M1/22, A61L2/12, A23L3/32, A61L2/08, A23L3/26
Cooperative ClassificationA61L2/0011
European ClassificationA61L2/00P2