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Publication numberUS3780549 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 25, 1973
Filing dateSep 8, 1971
Priority dateSep 8, 1971
Publication numberUS 3780549 A, US 3780549A, US-A-3780549, US3780549 A, US3780549A
InventorsSchlage E
Original AssigneeSchlage Lock Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Binary multi-plane cylinder
US 3780549 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Schlage BINARY MULTl-PLANE CYLINDER [75] Inventor: Ernest L. Schlage, Burlingame,

Calif.

[73] Assignee: Schlage Lock Company, San

Francisco, Calif.

22 Filed: Sept. 8, 1971 21 Appl. No.: 178,561

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 913,942 3/1909 Bodge 70/364 A 3,500,670 3/1970 Hawkins 70/375 2,039,244 4/1936 Lowe 70/368 3,434,316 311969 Neary 70/371 3,485,068 12/1969 Bennett.... 70/360 3,286,773 11/1966 Russell 70/371 Primary ExaminerRobert L. Wolfe Att0rneyMarcus Lothrop et al.

[ Dec. 25, 1973 [5 7 ABSTRACT For use in a lockset having a rotary spindle there is provided a lock unit including a binary, multi-plane cylinder with a body defining a circular-cylindrical passage about a central axis and within which a tubular plug is rotatable about the axis. The plug is formed with a circular-cylindrical coaxial keyway within which a circular-cylindrical rod is disposed, leaving an annular space. There is at least one pair of radially aligned openings and holes in the body and in the plug with a tumbler radially movable within the opening and the hole toward the rod under spring pressure. The tumbler is displaceable away from the rod by a tubular, apertured key axially movable into the keyway and fitting over the rod, there being means for preventing relative rotation of the key and the plug. Preferably the body is disposed within a tubular shell having a rib fitting into a slot in the spindle. The shell carries means for preventing relative rotation and axial movement of the body with respect to the shell, such means being accessible from the exterior in at least one rotated position of the plug in the body and being inaccessible from the exterior in at least another rotated position of the plug with respect to the body.

11 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures mu 'm-H mw ww Wm a FATENTEU DEC 2 5 I975 SHEET 2 BF 4 PATENIEDUEMS m5 SHEET t 0F 4 FIE 1-6:

(YDGOOOOO G O 0 G 629C) 0 ---|ao 00006639 OOGGGOO FII3 J E'I EPA/E57" L. SCHLAGE lNl/ENTOE A TTOPNEHS BINARY MULTI-PLANE CYLINDER Locksets, for example of the sort often used in connection with swinging doors and door jambs, are usually key-controlled. One kind of keyed lockset is provided with tumblers arraned in various ways to prevent operation of the lockset except by appropriately configured keys. It is customary to provide a key having a serrated edge engageable with the various tumblers in the lock so that the tumbler position governs whether or not the lock can be actuated. The actuation is customarily a rotation of a lock part by means of rotation of the proper key. In many such devices the tumblers are arranged in an axial plane containing-the rotational axis of the key plug and are housed in an eccentric flag or wing projecting from the otherwise circularcylindrical body of the lock mechanism. It is often desired to house this lock unit in an environment which is generally symmetrical about an axis, and while the lock body is symmetrical the wing or flag is not. This presents numerous problems in assembling the lock unit into the lockset and holding it in position. The lock mechanism can be positioned in and extracted from the lockset either by having a relatively large knob neck through which the lock mechanism can be introduced and retracted from the rear,'or there can be some vdetachable mechanism on the rear of the knob, removal of which affords access to the lock unit. It is sometimes desirable to have the lock unit removable from the front of the lockset, but this is difficult to achieve in a simple, satisfactory, economical fashion.

It is therefore an object of the invention'to provide a lock unit which is generally symmetrical or so nearly so as to be accessible for assembly through the front of I the knob of the lock unit.

Another object of the invention is to provide a lock unit in which a large number of tumblers can be employed for inceasing the number of combinations available.

A further object of the invention is to provide a lock unit that is readily and economically manufactured in quantity.

A further object of the invention is to provide a lock unit which can replace lock units presently in service but which requires a form 'of key not usable with currently available lock units.

A further object of the invention is to provide a lock unit that can readily be combinated and keyed by present locksmiths, utilizing equipment they already now have or that is readily available to them.

A further object of the invention is to provide a lock unit which is not readily overcome by unauthorized persons without the proper key.

A further object of the invention is to provide a lock unit affording accurate combinations without particularly accurate workmanship.

A further object of the invention is to provide a lock key being shown in position for engagement with the lock unit;

FIG. 2 is a cross-section of the mechanism shown in FIG. 1, the plane of section being a vertical, axial plane, and some portions being broken away;

FIG. 3 is an exploded view showing certain portions of the lock unit in disassembled relationship;

FIG. 4 is a cross-section on a vertical, axial plane through a binary, multi-plane cylinder lock unit of the invention, certain portions being broken away to reduce the size of the figure'and other portions being broken away to disclose the interior construction, the planes of FIG. 4 being indicated by the lines 4-4 of FIG.

FIG. 5 isa cross-section, the planes of which are indicated by the lines 5-5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. '6 is a view comparable to FIG. 4 but showing a portion of a key assembled with the lock unit;

FIG. 7, in the lower portion, is a plan of the lock unit body, a portion of the rib being shown in horizontal cross-section and a portion of the plug flange being broken away, and in the upper portion is a crosssection on a horizontal axial plane showing the environment of the rod anchoring mechanism;

FIG. 8 is a view similar to FIG. 7 but with the plug flange rotated to afford access to the retaining pin;

FIG. 9-is a front elevation of the structure shown in the position of FIG. 7, a p ortion of the key bow being in I cross-section;

FIG. 10 is a view comparable to FIG. 9 but showing the key in rotated position to afford access to the body release pin;

FIG. I] is a fragmentary view generally in crosssection through the lock unit, the plane of section being indicated by the line llll of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a front elevation of a lock plug;

FIG. 13 is a side elevation of the lock plug, a portion of the flange being broken away and shown in crosssection on a vertical axial plane;

FIG. 14 is a frong elevation of a body forming part of the lock unit;

FIG. 15 is a side elevation of the lock body, a portion being broken away, in cross-section on a vertical axial plane;

FIG. 16 is a developed view indicating a pattern of radial holes in the lock plug;

FIG. 17 is a side elevation of one form of tumbler assembly with a retaining cap shown in axial crosssection; and

FIG. 18 is a view similar to FIG. 17 but similarly showing a different form of tumbler assembly.

In a representative installation, a lockset including the lock unit of the invention is mounted in a swinging door panel 6 having the customary bolt 7 movable into and out of engaging relationship with a strike mounted on a door jamp (not shown) in the usual way. The lockset includes a knob 8 for hand rotation about a central axis 9 to actuate the bolt 7. There is a reduced neck 11 forming part of the knob 8 and a trim ring or rose 12 for finish. The lockset customarily, and particularly in this case, includes a hollow or tubular spindle 13 of standard construction rotatable about the axis 9 in order to actuate the bolt 7 and has at least one end slot 14 (FIG. 3). The knob 8 is assembled over the projecting portion of the spindle 13 and is secured to the spindle by any suitable means. In the present instance, this involves a detent l6 permanently displaced into an opening 17 in the spindle, so that the knob can neither be moved axially with respect to the spindle nor rotated with respect thereto once assembly has been made. Other forms of interconnecting the knob and the spindle for similar operation are well known, so that the present disclosure is intended primarily as a representative structure.

Particularly pursuant to the present invention, l preferably dispose in the spindle l3 and coaxially therewith a lock unit for the usual function and including a shell 18 having a circular-cylindrical inside surface 19 concentric with the axis 9, as well as a circular-cylindrical exterior surface 21 likewise coaxial with the axis 9 and of a predetermined maximum radial or diametrical dimension.

Forming part of the shell 18 and slidably engageable within the walls of the spindle slot 14 is a rib 22 radially outstanding from the shell 18 but restricted in radial dimension not to exceed the outside dimension of the spindle 13. When the shell is axially slid into and assembled with the spindle, the rib 22 does not project materially therefrom. The rib, however, does interlock the shell and the spindle against relative rotation. Since the knob 8 is assembled with the spindle after the shell 18 has been positioned therein, a portion of the knob 8, as

shown in FIG. 2, precludes withdrawal of the shell after the knob and spindle assembly has been made.

Designed to'interfit with the shell 18 is a tubular body 23 (Flg. which is circular-cylindrical on its exterior Designed to operate within the body 23 and to rotate relative thereto about the axis 9 is a plug 27 having a circular-cylindrical exterior or outside surface designed to turn easily within the passage 24 and likewise having a circular-cylindrical keyway 28 formed therein coaxially with the axis 9. Piercing the tubular plug 27 are radial holes 29 arranged so that in one rotated and axially restrained position of the plug within the body the various holes are in radial alignment with the openings 26.

In order to maintain the plug in appropriate relationship with the body, the plug at one end has an outstanding flange 31 with an outside surface 32 accessible or visible on the outside of the lockset and of a diameter neatly to occupy the usual central opening 33 in the knob 8, the outside planar surface 32 corresponding generally with the adjacent outside surface of the knob. In addition, the plug 27 is axially restrained at its opposite end by a driver ring 36 easily fitting over a reduced hub 37 on the plug 27 and held in place against axial and rotary motion by a diametrical pin 38 (FIG. 4 and FIG. 7), so that rotation of the plug rotates the pin as well as the driver ring 36. This rotation is intended to I actuate the bolt 7 in the usual way.

a detent pin 42 lying in a scallop in the driver ring and urged outwardly by a socketed spring 43. Also held against rotation by the pin 42 is a closure cap 44 threaded onto the driver ring. Rotation is restrained by a projection 46 at the outer end of the detent pin 42, in certain positions of the ring engaging with a sealloped internal flange thereon. This arrangement is shown generally in Ernest L. Schlage U.S. Pat. No. 2,691,290.

With this means, rotation of the plug is accompanied by rotation of the driver bar 41, and the plug is simultaneously restrained against axial displacement when in assembled condition. However, when the pin 42 is momentarily depressed against the spring 43 and the collar 44 is unscrewed and removed, not only are the disc 39 and driver bar 41 removable, but the driver ring 36 is axially movable away from the hub 37 as soon as the cross pin 38 has been extracted. Since there is some discrepancy in dimension between the standard parts of the driver connection and the plug 27, a spacer ring 47 is interposed between the body 23 and the cap 44. Only sufficient axial clearances are allowed for appropriate rotation of the parts.

Particularly pursuant to the invention, the keyway 28 is partially occupied by a circular-cylindrical, hard or drillproof rod 48 arranged coaxially with the axis 9 to leave an annular space 49 intervening between the outside of the rod and the keyway 28. This is true for substantially the entire length of the body 23, but at one end the rod is mounted in a cantilevered fashion by an enlarged hub 51, making a fairly snug fit within the keyway and being held against rotation and against axial movement with respect to the plug 27 by the same cross pin 38 that holds the plug and the driver ring 36 in proper relationship.

Since the rod 48 extends a substantial axial distance from its cantilever mounting at one end, it is slightly flexible and can move laterally within the keyway 28. In addition, manufacturing tolerances do not necessarily require a tight press fit between the rod hub 51 and the keyway, so that there is still some possible lateral motion in the rod, noticeable at the outer end thereof, due to this cause also. For that reason and in order that the key can be appropriately centered when used, as will presently appear, the outward end of the rod 48 is provided with a centralizing means in the form of a tapered or conical surface 52.

Also pursuant to the invention and particularly designed to occupy one, some or all of the radial openings 26 and the radial holes 29, as weli as some of the annular space 49, are tumblers of two different principal sorts. As particularly shown at the left end of F I08. 4 and 6 and on the left side of FIG. 5, one form of tumbler S3 is in the main a circular-cylindrical member with a flat, chamfered outer end 54 and a hemispherical or domed inner end 56. The dimension of the tumbler 53 along its own individual axis is something greater than the radial thickness of the tubular plug 27 and is preferably of a length to extend in one position just beteen the outside surface of the plug 27 and the outisde surface of the rod .48. The tumbler is axially or slidably movable with considerable freedom within the walls of the adjacent radial hole 29 and is urged toward the rod 48 as a stop by a spring 57, one end of which abuts a dome-end short tumbler 58 having a small stem 59 disposed within the spring 57. Surrounding and holding the spring in place is a cup 61 preferably having a press fit with the opening 26.

In the position of the tumbler 53 shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, the meeting surface 54 of the tumbler and of the domed end of the short tumbler 58 and coincident with what is sometimes called a shear surface. In this instance the shear surface is a shear cylinder defined by the adjacent cylindrical surfaces of the outside of the plug 27 and of the inside passage 24 of the body 23. Since the rod 48 can be displaced laterally somewhat, the shear surfaces between the tumblers 53 and 58 when the lock unit is relaxed or when the key is out do not necessarily correspond with the shear cylinder.

The other form of tumbler is shown at the right-hand portion of FIGS. 4, 5 and 6. In this instance the tumbler 62 is in the form of a sphere or ball having a diameter no greater than the radial dimension of the annular portion of the plug 27, which is substantially the same as the diameter of the bore of the radial hole 29 and of the radial opening 26. The ball tumbler 62 is urged toward the rod by a similar spring 63 surrounding the stem 64 of a long tumbler 66 having a flat and chamfered end. The spring is retained by a cup 67 substantially the same as the cup 61 and similarly pressed into position in the body upon assembly. The meeting surfaces of the ball and the end of the tumbler 66 also form so-called shear" surfaces approximately coincident with the surfaces of the outside of the plug 27 and of the inside of the passage 24. This coincidence may not be exact when the lock unit is not being engaged for actuation, and it is this tolerance that is an especial advantage in the present structure.

Although a large number of openings 26 and aligned holes 29 are provided, they can be accommodated in this arrangement as shown by the development of FIG. 16, in which the various holes 29 are shown to be arranged in equally spaced intervals axially along the plug 27 and also to be equally spaced polarly or peripherally around the circumference of the plug 27, but also to be arranged in a helical pattern. Relatively large openings are afforded with substantial material between them for strength. With this arrangement, one or more of the openings 29 and holes 29 may be provided with tumblers of the two indicated sorts;

The first kind of tumbler, the tumbler 53, is effective to permit rotation of the plug 27 within the body 23 only when the tumbler 53 is in abutment with the rod 48. The second kind of tumbler 62 is effective to permit rotation of the plug 27 with respect to the body 23 only when the ball 62 is out of contact with the rod 48 and is substantially within the confines of the plug 27. That is, in the first instance in order for the plug and body to be relatively rotatable the tumbler 53 must be projected into the position shown in FIGS. 4 and 6, whereas the tumblers 62 and 66 must be in the position shown in FIG. 6. A large number of tumblers of various arrangement and kind can be installed in any one or more or all of the various openings and holes to afford a large number of permutations in permissible operating characteristics and impermissible operating characteristics. The tumblers thus afford either of two conditions, one permitting operation of the lock unit and the other inhibiting such operation, thus providing a binary system.

The spring pressures on the various tumblers are approximately equal, and some of the tumblers are opposite others, but some of the openings may not be filled.

' 6 Consequently, the side thrust on the rod 48 varies from installation to installation, so that there may be a resultant lateral pressure on the rod tending to deviate it from its true axial position. The centralizing means or the conical portion 52 is of sufficient extent so that the rod, even so, can be centralized for accurate operation.

To actuate the mechanism so far described, a key as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 6 is provided. The key includes a bow 71 having a tubular extension 72 of sufficient length to extend from the outer face of the flange 31 substantially to the hub 51. The tube can extend through the bow and have both ends open for cleaning. The exterior of the circular-cylindrical extension 72 makes a close but easy sliding fit within the inside surface 28 of the keyway in the plug. The interior of the key extension 72 makes a close but easy sliding fit with the outside of the rod 48. Since the extension 72 is substantially uniform in wall thickness, it tends to centralize the rod 48 accurately when the key is in home position. To assist the key in arriving at that position, it has an external, end taper 73 as well as a slight internal taper to mate with the cone 52. The extension 72 is fixed to the bow 71, so that rotation of the bow produces a similar rotation of the extension.

The key extension 72 at appropriate, predetermined intervals and locations is provided with a number of radial openings 76 designed to be radially and axially aligned with those active ones of the tumblers 53 requiring contact with the rod 48 to align the shear surfaces. The extension is particularly devoid of openings in the areas adjacent the tumblers 62 requiring radial displacement to align the shear surfaces in order for the plug to be rotatable in the body.

The openings 76 need not be exactly positioned radially and axially. Considerable tolerance is possible since the cut portions of the key have no function to align the shear surfaces, the rod 48 and the outside of the key extension doing that. Advantage is taken of that fact to make the openings 76 by means either of a relatively large drill or preferably by means of a countersink, so that the openings have substantially frustoconical walls 77, as particularly shown in FIG. 6. The openings simply permit the tumblers 53 to pass through. The key does not itself have cut surfaces to effect radial positioning of the tumblers 53 as in the customary pin tumbler lock. Rather, the tumblers 53 and 62 are accurately radially positioned by the rod and by the surface of the key extension 72.

When an improper key is in the lock unit, although it can be received, it will not properly accommodate or actuate some of the tumblers to the shear position or will leave tumblers in a non-shear position, so that no rotation of the plug in the body is possible. On the other hand, when a proper key is introduced, it does provide correct orientation of all of the tumblers 53 and 62 for relative rotation of the plug and of the body.

While the rotating force on the key bow 71 can be transmitted to the plug through an appropriate interenegagement of tumblers with the key extension 72, it is preferred to remove the actuating torque from such parts. For that reason, the flange 31 at an eccentric location carries an axial bore 78 with which a projecting pin 79 anchored in the key bow 71 is axially engageable. The pin 79 engages the bore .78 only when the key extension 72 is properly oriented with respect to the arrangement of the tumblers, so that the pin 79 has not only a torque transmitting function but also a polar orienting function. Further, the pin must be fully engaged in the bore for the extension to be axially in proper actuating position. Absent the pin 79, the key bow 71 and extension 72 can be readily rotated without transmitting sufficient torque to the key plug 27 for lock actuation.

The key can readily be introduced into and withdrawn from the keyway accompanied by easy introduction and withdral of the pin 79 from the bore 78. This is of some advantage in positioning the key when the lock unit is not particularly visible, since the key extension can be partially introduced into the keyway with the end of the pin 79 against the face of the flange 31, and the key bow can then be rotated with a slight inward pressure until the pin 79 meshes with and enters into the bore 78, following which, if the key is proper, the lock unit is actuated.

Since one of the main objects of the invention is to provide a lock unit that can easily be installed into and withdrawn from the front of the lockset, but only upon authorized and proper conditions, i provide in the body 23 a radial bore 81 which in the assembled position of the parts is in alignment with a similar bore 82 in the shell 18, passing particularly through the rib 22 thereof.

Movable within the aligned bores is a detent pin 83 having a conical lower end 84 designed to project, in

'one position of the pin, into an access passage generally designated 86. One axially extending portion 87 of the passage 86 is within the body-23 and is blocked against unauthorized access by drilling or the like by a hard pin 85 in the flange 31. A second portion 88 of the passage 86 is through the flange 31 in an offset location.

In fact, to take care of left-hand and right-hand actuation, there is often provided another, second portion 89 of the access bore through the flange 31 in an opposite offset location.

To urge the detent pin '83 into engaging position, there is afforded a spring rod 91 having a bent end 92 in a hole in the rib 22 and having its opposite end extending through a bore 93 in the pin 83. The spring is held in assembled position by staked portions 94 of the rib 22.

The second portions 88 and 89 of the access means are offset to one side or the other of the key bow 71 and of the passage 86 whenever the plug is in its normal, central position. in this way the openings 88 and 89 are blanked off or closed by the solid end surface of the body 23, except when the plug 27 and flange 31 are rotated so that the opening 88 or 89 is in axial alignment with the opening 87. This can occur only when the key 71 has been fully positionedand has been rotated to the right or to the left from its central position.

When the proper key has thus rotated the flange 31 to align the openings, then a stiff wire or a simialr straight tool can be introduced through the opening 88 or 89 and the passage 87 to cam against the conical bottom 84 of the detent pin 83 and lift that pin against the urgency of the spring 91. When the conical point 84 has been lifted far enough to align with a longitudinal, axial groove 96 extending throughout the body 23, the body is free. In the displaced position of the pin 83 and of the spring 91, their radial extent is still not substantially in excess of the outside diameter of the spindle 13, although if the knob 8 is hollow there is adequate space in this vicinity and even further radial pin and spring extension is not harmful. Should the knob closely conform to the outside dimension of the rib 22,

the pin 83 is made shorter so that there is no interference with its disengagement of the body 23.

With a wire or rod displacing the detent pin 83 and the key 71 still in position, there is no restraint upon axial removal of the body 23 and its content from the surrounding shell 18. In this fashion the lock unit is axially removable from the front of the lockset. Once the body is removed from the shell 18, the plug can be totated in the body to permit disengagement of the key and can be disassembled for service. It can then be serviced and restored or a new, perhaps differently arranged, lock unit can be assembled within the shell. To do this it is merely necessary to introduce either body, with or without a key, in an orientation having the groove 96 in polar alignment with the detent pin 83. The body is then moved axially inwardly with the detent pin 83 cammed outwardly by the bottom of the groove and with the groove walls following the raised pin as a guide and detent against rotation of the body about the axis 9. The body is thus held in correct polar orientation until the body 23 is in substantially assembled position. Thereupon the spring 91 urges the pin 83 to seat with the conical end 84 in the access passage 86. The seated pin holds the body and its contents against further axial movement in either direction and against rotation with regard to the shell. The unit is then available for usual operation.

While one pattern of radial holes 29 is shown especially in FIG. 16, that is only one example as various other patterns may be employed. The hole spacings both along the axis and around the axis need not be even or regular. The pattern need not be helical, al-

though for most uses of the lockset some axial offset or spacing is employed to prevent transfer of pins from one filled hole to another empty hole upon plug rotation. There are some instances, however, in which pin transfer is desired and in those cases the hole pattern can be arranged so that such transfer is readily accomplished.

What is claimed is:

1. A binary multi-plane cylinder for a lock unit comprising a body defining a circular-cylindrical passage having a central axis, means forming at least one radial opening in said body, a tubular plug rotatable in said passage and defining a circular-cylindrical coaxial keyway, a flange on one end of said plug overlying one end of said body, means forming at least one radial hole in said plug adapted in one position of said plug relative to said body to align with said radial opening, means on the other end of said plug overlying the other end of said body and including a driver ring, a circularcylindrical rod, means engaging said driver ring, said plug and said rod for holding the adjacent end of said rod coaxially within that end of said keyway, a tumbler movable within said opening and said hole, means for urging said tumbler toward said rod, and means disposed eccentrically in said flange for axially receiving a plug rotating means.

2. A device as in claim 1 including a plurality of said radial openings in said body arranged with their individual axes disposed in a helix with all of said individual axes intersecting said central axis.

3. A device as in claim 1 in which said tumbler is an integral body of an end-to-end radial dimension the same as the distance from said rod to the outside of said plug.

4. A device as in claim 1 in which said tumbler is an integral body of an end-to-end radial dimension the same as the distance from the inside of said plug to the outside of said plug.

5. A device as in claim 1 including a shell adapted to receive said body, and interrelated means on said body and said shell for guiding movement of said body in said shell in a direction having an axial component.

6. A device as in claim 5 in which said interrelated means includes a pin and includes means defining a groove adapted to receive and guide said pin.

7. A device as in claim 5 including means for releasably holding said body in said shell against axial motion relative thereto in which said holding means includes a pin movable into and out of holding position, and access means including a passageway having an axially extending first portion in said body and a second axially extending portion in said plug flange and extending from the exterior to said pin.

8. A device as in claim 1 in which the unheld end of said rod has lateral movement with respect to said plug, and means on said rod for centralizing said rod in said keyway upon insertion of a tubular key therein.

9. A device as in claim 1 in which said holding means is a pin engaging said driver ring and said plug and said rod.

10. A device as in claim 1 including a key having a tubular extension adapted to fit said plug and in which said key has a bow and means on said bow for engaging said receiving means on said flange.

11. A device as in claim 1 in which said lock includes a spindle having a circular-cylindrical outside surface of a predetermined diameter and said body is disposed within a shell having an axial rib having a dimension radially of said axis less than said predetermined diameter.

Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification70/358, 70/368, D08/338, 70/408, 70/417, 70/404
International ClassificationE05B27/00, E05B19/00, E05B27/06
Cooperative ClassificationE05B19/0047, E05B27/00
European ClassificationE05B27/00