|Publication number||US3781452 A|
|Publication date||Dec 25, 1973|
|Filing date||Jan 6, 1972|
|Priority date||Jan 6, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3781452 A, US 3781452A, US-A-3781452, US3781452 A, US3781452A|
|Original Assignee||A Vauclain|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (31), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Vauclain 1 Dec. 25, 1973 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR 3,015,979 1/1962 ASSEMBLING RECORDINGS or MUSICAL SCORES 3:604:299 9/1971  Inventor: Andre C. Vauclain, 20 Old Gulph 3,610, 97
Rd., Gladwyne, Pa. 19035 i Primary Examiner-Richard B. Wilkinson  Flled' 1972 Assistant Examiner-Stanley J. Witkowski  Appl. No.: 215,875 Attorney-HenryN. Paul, Jr. et al.
521 US. 01. s4/1.2s, 84/DIG. 29  v ABSTMCT 511 Im. c1. 01011 3/00 A muslcal recorded fmm  Field of Search 84/1.01l.03, 1.18, pitches and notes by first recording basic timing 84/128 DIG 29, 461, nals for the entire score on a first track of a multi- 179/1002 S, 1002 channel tape, and then recording separately the part of each instrument involved in the score, note by note,  References Cited on a separate track, and referenced in time to the UNITED STATES PATENTS basic timing signals. The different instrument recordings are combined, through a sequence of mixing 1( 532 1 51 212 8 operations, to provide a single track compilation of 2:586:664 2/1952 Knoblaugli.... :1: 84/1218 the Score 3,011,378 12/1961 Hurvitz 84/ 1.02 18 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures i HEAD 1 PLACEMENT FREQUENCY 62 1 CONTROL 63-11 80 ATTACK souAa'E LEGATO sEwa /uorz MAGNETEJ /65 hit 5 3 AMPLIFIER msc 0 (VOLUME) CLUTCH as g 66 L} 5- FlkTgRS 35359 59 MODPJLES l #415] INTEGER 67 J RECORD o1sc,eo
X x ERASE 70/ E TRACK E LOGIC 74 E J 5x3 L x LOGIC sxz I 4 03 B b 92 A COUNTER l C QsfiTER 47 M' 1T0 SPEAKER PATENTED UECZ 5 I925 SHEEY 1' UF 3 HEAD PLACEMENT FREQUENCY 62/ i CONTROL I I, ,/G3-A 8O ATTACK SQUARE 98 LEG/\TO wAvE GENERATOR H5 631 I06 SISO MAGNET 65 l3! LT 5 5 82 S1 TAPE 3 AMPLIFIER DISC 0 (VOLUME) 81b I INTEGER 1' 81a CAPSTAN F CLUTCH U LOGIC m 66 REMlEORW'O 58 5 v \HO MOTOR I 85 84 l I K 7 FIL I Rs r MIXER T INTEGER H2 67 1 E RECORD D|SC,6O l4| v X 73 L m I E E] x ERAsE 7O IOI TRACK I: LOGIC r 3x3 I ,-9O 7 X LOGIC Mk I sxz COUNTER VSUAL I I COUNTER GT0 SPEAKER PAIEHTEI] HEEZSIFIYS SHEET 2 0F 3 TO AMPLIFIER m G O L K C A R T O T 73 9 TO COUNTER TO VISUAL COUNTER TO X HEAD X PULSE GENERATOR INTEGER LOGIC TO INTEGER HEAD DRIVER INTEGER R T. S
TO X LOGIC METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ASSEMBLING RECORDINGS OF MUSICAL SCORES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention lies in the field of electronic music assemblers and, more particularly, a method and apparatus for assembling a recording of a musical score comprising a plurality of different musical instruments, the completed assembled recording being stored on a permanent form of electronic storage medium such as magnetic tape and adapted to be played by conventional electronic equipment as a complete score.
2. Description of the Prior Art The practical unavailability of orchestral performance to many serious contemporary composers has discouraged writing for the orchestra to an extent that the orchestral literature, if not dwindling away, is failing to express a reasonable measure of contemporary musical compositions. Indeed, for a variety of reasons the symphony orchestras are being relegated to the passive task of exhibiting old music, and are unable to fulfill contemporary needs. This is in part a reflection of contemporary music which involves extremely complex new works. In many instances, the complexity of new orchestral works is of such a degree that there simply is not sufficient rehearsal time to prepare them. Conductors are typically too busy or'simply unable to evaluate many new works directly from their scores without trying them out, and relatively few conductors or orchestrashave the luxury of being able to investigate new scores. Similarly, student composers are unable to complete their study of orchestration in its most important part, i.e., the hearing of their own scoring. Another factor inhibiting the performance of new works is, of course, economic. The expense of securing the services of a first class conductor and orchestra for a sufficient time to rehearse and/or record a work has become prohibitive in the absence of a well endowed commission. As is known, commissions satisfactory for the rehearsal and preparation of a new composition are extremely rare, and as a consequence the availability to the publie, or to students of music, of new compositions has become extremely limited.
In view of the above, there is a need in the music world for a means of synthesizing a playable recording of a written score containing a large number of instruments, or voices, by which means the entire score can be constructed, or built up, note by note on a programmable basis. It has long been known that electrical representations of the pitches of an instrument may be recorded, or generated initially, and thus the basic building blocks of such a synthesizer are available. However, the task of assembling stored pitches from orchestral instruments, as onto magnetic tape, so as to perform orchestral works directly from their scores, has not heretofore met with any success, primarily due to the formidable timing problems in coordinating the different voices. For example, it is not feasible to separately record the component instruments involved in the score, and to then mix them into a unitary composition, as there would .be no way to satisfactorily coordinate the different instruments. Indeed, such a procedure would involve the employment of all of the different personnel of the orchestra, and would be less efficient than combining them in a normal full orchestra.
The invention as disclosed herein provides a process and apparatus for coordinating any desired number of musical voices in time onto a single magnetic tape, or other recording medium. Because of the inordinate complexities involved in designing and operating apparatus to perform the recrodings of different instruments in parallel, this invention is designed to record each voice of a musical composition individually and in a time controlled fashion, such that they are adapted to be later assembled into the coordinated composition. The method and apparatus can be operated by a single person, without the need of any intermediate steps between the score and the synthesizing process of this invention. It has been estimated that the complete recordation, on a note by note basis, of a standard orchestral symphony score, using the method of this invention, takes approximately 40 to 50 hours of an operators time. Thisis to be compared in expense with the costs involved, if indeed they are available, of securing the services of a conductor and full orchestra for a sufficient time to rehearse and record such work. Indeed, even the time and expense involved in making orchestral parts from the score, which step is not necessary in the practice of this invention, would probablybe comparable to if not greater than that necessary to record the entire work in the manner described hereinbelow.
The invention of this application is designed to overcome the present limitations which severely inhibit the production of new orchestral scores. It not only allows composers to investigate and experiment with their works, and parepare tapes of them for distribution to conductors and other interested persons, but is designed to produce excellent performances suitable for public and/or home use. Because of the method and precision of time coordination involved, and the flexibility of controlling the many variables in a musical score, the performances of complex new works with the method and apparatus of this invention may in many instances actually be superior to those attainable with the usual limited rehearsal time, by even the best orchestras.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of this invention to provide a method and apparatus of assembling a musical score from stored representations of the pitches, or notes, of the musical instruments utilized in such score, and to do so in a manner entailing time coordination of the recorded note sequence of each respective instrument.
It is another object of this invention to provide apparatus for assembling a complete scored musical piece onto magnetic tape, such assembled musical piece being derived from stored representations of the various pitches of each of the instruments called for in such score, such apparatus being capable of assembling complex musical scores having a variety of tempos.
It is a further object of this invention to provide apparatus for electronically assembling a recording of a complete musical score, which apparatus is compatible with existing electronic components, which is relatively inexpensive, and which is operable to produce a musical score with considerably less time and expense than heretofore available with an orchestra] or electronic means. Indeed, this invention provides for the first time, so far as is known, a means for electronically generating a musical score involving a plurality of instruments which are precisely time coordinated.
It is a yet another object of this invention to provide a method for recording serially on magnetic tape the instrument part of a musical score, the successive notes of the instrument part being recorded in exact time relationship with each other and without overlap or sapcing, and without distortion due to transients.
It is a still further object of this invention to thus record a plurality of such instrument parts, and to combine such recorded parts onto one recording wherein the timings of all such parts are precisely synchronized.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a means and method for-recording on a permanent medium a complete orchestral work, the recording being derived from prior recorded separate pitches for each of the instruments utilized in the orchestral work, and with means for selecting the desired musical variables of each note such as attack and legato, pitch, duration, dynamics and timbre.
In accordance with the above, there is provided a method, and apparatus for performing same, for electronically producing and assembling, from stored representations of all of the various pitches of the many orchestral instruments utilized in such score, a complete recording of the orchestral work. The start to finish timing of the score is first recorded on a first track, or channel of a multi-track magnetic tape, which timing track provides basis for coordinating the subsequently recorded instrument parts. Each instrument part is recorded separately, note by note seriatum, by transferring successive note (pitch) signals from a source of recorded pitches as called for by the instrument part of the score, each note for each given instrument being recorded in precise time sequence under the control of the signals from the timing track, and under steady state recording conditions. Note duration pulses, referred to herein as X pulses, and derived from the basic timing pulses, are recorded on a separate X channel of the tape and are used to initiate and terminate the recording of each separate note. The entire part for each separate instrument is recorded on a respective tape track, each in exact time relationship to the other, and groups of such recorded instrument parts are successively mixed onto tape tracks until all of the instrument parts are recorded and all are mixed onto a combined final assembly of the recorded musical score.
. BR E DESCRI T 9F H INGS.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a preferred embodiment of the apparatus ofthis invention.
FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing one representation of the X logic circuitry of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing one representation of the integerlogic circuitry of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing a switching arrangement as used in the track logic apparatus of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED M MENT, 1
This invention in essence involves the recording of a large number of separate sound tracks, e.g., 20 to 40, and assembling of same onto one recording track, the one track assembly having all of the separate sound tracks both combined and synchronized in time. In basic outline, this is achieved by three primary steps:
a. Recording, preferably on a first track of a magnetic tape, a time sequence of integers, or basic timing signals, reflecting the timing and tempo of the entire musical score;
b. Recording, one at a time, each instrument (voice) of the orchestra on a separate track of the same tape, such recording being time controlled by the timing integer signals on the'integer track; and
c. Simultaneously mixing a plurality of recorded instrument tracks, all time synchronized by reference to the timing signals, to assemble such plurality of instruments on one completed tape track.
The sequence of the basic timing signals, or integer track, is based upon an evaluation of the timing of the entire score. The operator examines the score to be performed, and determines the smallest note value, in terms of time duration, found therein. An integer, or time duration, is then selected which is preferably equal to such smallest duration, but in no event any larger than such. Making reference to Table A below, suppose for example that the greatest note division to be found anywhere in the score was 10:1. By this it is meant that during a portion of the score, the note of largest duration lasts 2 times as long as the note of the smallest duration. For example, a whole note lasts twice as long as a half note, 4 times as long as a quarter note, 8 times as long as an eighth note, etc. Under these circumstances, the minimum number of integers required to represent the whole note would be 512, which is 2". If the score additionally contains triplets, quintuplets, etc., the integer should be small enough to express these groupings rationally. If there are groupings of notes'too complicated to achieve this conveniently, the integer need only be small enough so that rounding off is imperceptible. It is to be noted that in practice, the listener can discriminate only very. simple time ratios, and would not be likely to be able, for example, to discriminate between timing ratios of 10:1 and 11:1. As also illustrated in Table A, triplets and quintuplets can conveniently be grouped in terms of integers with only a small percentage variation in the du- TABLE A M wmwmn m mm mm Fraction of whole Integers per note:
One integer for smallest note 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Two integers for smallest note 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 Triplets Quintuplets ration of each note in the grouping. For example, for a timing system of 512 integers corresponding to a whole note, a sixteenth note by itself would encompass 32 integers. A- triplet having the duration of a sixteenth note would have to total 32 integers, and could be accomplished by a pair of l l integer notes and one integer note. Similarly, a quintuplettotaling in duration a single eighth note, which would embrace 64 integers, could be accomplished by combining four 13 integer notes and a l2 int eger note.
Having thus determined the basic timing unit, the
separate bars of the score are then marked serially with the number of integers, counting from the beginning of the score to the end. Following this, the tempi of the score, reflecting the speed or pace of the score, are fixed in conventional metronome markings, enclosing all-accelerandi and rallentandi within pairs of metronome marks.
Having thus analyzed the score and marked it with both integer count, from the beginning to the end of the score, and with tempi, or metronome markings, the next step is to record electrical signals on the integer track corresponding to such timing. This is suitably done with afrequency variable squarewave generator, operator controlled, and means for coupling the generated squarewaves, or integer signals, through to the integer track of a uniformly moving tape. The apparatus and exact procedure for performing this are set forth in greater detail below. It is sufficient for the understanding of the invention at this point to realize that an entire tape track, or integer track, is first recorded having basic timing pulses, or integers, which fix in exact precise time sequence from beginning to end each note in the entire score, as well as the tempo of the notes fro portion to portion throughout.
It is to be noted that by keeping count of the integers on the integer track, as by conventional electronic counter, the operator is able to determine exactly where the tape is in reference to the score at any time during the entire assembly operation, by comparing the counter readout with the integer marking on the score. The integertrack thus serves as the basic timing and tempo track, for coordinating the timing of all subsequent operations in assembling the entire recording.
ln carrying out step b as set forth above, there is utilized a storage device containing stored representations of all of the different pitches of each instrument to be recorded. For each respective instrument, which is to be recorded continuously on one of the tape tracks, the corresponding storage device is interfaced with the apparatus of this invention, so that the stored ptiches may be controllably picked up and recorded onto the record track. In the preferred embodiment of this invention, the instrument pitches are stored on magnetic discs. Suitably, the pitches of each instrument are recorded on concentric tracks in the disc, with means provided for positioning a pick-up head over the desired track, for picking up each note to be recorded. The attacks of all of the pitches are suitably in radial alignment on the disc, so that according to the score each note can be either attacked or recorded legato upon the control of the operator. In recording of a given instrument, or voice of the orchestra, each note is acquired by picking up an electrical representation of the desired pitch from the magnetic disc, and recording same ona separate tape track. By counting integers during the note recording period, the stored pitch, or
' time, recordation is ceased, while both tape and disc are allowed to travel beyond such point for a small distance, due to their own momentum. The tape is then reversed behind the noteending signal, or X signal, and the disc is retracted a similar distance behind its starting point. The tape and disc, clutched together operatively, are started again in a forward direction for recordation of the next note, such that both travel a suffcient distance to come up to full steady-state speed when the X signal triggers recording of the next note. The X signal thus activates the recording of the next note precisely at the end of the preceding one, and under steady state tape transport conditions, thus serving to eliminate any possibility of mechanical error in the tape transport system.
In the manner as described above, each voice of the entire instrument is recorded on a separate track of the tape. Since the recordation of each voice is time controlledfromthe integer track, the various voices are recorded in exact time synchronization one with another. in this manner, successive voices arerecorded until all the tracks on the tape which have been allocated for this purpose are filled, at which time the recorded voice tracks are mixed together and re-recorded on a given one of the tape tracks. As discussed in greater detail hereinbelow, a number of procedures are available for mixing and recording, some more efficient then others. It is noted at this time that even with as many as 40 or more different instruments to be recorded, the entire score can be assembled on one final track using only one multi-track tape. It is recognized that engineering problems come into play at this point, in terms of recording from recordings, premagnetization, etc., which problems are generally associated with the magnetic tape art. While the process of this invention is designed to make most efficient use of techniques of recording from one magnetic track to another, it is noted that the invention is not limited by such techniques.
Having thus discussed the general method of the invention, reference isnow made. to the drawings for a detailed examination of a preferred embodiment of the apparatus of this invention. Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a block diagram of the overall apparatus of the invention. A magnetic tape, suitably of 16 tracks, is transported by a capstan 52 in pressure relation with an adjustable pressure wheel 53, which when placed in position also engages a disc drive 54. The capstan in turn is driven by a motor 55, which can be clutched in either a reverse or forward direction, as indicated in the drawing. For this portion of the apparatus, a commercially available tape recorder may be used, having tape storage and pick-up means, and being adapted by including the wheel 53. The disc drive is mechanically connected to an electrically operated disc clutch 58 which when engaged, transports disc holder 59 and disc 60 placed thereon. Disc holder 59 is adapted with a return spring mechanism, not shown, such that when it is not coupled it is positioned at a precise starting point. Alternately, return servo means may be employed to return the disc holder to a starting position after it has been displaced and the disc clutch is not energized. Holder 59 also contains, near its outer periphery, a magnet 115 which subtends a small arc.
Disc 60 issuitably a commercially available magnetic disc, on which is recorded a plurality of concentric tracks, each track carrying a recording of a different pitch, or semitone ,of a given instrument. For convenience of storing and selecting, magnetic discs are generally superior in operating characteristics to tapes or drums for this application. However, it is understood that equivalent storage means may be employed within the scope of this invention.
The speed of rotation of the disc holder, and consequently the disc, is a function of the tape speed, as well as the radius of disc drive 54. For a recording made at 7% inches per second (IPS), and for a disc drive having a diameterof 12 inches, the speed of a 16 inch diameter disc at its circumference is about 10.0 IPS. Utilizing a 4 inch magnetic band on the disc extending inward from the outside edge, the center of the band travels at about 7.5 IPS, and the innermost portion at about 5.0 IPS. The pitches for eachinstrument are suitably arranged with the highest pitches toward the circumference, to take advantage of the higher IPS, with the lower pitches being recorded on the innermost grooves. For this example, the time of one revolution is about 5.0 seconds, limiting the length of the sustained sound less than seconds, quite sufficient for most notes or rests. It is appreciated that longer notes may be conveniently recorded by repeated legato recordings of the same pitch.
It is to be noted that the pitch recordings are made on the disc in accordance with known engineering principles. Thus tracks may be printed on both sides of the disc, using pick-up heads on respective sides, in which case the semitone recordings, or grooves, are suitably staggered from side to side, reducing print-through by printing the tracks on one side opposite spaces on the other. However, it is preferred to use only one side of the disc, with only one pair of pick-up heads. Similarly, different diameters of the disc, and different widths of the magnetic band may be employed, as desired for optimum results.
As referred to he'reinabove, each pitch recording commences at a beginning point, where the attack of the instrument pitch is found, the remainder of the groove presenting a'constant tone which is referred to as the legato. The attack of each pitch is suitably place on one radial of the disc, so that it may be conveniently found when desired. Suitable head placement means62 are used to place a disc pick-up head 63 on the groove corresponding to the desired pitch. The choice between attack and legato is made either by placement of the head along the track circumference, or alternately, by using a pair of pick-up heads, designated 63A for the attack head, and 63L for the legato head. The attack head is movable along a fixed radial line, so as to be set to pick up any of the tracks on the disc, but also so as to remain placed over the attack recording at the time of commencement of recording of the note onto the track. Similarly, the legato head is fixed at a given radial displaced from the attack radial, such that atcommencement of recording it picks up strictly a legato note.
The output of the pick up head is'connected through manually operated switch 65 to an amplifier 66, which can be adjusted to the desired volume for recording. Amplifier 66 may suitably be a component of the tape recording unit being used. The output from amplifier 66 is coupled to and through suitably chosen filters and modules which are adapted to control the timbre of the recorded note, or to otherwise synthesize the characteristics of the note, as discussed hereinbelow. The output of 67 is coupled to track logic circuitry 74, through switch 8X3, when it is in closed operative condition, and line 73. Track logic unit 74 contains a basic manual switching matrix, for switching the incoming signal on line 73 to one of a plurality of track record heads 75. Track logic unit 74 is thus simply a combination-of manual switches, connected so as to provide the functions hereinafter described. It is noted, of course, that unit 74 may be constructed with any desired degree of sophistication, e.g., solid state switching circuits with push button actuators.
FIG. 4 illustrates a specific manual switching matrix as used in track logic unit 74. Line73 is connected to an input terminal of a seven position switch 79, which switch has 7 output terminals (1-7). Each output terminal is connected through two switches to a respective head 75. Thus, in the illustration shown, switch 79 connects line 73 to output terminal 3, which is connected through closed switches 753B abd 753A to the third one of seven heads 75. In normal operation, when the mixer 84 is not being utilized, all of the switches 75lB-757B are closed, all of the switches 751A-757A are open, and selection of a specific head 75 is made simply at switch 79. 1
FIG. 4 also shows 7-inputs connecting to mixer 84 (at 140), which inputs are connected respectively to switches 75lA-757A. The seven outputs from the mixer are in turn connected respectively to switches 75lB-757B. In operation of the mixer, the A switches corresponding to heads 75 from which are to be derived inputs to the mixer are closed, and the B switches which connect to the head on which the mixed signals are to be recorded is also closed, all other A and B switches being open. Thus, if signals recorded on heads 751, 752, and 753 are to be recorded on head 757, switches 751A, 752A, 753A and 757B are closed, and
- the remaining A and B switches are open.
It is to be noted that track-logic unit 74 will have as many connections to respective recording head positions as there are recording tracks on the tape being used. Thus, in an application where six specific recording tracks are being used, logic unit 74 has six outputs connecting line 73 respectively through to six different record heads 75. The record heads 75 may be fixed in position to record the signals picked'up from disc 60 on given tracks of the passing tape 51, or they may be movable to different track positions. In any event, the communication path for recording of a note is from disc 60 through either head 63, thence through amplifier 66 and filters 67, and along conductive line 73 to a chosen record head 75, from which the signal is recorded on a track of tape 51. The conditions under which a signal is in fact picked up from disc 60 and recorded on the tape are controlled by other elements of the apparatus not yet described.
The basic timing signals or integers, which are recorded on an integer track of tape 51 through integer head 76, are generated by a squarewave generator which in turn is controlled by frequency control unit 81. The output from generator 80 is thus'a train of squarewaves, of such frequency and period as determined by the initial timing analysis of the score. Thus,
for example, if it is determined that the basic integer rate is l2 integers per whole note, the squarewave generator. is set to deliver 512 cycles corresponding to the time duration of a whole note. If, corresponding to the metronome marking, the whole note is timed at 1 second, the output of the squarewave generator is a pulse train at the rate of 5l2 l-lz. Frequency control unit 81, described in more detail hereinbelow, is used to set the output of the squarewave generator in accordance with the tempo as marked on the score, and is adapted to time-vary the tempo, or the rate in pulses per second, for those periods of the score where the tempo is changing with time.
In initial recording of the integers on tape 51, the output of the squarewave generator is transmitted through integer logic unit 82, and on line 118 to integer head 76.
Counter 92 is a conventional digital counter, switchably connected to output terminal 110 of unit 82. When notes are being recorded through one of the record heads 75, integers picked up from the tape are connected through closed switch SX2, to counter 92. Counter 92, for each individual note recorded, is set for a number of integers corresponding to the integer duration of the note, as has been marked on the score. When the recording of the note has taken place for such a predetermined number of integers, an output is produced at terminal b of counter 92, which is communicated to X logic circuitry 90, which simultaneously produces a pulse, designated an X signal, which is transmitted along line 101 to X head 77. The b output of counter 92 also is transmitted on line 102 to solenoid 106, causing S1 to switch and connect power supply 98 to terminal Slb, thereby de-energizing the motor forward clutch and clutch 58. Under these conditions, capstan 52 quickly slows down to a stop. Disc holder 59, no longer driven through disc drive 54, returns to its starting position under the influence ofits retracting spring, or suitable return servo means. A magnetically operated switch S4 is positioned adjacent disc holder 59, and in confronting registry therewith such that it is operated to a closed position when magnet 115 is opposite same. This occurs only when holder 59 has returned to its starting, or rest position. At this time, power is connected through S4 to the reverse clutch of motor 55. When motor 55 is clutched into reverse, tape 51 is reversed until the just recorded X signal is detected by head 77. This causes a signal to be sent from logic unit 90 to relay 112, thereby closing S5 and energizing clutch 58. The disc holder 59 is then clutched through to disc drive 54, and both the tape and the disc holder are reversed through a predetermined distance set by the angular width of magnet 115. When magnet 115 no longer operates 54, the reverse clutch is deenergized, and both capstan 52 and holder 59 are in position for a running start up prior to recording of the next note.
Still referring to FIG. 1, in the embodiment there shown there is a visual counter 94, connected to integer logic unit 82, which continuously counts the integers as each note is recorded. The visual counter is not reset after each note, such that it gives a running and continuous indication to the operator of exactly where he is with respect to the entire score, and with reference to the markings previously made on the score. In the preferred embodiment counter 94 receives inputs only when the tape is advancing. Alternately, a backward as well as forward counting counter may be employed, and connected directly to the signals from the integer head. Since, for a typical 30 minute score, that integer count comes to a final count of approximately 500,000, a six place digital counter is suitable for most applications.
Shown diagrammatically connected to track logic unit 74 is a mixer 84. The mixer to be used in the practice of this invention may be any suitable commercially available mixer, having specifications and characteristics commensurate with the rest of the apparatus being used. It is, of course, necessary that the mixer have as many inputs as there are signal sources in any given situation. For example, it must have as many inputs as there are tracks from tape 51 which are being mixed in any given operation. Accordingly, line 140 which diagrammatically shows a connection from track logic unit 74 to mixer 84, in fact represents a plurality of lines which are connected through to pick-up heads corresponding to each track. As discussed hereinbelow, it is preferably that corresponding to each record head 75, there be a pick-up head 75 (not shown) for the same track. While a single head can be used for both record and pick-up, better performance can be obtained by utilizing separate heads.
Each line going into the mixer is connected therein to a separate volume control and preamplifier, for driving and controlling the amplitude of the input signals. The mixer provides an output connected to line 141 which connects the combined signal back to track logic 74, from where it may be routed back to any one of the record heads 75. Suitably, mixer 84 contains an amplifier for boosting the combined signal, although the user may, by suitable connections, use amplifier 66 for this purpose.
In the following discussions referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, reference is made to the outputs of counter 92. Counter 92, as used in the illustrated embodiment, is a standard-type electronic counter which is adapted to be set to any count within its total capacity, and is further characterized by providing an output signal when its count total reaches the set count. Thus, when and only when the incoming integers reach the set amount, e.g., the integer count of a note, is a corresponding output signal produced. For purposes of illustration,the presence of such an output is referred to as a b signal, while the absence of such an output (indicating that the counter has not reached its set value) is referred to as 5. Thus, with reference to the logic circuits of FIGS. 2 and 3, a b signal is a positive voltage signal derived from the counter when it has reached its set count, and a b signal is a positive signal derived from the counter when it has not reached its set count.
Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown a block diagram of the components of an X logic unit suitable for use in this invention. A first AND circuit, designated AND 1 and given numeral 141, has input terminals connected to terminal Sla and to X head 77, and an output terminal connected through a relay coil SPR to ground. Coil SPR operates normally open switches SXl, SX2, and SX3. A second AND circuit, designated AND 2 and given numeral 142, has a pair of input terminals connected to plus voltage reference and b. The output of AND 2 is connected to one terminal of SXI, the other terminal of which is connected to the output of AND 1. SX2 connects terminal at the output of integer logic unit 82 with both counter 92 and visual counter 94. 8X3, when closed, connects amplifier 66 with track logic unit 74. A third AND circuit, designated AND 3 and given numeral 143, has a pair of input terminals connected to Slb and to X head 77 respectively, and an output connected to relay 112 and a first terminal of swtich SXS. The other terminal of switch SXS is connected to terminal Slb of switch S1. A Schmidt trigger 120 has its set terminal S connected to the source of signal b, and its reset terminal R connected to the source of b, and its output connected to an X pulse generator 121. The output of X pulse generator is connected through line 101 to the X head.
The X logic circuit provides the following operations: 1. When a note is to be recorded, and the tape is being advanced from its reverse position, the receipt of an X pulse from the X track signals the initiation of a recording of the note which is being picked up from the disc. This note is to be recorded until counter 92 reaches a presetnumber corresponding to the length of the note; 2. When the-counter reaches its preset position, a new X mark is to be generated and recorded on the X track, signifying the end of the note; and
3. When the tape movement is reversed, and the most recently recorded X signal is detected as the tape is reversed, the dis clutch is to be energized to carry the disc in the reverse direction along with the tape.
The X logic circuitry may also, through switching not shown, provide an erase signal, to be transmitted on line 126 to X erase head 78, for erasing the X signal marking the end point of the last recorded note at the time that recording of the next note is initiated. It is appreciated that this is an optional feature which may be highly desirable, but not necessary for operability of the invention.
In operation, at the commencement of recording a given note, switch S1 (FIG. 1) is manually placed in the forward positon, so that power is connected to 810. As the tape advances, and an X pulse is detected by head 77,.both inputs are present to AND 1, and relay SPR is energized. When SPR'is energized, normally open switch SX1 is closed. Since the counter is not at its set value, there is a high signal at the b output, and there is an output from AND 2 such that relay SPR is held closed, and remains closed until the counter produces a b output. Thus, switch SX3, activated by relay SPR, is switched to a closed position, coupling the outout of amplifier 66 to the track logic cirucit until counter 92 reaches its set position.
As soon as counter 92 reaches its set position, the b signal drops and consequently there is no output from AND 2, such that relay SPR is de-energized. Thus, as soon as the counter reaches its set position, switch SX3 is returned to its normally open condition, and no more information from the amplifier can be passed through to the recording heads.
It is to be noted that as long as SPR is energized, which constitutes the time period from the moment the X pulse is detected at the start of the note, to the moment when the counter. reaches its set position, switch SX2 (normally open) is closed, such that the integers from the integer logic circuit are transmitted directly through to the counter. Switch SX2 also returns to its normally open position when the counter reaches its set count. By this'means, the signal into the counter can also be used as an input to the visual counter. The visual counter thus is not reset after each note is recorded, and since it only receives the integers detected between X signals, or between the boundaries of successive notes, it does not have to be back-counted, but is a cumulative indication of the point of operation. Alternately, the visual counter may be back-counting as well as forward-counting, in which case it is always connected directly to the integer head, and receives integers at all times during the recording operation.
When the counter reaches its set position, a b signal is generated which is transmitted to the set terminal S of Schmidt trigger 120, causing an output which is cou pled to X pulse gernator 121. The X pulse generator 121 produces a single pulse signal which is transmitted on line 101 to X head 77. When the counter 92 is reset by the operator, the Schmidt trigger is also reset due to the 5 signal at terminal R.
The third function of the X logic circuit is to energize switch S5 when and only when the capstan is clutched into reverse movement, and an X signal is detected (indicating that the tape has returned to the end of the last recorded. note). When the disc holder has returned (under spring action) to its normal position, such that switch S4 is closed, then and only then is power delivered to the reverse clutch, thus causig the capstan, and thus the tape, to move in the reverse direction. When the X signal is detected as the tape is reversed (and power is connected to Slb), AND 3 produces an output, thereby energizing relay 112, thus closing switch S5. Relay 112 also operates normally open switch SSX, thereby holding relay 112 actuated as long as there is a signal at terminal Slb. During the time period that both switches S4 and S5 are closed, the capstan is driven in a reverse direction and disc clutch 58 is energized, such that the tape and disc holder are thus reversed synchronously. During this synchronous movement, the tape is reversed from the end point of the last recorded note, marked by an X pulse, and the disc holder is reversed from its initial, or normal rest position. This synchronous reversal continues until magnet 115 on disc holder 59 moves away from and no longer actuates switch S4, at which point the reverse motor clutch is de-energized and the motor is taken out of reverse, and the disc and tape (still clutched together) quickly come to a halt. Thus, both tape and disc are then in th proper position for recording of the next note.
Referring now to FIG. 3, there is shown a block diagram of integer logic circuit 82, suitable for use in this invention. An AND ch'cuit 133 has a pair of input terminals, connected to b and voltage respectively, and an output terminal connected to a first terminal of relay operated switch S11. The other terminal of S12 is connected through relay SIR to ground, and to X head 77 (through suitable amplification), Terminal 131, connected to squarewave generator 80, is connected through a normally open switch S12 to the input of an integer driver 135, which provides amplification. The output of driver 135 is connected to terminal 110, which in turn connects to the X logic circuitry. The input of driver 135 is connected through normally closed switch S13 to line 118 leading to the integer head 76. The output of integer driver 135 is connected through normally open switch S14 to both counter 92 and visual counter 94.
The integer logic circuitry is designed 'to perform the following functions:
1. Duringthe precise time limits of the recording of a note, accept integer signals from the integer head, amplify them through integer driver 135 and pass them through to the X logic circuit and thence to the counters; and
2. At the commencement of operation, when integers are being recorded on the integer track, transmit integer signals from the squarewave generator through to the integer head, for a predetermined time period as controlled by the setting of counter 92 and frequency control unit 81.
Under recording conditions, the integers on the integer track are picked up by integer head 76, and connected directly to the X logic circuit, suitably amplified. This is achieved by transmitting the integer signals through normaly closed switch SI3, through the integer driver, and straight through to the X logic circuit.
At the beginning of the entire operation, when it is desired to record integers on the integer track, the frequency of sq uarewave generator 80 is first adjusted, according to the metronome marking of the score. After having set the counter 92 to an appropriate predetermined position, corresponding to the total count of integers to be recorded, the tape is advanced until an X pulse is received (the method of recording the initial X pulse is set forth hereinbelow). The X pulse energizes relay SIR, and both plus voltage and h are connected to AND circuit 133, providing an output which continuously energizes relay SIR through switch S11 which had been closed by the X pulse. With relay SIR thus energized, normally open switch SI2 closes, normally closed switch S13 opens, and normally open switch S14 closes. Thus, there is a path from the squarewave generator, at terminal 131, through switch SI2, driver 135, and switch S14 to the integer head, such that the integer signals are amplified and transmitted on line 118 to the integer head, where they are recorded on the integer track of the tape. At the same time, the integer signals from the squarewave generator are connected directly to counter 92 and visual counter 94 through closed switch SX2-such that the integers are recorded until the counter reaches its preset position. When this happens, the signal is removed, SlR is de-energized, and no more integers go through to the integer head or counters.
it is to be noted that counter 92 need normally have only a to l2 bit capacity in order to accommodate note-by-note recording. if its capacity is no greater than this, it is not suitable for counting long durations of integers while they are being recorded on the integer track. Under these circumstances, the operator may manually switch a signal to the b terminal of AND gate 113, and monitor the integer count at visual counter 94. A manual switch (not shown) for bypassing the counter during such an operation may be added to the apparatus.
The frequency control circuit 81 produces an output signal which is coupled to and controls the operation of squarewave generator 80. The output from frequency control unit 81 is suitably a sine wave of the desired integer frequency, the sine wae signal triggering the squarewave generator in a well known manner. Such frequency controlled sine wave generators are well known in the art, and the details of same need not be set forth herein in order to enable one skilled in the art to practice this invention. In one illustrative embodiment, control 81 is comprised of an oscillator and a frequency modulator, the modulator either controlled from an external voltage signal or manually controlled, in order to set the frequency of the output. The circuit may also be employed as a tempo varying circuit, as for linearly varying the integer rate over a predetermined period, corresponding to a section of the score where the tempo changes. To do this, a ramp generator is employed to produce a linearly varying signal as a function of time, the output of which is coupled to the frequency modulator. As is well known in the art, a ramp generator may also be used to drive a straight line function generator, so as to simulate almost any variaton of tempo over a given time duration. Alternately. frequency control unit 81 may be manually controlled by the operator, with reference to the visual counter. it is noted that applicant claims no specific frequency control apparatus as such for use in setting the tempo, but the invention comprises employment of state of the art components to vary the frequency of generator 80, and thus the tempo of the recording as reflected in the frequency of th integers recorded on the integer track.
With reference to the apparatus described hereinabove, the complete methods steps for carrying out the operation of this invention can now be explained in detail. The three major steps are those of recording the integer track, recording individual instrument tracks on a note-by-note basis, and mixing the instrument tracks until one combined recording is obtained. These major steps will be discussed in sequence.
In preparation for recording the integer track, the operator first prepares the score as discussed previously. Thus, at this stage the operator has before him a prepared score showing an integer count from start to finish, the integer count for each separate bar, and the tempo for each bar or portion of the score. In preparation for recording the first portion of the integer track, it is necessary to have an X signal on the X track corresponding to the beginning point of the first note. This may be achieved in a number of different ways. One suitable way of recording the first X signal is seen by reference to the X logic circuitry of FIG. 2. It is seen that, each time the counter reaches its set position, a b signal is produced, which causes an X pulse to be produced by generator 121, and transmitted to the X record head 75. Accordingly, the operator first turns off counter 94 so that it doesnt record, turns down the output of amplifier 66 to zero (so that no notes are recorded), and sets counter 92 to a fairly low count. Then, switch S1 is thrown to cause tape and disc to move forward. When such low count is reached, an X pulse is produced on the X track, which signifies the start of the instrument part, corresponding to the start of the very first note. The tape and disc are then automatically returned to a point prior to the X pulse, in position for recording.
To initiate recording of the integer track, squarewave generator and frequency control unit 81 are turned on, with the frequency control being set correspondingly to the tempo, or metronome marking of the initial portion of the score. Counter 92, presuming that it has a sufficient capacity, is set for an integer count corresponding to the length of the score for which integers are to be recorded, and counter 94 is activated to receive inputs. If there is to be a change in tempo for such integer period, frequency control unit 81 is manually set to produce such change. With the tape in position at a starting point, motor 55 (already rotating) is clutched into forward movement to initiate advance of the tape and disc. When the X signal is detected, integer logic unit 82 provides that integers are recorded directly onto the integer track of tape 51, for a time period determined by the setting of counter 92. When counter 92 reaches its set position, a new X signal is recorded, no more integers are recorded, and the tape and disc holder are returned to a point prior to the last recorded integer, ready for the next group of integers to be programmed. The integers for the next portion of the score are programmed in the same manner, and the sequence of operations is repeated. By repeating in this manner for all portions of the score, when portions may have different tempos, the entire integer track is recorded'corresponding to the entire score.
It is quite likely that in many cases it will be desirable to record integer portions of such length that the disc holder'would otherwise be rotated through more than one complete revolution. To provide for this, the moving reset mechanism may be adaptedto reset itself to a zero position after each revolution. Alternately, the operator may disengage the disc clutch by manually opening switch S150, so that the clutch 58 is not energized. After the counter has stopped the capstan, switch. 150 is closed by the operator, whereupon the capstan is reversed, and both tape and disc are returned to a position behind 'the last X pulse. In yet another form, the entire integer information content from the score may be placed into a programmed digital computer, which computer operatively controls the tape transport system in recording of the integer digits. It is to be emphasized that the precise manner of recording the integer digits isnot critical, and it is knownthat there are many different methods which can be used for doing this. The essential feature of this invention is that a separate tape track is recorded which contains integer information reflecting the timing of the entire score.
With the integer track and the first X signal thus recorded, the operator is in position to record the first note. The proper disc, for the chosen instrument part, is selected and placed on the disc holder. A selection, at switch 65, is made with respect to the choice of attack or legato. Since this is the first note of the voice part, in this instance the selection would be that of attack. Next, the counter is programmed to receive a given number of integers, corresponding to the length of the first note to be recorded. The counter itself is reset to zero, ready to receive the first integer. At this point, the operator adjusts the necessary controls corresponding to the characteristics of the note to be played. The volume is adjusted by adjustments of the amplification through amplifier 66. The pitch, or the note on the scale for the corresponding instrument, is selected by positioning the pick-up head by placement unit 62. The timbre is adjusted by inserting filters and- /or modules (unit 67) in the circuit, to obtain effects such as mutes, harmonics, pizzicati and so forth, if such are called for by the score. The operator next chooses the tape track on which this particular instrument is to be first recorded, and makes the'proper switch selection in track logic unit 74, so that the pick-up from the disc 60 is routed through track logic unit 74 to the corresponding record head 75. With all such adjustments made, and with tape 51 in place and the motor switched on, the forward clutch is engaged by manually switching S1 to connect power source 98 to terminal Sla. This operation initiates the tape transport system, with the capstan rotating and driving both tape and disc together. The disc moves forward toward the attack point, while the tape moves forward synchronously toward the initial X point, both arriving at these respective points at the same time, and under steady state transport conditions. When the X signal is detected through X head 77 and X logic 90, at that precise moment the disc is positioned such that attack head 63A is in registry with the attack portion of the pitch track. The X logic circuitry causes switch 5X3 to close, gating the signal through from amplifier 66 and module unit 67 to track logic unit 75, and to the chosen record head. Simultaneously, the integer logic unit couples integer signals through to counter 92, as well as visual counter 94. The operator may connect a speaker, with suitable driver if necessary, to terminal 147, which is connected to the output of switch SX3, so that he can audibly monitor the note which is being recorded onto the tape.
At the end of the note, corresponding to the programmed number of integers, counter 92 produces a b output, which signal is channeled through the X logic unit to cause an X signal to be recorded through head 77. This X signal thus pinpoints the end of the note which has just been recorded. Simultaneously, X logic unit causes switch 8X3 to be opened, so that nothing more is recorded onto the tape. The b signal is also transmitted, via line 102, to relay 106, causing switching of switch S1 so that power is moved from the motor forward clutch and from the disc clutch. When this is done, the disc is disengaged from the tape drive, and commences to reverse to its rest position under the influence of its spring. The capstan slows down due to its own friction, so that the tape quickly stops. When the disc has returned to its normal position, such that magnet is operatively registered with switch S4, switch S4 is closed and the motor clutch is placed in reverse. As the tape reverses to the point where the X pulse is detected (going in the reverse direction) X logic unit 90 produces an output energizing relay 112 and closing switch S5, thereby engaging the dis clutch, such that both tape and clutch move together in the reverse direction. However, as soon as the disc moves off its zero point or rest point, by an angle such that magnet 115 no longer holds switch S4, the referse motor clutch is disengaged, and both tape and disc slow down and stop at a suitable position behind the X pulse, ready to start the next note. It is noted that the disc clutch remains engaged, such that both tape and disc are held in a re- I verse, or primed position, until the operator commences recording of the next note by throwing switch $1 from position Slb to Sla.
To record the next note, the above procedure is repeated, with variations according to what the score calls for. The method as outlined above thus provides that the disc be first returned to its starting point after each note, the tape then be returned to the end of the last note, and then additionally that both are synchronouslyreversed by a predetermined distance, to be primed for the next note. Thus, it is impossible for slippages in position on the disc or the tape to accumulate, as both are exactly positioned after each note has been recorded. In recording the next note, both tape and disc are brought up to full speed before recording so that steady state recording conditions are obtained.
Where rests are encountered, the same procedure is followed, except that the volume control of 66 is positioned so that no output signal is transported through to the tape. Thus, for the duration of the rest, there simply is no recording on the tape track.
It is to be noted that the score may call for a legato note longer than that which can be derived from the disc without running into the attack portion of the groove. Thus, for a disc rotating once every seconds, a legato note longer than about 5 seconds could not be recorded through thelegato head 63L without risking pick-up of some of the attack portion. In such a case, the operator may simply program such a note into separate portions of less than 5 seconds duration. Alternately, he may, by means not shown, switch between heads 63A and 63L, to avoid picking up the attack portion.
Following recordation of a given track, subsequent instruments, or voices, are recorded on other tracks of the tape. in the preferred embodiment of this invention, it is desirable to use a 16 track, 1 inch tape. in this arrangement, the integers may be recorded on track 1, the separate instruments on tracks 2 8, track 9 is used to the X signals and tracks 10-16 are used during the mixing operations. Thus, for this arrangement, the first seven instrument parts are recorded on tracks 2-8 respectively.
When all the tracks of the tape which have been allocated for recording of separate instruments have thus been filled, the operator proceeds to the step of mixing the instrumental parts and recording the combined, or mixed parts on a separate tape track. in this step, the tape is placed in the tape transport mechanism and set at the beginning of the recording of the piece. Track logic unit 74 is manually adjusted so that all of the tracks containing recordings which are to be mixed are connected through to mixer 84, and so that the combined signal returned from the mixer is coupled through to the appropriate record head. Additionally, at this time, the operator may make any required adjustments of the volume level of the preamplifiers in th mixer, if it is desired to record the different channels at different relative volumes. If desired, the output from the mixer may also be connected, through a line not shown, to a speaker, so that the operator may monitor the combined recording and make additional volume changes as desired.
As mentioned previously, an orchestra] score is frequently written for 40 or more different instruments. Accordingly, the complete operation of this invention necessarily encompasses a plurality of mixing operations, in each of which a subplurality of recorded instrument tracks are mixed and recorded on a new track, this process being repeated until all instrument parts have been recorded. The various recordings of mixed parts are themselves then mixed and recorded, until all instrument parts are combined and recorded on one track. As is appreciated by those familiar with the tape recording art, there are many different ways in which this mixing procedure may be carried out. However, as is also appreciated by those familiar with the art, engineering considerations dictate certain procedures as being more favorable than others. Thus, as the number of times that any given instrumental part is copied from a prior copy, or recording, is increased, the signal to noise ratio of the resulting recording decreases, because of the premagnitization ordinarily used in recording heads to raise the signal over the signal level threshold necessary to print on the tape. Similarly, the greater the number of different tracks per tape, the greater will be the number of recording and playback heads required. These and similar problems inherent in tape recording mechanisms must be considered by the operator in utilizing the apparatus of this invention. For purposes of illustration, several examples are set forth below showing arrangements for se quential mixing to achieve a final recording of all instrument tracks combined on one track. It is, of course, understood that these examples are illustrative, and not limiting on the scope of this invention.
Example 1 A 1 inch wide tape, having 16 tracks, is utilized. in this arrangement, track 1 may be the integer track, tracks 2-8 are record tracks, for recording from the discs, track 9 is the X track, and tracks 10-16 are for carrying groups of combined instrumental parts generated through the mixer. The mixer thus has at least seven inputs, to accommodate the seven record tracks. For this arrangement, the tape unit suitably has a total of 9 heads, as follows: a block of eight heads, which can be positioned in registry with tracks l-8 or 9-15; a single movable head, positioned at track 9 for X pulses, or any one of tracks l0l6 for recording mixed signals. The sequence for recording instrumental parts and mixing into groups, and repeating until all the parts are combined onto one track, is as summarized below:
TABLE 1 tracks track X connected connected number of track to mixer to mixer combined input output instruments 9 28 16 7 9 2-8 15 7 9 2-8 l4 7 9 2-8 l3 7 9 2-8 l2 7 9 2-8 l l 7 9 2-8 10 7 10-16 8 49 From above, it is seen that instrument parts are recorded in groups of seven, on tracks 2-8, and then mixed and re-recorded on respective tracks lO-l6. At this point, up to 49 separate instrument parts have been recorded, and combined voices. In the next step, the recordings on tracks lO-l6 are all connected to the mixer, and re-recorded on track 8. By this technique, up to 49 separate voices are combined, with each voice being recorded only 3 times, such that each only undergoes two copies, exclusive of taking the copy of the initial notes from the disc. The procedure also has the advantage that only a single tape is used, all channels being precisely positioned in time relation with respect to the integer track, such that there is minimal possibility of any given instrument being out of time synchronization. However, it is noted that one drawback of this particular arrangement is that after tracks 2-8 have been recorded, they are combined, and no single instrument track is thereafter available. This could be undesirable in the event that, after monitoring the tinished recording, the operator were to conclude that any one or more of the separate instruments should be rerecorded, in whole or in part. Under this arrangement, it is seen that after the final track is produced, only six of the separate instrumental parts are still available by themselves, such that if any one of the other 43 had to 19. be done over again, it would be necessary to re-record all seven instrument parts of the corresponding group.
Example 2 In this arrangement, one-half inch tape is used, having eight tracks, with eight record-pick up heads fixed in place and connected to track logic unit 74. Track 1 is used as the integer track, and track 8 is used as the X track. The recording sequence is as follows:
TABLE 2 tracks connected This arrangement limits the number of instruments to 28, and involves five copies from copies in getting to the final recordingjThe individual instrument tracks are not preserved.
Example 3 This arrangement is a modification of that of Example 2, designed to preserve the individual instrument tracks. A second tape deck is employed, also using onehalf inch, eight track tape. At the time of each mixing operation on the first tape, a duplicate tape is run off on the second deck, including all the information thereon: all the instrumental tracks, individual and mixed, the integer track, and the X track, so that the first X would be preserved in position. These secondary tapes from the second deck are numbered and put aside, so that all individual tracks are preserved. Then if a correction in an individual instruments balance, or
an error of any kind needs'correction, the track to be corrected is available.
There has thus been described a preferred embodiment of the method and apparatus of this invention. However, as is readily recognized, the means for carrying out the steps as outlined above may be engineered in many different fashions, all within the scope of this invention. Thus, partly for purposes of illustration, all of the logic switches shown in the drawings are indicated as relay-actuated switches. In practice, it is desirable that these logic circuits be completely solid state designed. Such design not only results in a more economical product and more efficient operation, but allow much quicker switching, which is essential to the apparatus of this invention. For example, where an integer rate of approximately 1,000 Hz is being used, the switching time of the switches employed in this invention must be less than 1 millisecond. While this may be achieved with relay actuated switches, much more precise switching, with substantially reduced switching times, may be obtained by solid state circuitry. It is thus clear that solid state and other equivalent designs of the circuitry shown in the drawings may be employed in the practice of this invention.
In a similar manner, an alternate embodiment may eliminate the use of the X track, and employ in its place a back-counting register connected to the integer logic unit. In this embodiment, after a note has been recorded and the tape and disc have overrun and come to a stop, and the disc has returned to its initial position, the tape is transported backward to the end point of the last recorded note, which end point is detected by the back-counting register. At this point, as in the preferred embodiment illustrated above, tape and disc are clutched in synchronous reverse transport, and are reversed a predetermined distance. When recording of the next note is initiated, tape and disc proceed forward together to the end point of the last note, at which point logic circuitry cooperating with the back-counting register produces an appropriate signal to commence recording of the next note. It is thus to be appreciated that different means maybe engineered to perform the function of synchronously displacing both disc and tape a predetermined distance back of the end of the last recorded note, so that both may be synchronously be brought up to full speed in a forward direction, for steady state and non-transient recording of the next note.
It is further appreciated that where stereo, or higher multiple channel recording of an orchestral piece is desired, it may be accomplished by use of the method and apparatus of this invention, by repeating the recording step with different volume levels for the different channels of each instrumental part.
In the practice of this invent-ion, the basic building blocks are the separate discs, containing recordings of the pitches of individual orchestral instruments. There is, of course, no limit to the number of different instruments, or musical voices, which may be employed. A user of the apparatus of this invention may in fact record his own discs, by coupling a microphone pick-up of an instrument through amplifier 66 to a record head in connection with disc 60. Similarly, electronically generated pitches, e.g., from electric organ, may be coupled into a disc record head, for recording of any type of electronically synthesized pitches. Further, it is recognized that, within the scope of this invention, the user may replace the disc storage with a synthesizer, such as a computer-controlled synthesizer, and generate the signals note-by-note instead of picking up stored notes from a storage medium.
What is claimed is:
l. A method for assembling a recording of an instrument part of a musical score from stored recordings of individual pitches corresponding to notes of said instrument, comprising:
a. recording in a first storage location timing signals which represent the timing and tempo of said score;
b. recording, in a second storage location, respective individual pitches from said stored recordings of individual pitches, said recorded pitches in said second storage location representing successive notes of said instrument part;
c. controlling the timing and duration of each said successive recorded note by said timing signals.
2. A method for assembling a recording of an instrument part of a musical score, comprising:
a. recording timing signals which represent the timing and tempo of said score;
b. deriving, from said recorded timing signals, control signals for controlling the time of recording of a first note of said instrument part, and recording said note under control of said derived signals;
c. successively deriving from said timing signals control signals corresponding to successive notes and rests of said part, and successively recording said notes and rests under control of said successively derived control signals, so as to record the entire part with each note and rest contained therein recorded in timed relationship according to the timing and tempo of said score.
3. The method as described in claim 2, wherein said score contains a plurality of instrument parts, and comprising the additional steps of separately recording each of said parts according to the method of claime 2, said separate recordings being maintained in time synchronization, mixing said recorded parts, and recording said mixed parts to obtain an assembled recording of said score.
4. The method as described in claim 2, comprising recording said timing signals on a first track of a tape, and recording said instrument part on a separate track of said tape.
5. The method as described in claim 3, comprising recording said timing signals on a first track of a tape, and recording each of said instrument parts on another track of the same tape.
6. The method as described in claim 5, wherein a first group of recorded parts is mixed and recorded, successive groups of parts are mixed and recorded, and the recorded mixed groups are mixed and recorded to obtain an assembled recording of all the parts of said score. 1
7. The method as described in claim 2 wherein each said note is separately stored on a storage medium, and said part notes are recorded on a recording medium, and wherein the step of recording a given note comprises synchronously moving said storage medium and said recording medium to a steady state speed and, while said speed is maintained, picking up said note from said storage medium and recording it on said recording medium.
8. The method as described in claim 7 wherein the steps of recording a given rest comprises synchronously moving said storage medium and said recording medium to a steady state speed and, while said speed is maintained, recording nothing on said recording medium, and each such recorded note and rest is controlled to commence at the end of the prior recorded note or rest.
9. A method for assembling a recording of a musical score having a plurality of instrumental parts, comprising:
a. recording, on a first track of a recording medium,
a continuous series of timing signals representing the timing of said score, said signals varying in frequency corresponding to tempo variations of said score;
b. for a first instrument part of said score, deriving electrical signals representing the first note of said first part, and recording same on a second track of said recording medium, commencing with a first of said timing signals and terminating after a first count of said timing signals, said count corresponding to the time duration of said first note;
c. deriving electrical signals representing the second note of said first part, and recording same on said second track, commencing with the termination point of said first note and terminating after a second count of said timing signals corresponding to the time duration of said second note;
d. successively deriving and recording separate electrical representations of all notes and rests of said part on said second track, each such note and rest being recorded in the like manner as said second note to obtain a recording of said first part;
e. successively recording, on separate tracks, electrical representations of each of said plurality of parts, each part being recorded in a like manner as said first part and in time synchronization therewith; and
f. mixing said part recordings to obtain the assembled recording of the score.
10. The method as described in claim 9 wherein for the recording of each note, said recording medium is brought up to steady state forward speed prior to commencement of recording, is maintained at steady state speed during recording, and after such recording is terminated is stopped and reversed to a point behind the termination point, at which point it is in position to be brought up to steady state forward speed for recording of the next note.
11. The method as described in claim 10 wherein said electrical representations of said notes and rests are derived from a signal source, and wherein said signal source is maintained at steady state speed synchronously with said recording medium during said recording.
12. A method of assembling a recording of an instru ment part of a musical score, wherein each note and rest is separately recorded in proper time position as set forth in said score, the steps for recording said each note and rest comprising:
a. positioning a recording medium on which said recording is made to a position reverse of the starting point for recording the note;
b. positioning a storage medium carrying a stored signal representation of said note to a position reverse of the starting point for picking up said stored signal;
c. synchronously advancing said recording medium and said storage medium to a steady state speed;
d. generating a start signal at the moment said recording medium is passing the point where the recording of said note is to start;
e. picking up said stored note signal and, in response to said start signal, starting recording of said note signal on said recording medium at said start point;
f. recording said note signal on said recording medium while maintaining said synchronous steady state speed;
g. generating a stop signal at the moment said recording medium is passing the point where the record ing of said note is to stop;
h. stopping recording of said note at said stop point in response to said stop signal; and
i. after said recording is stopped, returning said storage medium and recording medium to positions reverse of their respective starting points for the recording of the next note. g
13. Apparatus for assembling a recording of an 5 instrument part of a musical score, comprising:
a. first storage means for storing recordings of individual pitches corresponding to notes of said instrument;
b. second storage means for storing timing signals which represent the timing and tempo of said score; 4
c. recording means for recording successive notes as set forth in said instrument part, said successive recorded notes being derived from said individual pitches stored in said first storage means; and
d. control means for controlling the timing an duration of each said successive recorded note y id. im n sisnals 14. Apparatus for assembling a recording of a musical score which has a plurality of instrument parts, which apparatus is adapted to be operated so that each note and rest of each instrument part of said score may be recorded separately and corresponding to the timing and tempo of said score, and so that said instrument parts may be recorded note by note and said recorded parts mixed to obtain the assembled recording, comprising: V H
a. storage means for storing recordings of individual pitches corresponding to notes of each instrument found in said score;
b. pick up means adapted to be positioned to pick up signals from said storage means representing pitches of respective notes;
0. recording means, including a recording medium,
and having a plurality of recording heads for recording said signals, said heads being adapted to record different instrument parts on respective different tracks of said recording medium;
(1. a transmission path for transmitting said pitch signals from said pick up means to said recording means;
e. drive means for driving said storage means and said recording means together;
timing signal generator means, for generating timing signals representing the timing of each note and rest as set forth in said score;
g. control means responsive to said timing signals, for controlling transmission of said pitch signals from said pick up means to said recording means so that each note and rest is recorded for the precise duration and in the precise time relationship to the other notes as set forth in the score; and
h. mixer means, connected to said recording means,
for mixing recordings of said different parts.
15. In a system for assembling a recording of a musical score, apparatus for recording successive notes of an instrument part of said score, adapted to record each note in the time relation to prior and subsequent notes of such part as called for in said score, comprising:
a. recording means for recording signals constituting said part;
b. drive means engagable with said recording means,
for driving same;
c. source means, for providing asource of signals representing the pitches of said notes;
d. coupling means, operative to couple said source means and said driving means so as to drive said recording means and said source means synchronously;
e. signal transmission means, for controllably transmitting said pitch signals from said source means to said recording means;
f. timing signal means for generating timing signals which represent the timing and tempo of said score; and i g. logic means, to receive said timing signals and to control said transmission means such that transmission of said pitch signals is limited to predetermined time periods when said recording means and said source means are being driven synchronously, and such that said pitch signals which are recorded by said recording means for said predetermined time periods constitute said notes, said notes being recorded in said time relation as called for in said score.
16. The apparatus as described in claim 15, wherein:
a. said recording means comprises a magnetic tape;
b. said source means is a magnetic disc having recorded separately thereon different pitches corresponding tothe notes of said part, and has a moveable source head for picking up a selected pitch corresponding to the note to be recorded;
c. said tape contains recordings of timing signals, and said timing signal means comprises a timing head for picking up said signals when said tape is being driven;
d. said logic means comprises a counter adapted to receive'said timing signals from said timing head and to count same, which counter is adapted to be pre-set to a count of said timing signals corresponding to the length of a note to be recorded, said counter being further adapted to provide a control signal for stopping said transmission when said count is reached.
17. The apparatus as described in claim 16, wherein said magnetic tape has a plurality of tracks and said recording means comprises a plurality of record heads so that a plurality of instrument parts can be recorded on said tape, each on a different track, and comprising a mixer operatively connected to said recording means for combining said plurality of recorded parts and recording said combined parts on a track of said tape.
18. The apparatus as described in claim 16 wherein is added means for reversing said tape behind the end point of the last recorded note and for reversing said disc behind the point where said pick up head picks up the desired signal corresponding to the start of the next note to be recorded, so that when said tape and disc are driven forward synchronously they are both advancing at a steady state speed when said next note is recorded on said tape.
FORM PO-IOSO (IO-69) UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No- ,7 ,452 Dated December 25, 1973 Inventor) Andre C. Vauclain It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said'Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
2, line 31, change --parepare to -prepare.
3, line 5, change sapcto spac- Column 3, line 27, after "provides", insert a-.
7', line 47, change place-- to -placed-.
Column 8, line 24, change -abd-- to --and-.
Column 10, line 12, after "used.", insert For example, the
Sony MX-l2 stereo/mono mixer or the Switchcraft Model 308TR Studio Mixmaster may be used in the practice of this i'nvention.---. v
Column 10, line 21,, change --preferabl to preferable-.
Column 10, line 52, bshould be --b-.
Column 11, line 26, dis-- should be -disc.
Column 12, line 13, after "pulse", change gernator-- to -ge'n'erator-.
Column 12, line 25, change causigto -causing.
Column 12, line 46, change -thto -the-.
Column 12, line 53, change -SI2 to -SIl--.
Column 16, line 43, disshould be -disc--.
Column 17, line 41, change -th to --the-. Column 23, line 9, change -anto -and-.
Signed and sealed this 6th day of August 1974.
McCOY M. GIBSON, JR. C. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 u s, covzwmnzm PRINTING OFFIC use o-ase-na UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,78 Dated December 25, 1973 Inventor(g) Andre C. Vauclain It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column line 31, change parepare to prepare.
Column 3, line 5, change -sapcto spac- Column 3, line 27, after "provides", insert -a--. Column 7, line 47, change placeto --placed-.
Column 8, line 24, change --abd to --and.
Column 10, line 12, after "used.", insert For example, the
Sony MX-l2 stereo/mono mixer or the Switchcraft Model 308TR Studio Mixmaster may be used in the practice of this i'nvention.-.
Column 10, line 21,, change -preferabl to --preferable Column 10, line 52, -bshould be -b-.
Column 11, line 26, -dis should be --disc.
Column 12, line 13, after "pulse", change gern,atorto -generator-.
Column 12, line 25, change --causigto -causing-.
Column 12, line 46, change -th-- to the-.
Column 12, line 53, change -SI2 to -SIl- Column 16, line 43, dis should be disc--.
Column 17, line 41, change --th-- to -the- Column 23, line 9, change anto --and-.
Signed and sealed this 6th day of August 1974.
McCOY M- GIBSON, JR. C. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents "ORM PO-105O (10-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-F'69 9 U 5. GOVERNMENT HUNTING OFFICE I969 D 369334
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|U.S. Classification||84/609, 984/360, 84/649, 84/642, 84/DIG.290|
|Cooperative Classification||G10H3/09, Y10S84/29|