US 3781993 A
A light wire pliers particularly for use by orthodontists is particularly disposed for the making of very small helical loops as well as vertical loops in light tempered wire such as is used by orthodontists. Inserted hardened high speed steel facing portions are fixed, as by soldering, to stainless steel jaw members of the pliers so as to face the jaws so that those extremely small size jaw ends may be used to form the wire without bending, deformation, wear or breaking of these jaw portions.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 91 Cusato Jan. 1, 1974 1 LIGHT WIRE PLlERS FOR ORTHODONTISTS [751 lnventor: Anthony .1. Cusato, Clostcr, NJ.
 Assignee: Henry Mann, lnc., Feasterville, Pa.
 Filed: June 15, 1972  Appl. No.: 263,010
 US. Cl. 32/66  Int. Cl. A6 lc 7/00  Field of Search 32/66, 67, 46, 49, 32/61, 62
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,138,726 11/1938 Cartwright 32/67 OTHER PUBLICATIONS A. .1. of 0., Vol. 49, No. 12, Dec. 1963, Page 25 Pin and Ligature Plier.
Primary Examiner-Robert Peshock Attorney-Ralph R. Roberts  ABSTRACT A light wire pliers particularly for use by orthodontists is particularly disposed for the making of very small helical loops as well as vertical loops in light tempered wire such as is used by blthOdOllllStS. Inserted hardened high speed steel facing portions are fixed, as by soldering, to stainless steel jaw members of the pliers so as to face the jaws so that those extremely small size jaw ends may be used to form the wire without bending, deformation, wear or breaking of these jaw portions.
2 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures LIGHT WIRE PLIERS FOR ORTHODONTISTS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention With reference to. the classification of art as established in the United States Patent Office the pliers of this invention pertain. to a plier-type tool specifically useful in the field of orthodontics and dentistry. Art pertaining; to this tool is found in the general class of Dentistry and in the particular subclass of instruments. A further pertinent subclass entitled, orthondontic is to be noted.
2. Description of the Prior Art In the field of dentistry and particularly in the orthodontic portion thereof, the straightening of childrens teeth and the making of other restorations usually include the use of one or more metalbands and light wire tensioning means. The wire used is usually a tempered wire which is bent to form open and closed loops and arches permitting adjustment of the tension. This bent or formed wire is attached to clips previously mounted upon the bands on the teeth so that the orthodontist is able to adjust the tension employed to. move the teeth to the desired alignment. Pliers for forming this tempered wire to desired configurations are, of course, well known. The longevity of these tools, however,.because of the severe strain and concentrated load placed upon them by the bending, of this tempered wire is not as great as is desired. In addition, with the new technique and the improvements in the holding means it has become an advantage to make smaller helical loops and arches commonly called" vertical loops. In accordance with this advantage the pliers of this invention: are made to have a long and useful life without the wear, deformation or breaking of the jaws usually resulting from the extreme heavy pressure used for bending the tempered wire.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention may be summarized at least in part with reference to its objects.
It is an object of this invention to provide, and it does provide, a plier-type hand tool for orthodontists and the like in which the jaws are complementarily formed to provide very small distal ended needle-type pliers. These pliers have the facing and end material of the jaws made of hardened high-speed tool steel to prevent wear, bending and distortion during thev forming of tempered light wire.
It is a further object of this invention toprovide, and it does provide, a light wire pliers for forming helical and vertical loops in which the distal or tip end of the jaws are made with approximately a twenty-fivethousandths diameter or substantially square configuration. Each jaw tapersin an increasing diameter and thickness toward the pivot pin to provide a jaw of sufficient strength to form very small helical and vertical loops in tempered wire. These jaws in addition to providing the means for forming twenty-five-thousandths and greater diameter helical and vertical loops at the same time are provided with cutting means carried by the jaws which enable the light tempered wire to be cut after forming of the wire.
The light wire pIier-tool of this invention has pivoted members whose jaws and handles are generally of stainless steel. The pliers haveconventionally shaped handle portions attached to the jaw portions'which are formed so that one ja'w is a rounded jaw whose distal. or outer end has a diameter of about twenty-five-thousandths of an inch. The mating jaw has a rectangular configuration preferably of a substantially square cross-section with the jaw tapered so as to increase in both strength and thickness. The facing portions and tip portions of both jaws are made out of high speed heat. treated steel which preferably has a hardness of about or more than Rockwell C. This hardness in high speed tool steel has proved to supply the desired. extreme rigidity and wear qualities. Adjacent the pivot pin of the pliers either forwardly in the jaws or rearwardly of the pivot pin, and attached to the handle portions is a compression type wire cutting means which is. carried so that one member is carried on each handle or jaw portion enabling the wire to be compression cut by simply closing the pliers with the wire positioned between the cutting means.
In addition to the above summary the following disclosure is detailed to insure adequacy and. aid in understanding of the invention. This disclosure, however, is not intended to prejudice that purpose of a patent which is to cover the inventive concept therein no matterhow it may later be disguised. by variations in form or additions of further improvements. For this reason there has been chosen a specific embodiment of the light wire pliers for forming helical and open wire loops of very small diameter as adopted. for use with tempered wire and showing a preferredmeans for forming the jaws and wire cutting means. This specific embodiment and an alternate embodiment thereof have been chosen for the purposes of illustration and description as shown in the accompanying drawing wherein:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 represents a side view of the light wire pliers of this invention and showing in particular a pliers in which the wire cutting means is carried on the handle members of the pliers.
FIG. 2 represents a fragmentary plan view taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. I and looking downwardly on the jaw member depicted as having a round cross-section of the pliers of this invention; I
FIG. 3 represents a fragmentary plan view taken on the line 3-3 of FIG. 1 and looking downwardly on that jaw member depicted as having a square cross-section configuration;
FIG. 4 represents a sectional end view taken on the line 4-4 of FIG. 2 and showing in particular the construction of that jaw member which has a round crosssection;
FIG. 5 represents a sectional end view taken on the line 5-5 of FIG. 3 and showing the configuration and construction of that jaw member which has a square cross-section;
FIG. 6 represents a sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of FIG. I and showing in particular the inserted and attached cutting portions as carried on the handle portions and providing one compression wire cutting means of the pliers of this-invention;
FIG. 7 represents a fragmentary plan view of a pliers having the jaws configured to provide a wire cutting means in that portion of the jaws forward of the pivot pin, and
FIG. 8 represents a sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of FIG. 7 and showing in particular the construction of the compression wire cutting means as formed in the jaw portions forwardly of the pivot pin of the pliers.
In the following description and in the claims various details will be identified by specific names for convenience, these names, however, are intended to be generic in their application. Corresponding reference characters refer to like members throughout the several figures of the drawing.
The drawing accompanying, and forming part of, this specification discloses certain details of construction for the purpose of explanation of the broader aspects ofthe invention, but it should be understood that structural details may be modified in various respects without departure from the concept and principals of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to FIGS. 1 through 6 it is to be noted that the light wire pliers for forming helical and vertical loops in tempered light wire includes handle portions 10 and 12 which are retained in a pivotal relationship to each other by a concealed pivot pin 14. Forwardly ofthis pin are jaw portions 16 and 18 which are preferably integrally connected portions of the handles 12 and 10. Jaw 16, as seen in FIG. 3 and 5, has a flat top surface 20 and at its distal end or outer end this jaw has formed in this surface grooves 22 and 24 shaped and sized for retaining and gripping the wire at a determined position on the distal end of the pliers as the wire is bent.- As seen in particular in FIG. the top surface 20 is a flat or planar surface which is the top of an insert portion 26 which is hardened high speed tool steel. This insert extends from or very near the jaw opening to the distal end and preferably is hardened to a Rockwell of about 60 C. This insert is attached to the jaw as by silver soldering, brazing and the like.
The mating jaw 18 as seen in FIGS. 2 and 4 is a jaw having a round cross-section and in which the top member 30 is an inserted piece of hardened tool steel like that in the opposite jaw. This insert is attached to the stainless steel pin as by silver soldering, brazing, etc. After mounting in the jaw portion 18, the jaw and inserted top is rounded and tapered with the rounded and tapered portion extending for approximately a half inch as seen in the drawing of FIG. 1. This rounded portion tapers from approximately three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter at its inner end to its distal end which is approximately twenty-five-thousandths of an inch in diameter. As depicted in the drawing, the outer threesixteenths of an inch or so of jaw 18 is completelyhardened tool steel which provides the strength and rigidity to this jaw portion to enable very small size loops to be formed in the tempered wire.
Referring again to FIG. I it is to be noted that on the handle portions and 12 of the pliers and near the pivot pin 14 there is provided cutting inserts 32 and 34. Insert 32 is carried on handle portion 10 and insert 34 is carried on handle portion 12. As seen in FIG. 6 the inserts 32 and 34 have one edge sharpened so as to form a sharp edge, which edge preferably just touches the opposite edge to provide a compression type cutter when the handles 10 and 12 are brought together to the maximum extent permitted by the closing of jaws l6 and 18 absent any wire therebetween. The formed tempered wire may be cut at any desired position between the closed jaw portions 32 and 34. These inserts 32 and 34 are preferably of hardened tool steel, tungsten carbide or other material, which inserts have the ability to retain their cutting edges for the hundreds of times that tempered steel wire is to be cut in the normal life expectancy of the pliers.
ALTERNATE EMBODIMENT OF FIGS. 7 AND 8 Referring now to FIGS. 7 and 8 it is to be noted that an alternate embodiment provides jaws 116 and 118 which are identical to the jaws 16 and 18 described in FIG. 1 except that at the rear point of the jaws of FIG. 7 and ahead of the pivot pin 14 there is provided a more-or-less centrally disposed upwardly or outwardly directed V-shaped cutting edge and 62 with the apex or edge of these Vs adapted to just touch when the jaws are closed. These sharp Vs are of hardened material and provide a compressive cutter in these jaw portions. The upper surfaces and particularly the cutting apexes of the V portions 60 and 62 include a portion of the inserted portion of the hardened tool steel used on the faces of the jaws so that these V-shaped portions are also of hardened material providing a long USE AND OPERATION In either the embodiment of FIG. 1 or in the embodiment of FIG. 7 it is contemplated that the pliers will be used to bend and shape the wire in the normal manner. Any and most upright or square open loops to be formed in the wire has the wire gripped by the jaw face 20. From this face the straight sides of the jaw provide the means to form an open loop in the wire with the width of the jaw where it grips and retains the wire corresponding to the leg distance of the wire loop form. At the tip end of the jaw the width and depth of the square jaw is contemplated to be a very small distance, as for example, one thirty-second of an inch or less. At the other or inner end of the jaw near the point where the V notches for cutting are formed in FIG. 7 the jaw is much wider such as three-sixteenths of an inch.
When closed or spiral type loops are to be formed in the wire the round jaw 18 is used. The desired round contour or diameter is selected to correspond to that formed on the taper extending from the tip where the diameter is approximately twenty-five-thousandths of an inch to the diameter at the beginning of the V-shape 62 where the diameter of the jaw is much greater, as for example, three-sixteenths of an inch. The operator in forming his helical loop need only grasp the wire at the point on the jaw which is equal to or slightly less than the diameter of the loop to be formed. This permits any springback of the wire from a tighter loop initially wound to spring back to the size desired by the operator or manipulator of the pliers. As the working surfaces of the jaws of the pliers of both FIGS. 1 and 7 are made of hardened high speed tool steel the wear and distortion on the jaws of pliers as reduced to practice has proved to be negligible.
Whether the pliers of FIG. 1 is used or the pliers of FIG. 7 is used, after the wire has been bent to its desired configuration it may be cut from the wire spool or supply. In FIG. 1 the wire is cut by causing the cutting portions 32 and 34 to be brought into contiguous relationship whereby the wire is cut. Where the wire cutting jaws are those depicted in FIG. 7 then the sharp edges of the V portions 60 and 62 are brought together to cut the wire.
The novel pliers above-described and shown in the drawing have jaws whose working surfaces and very small tips are of hardened high speed tool steel. The rest of the pliers is preferably of stainless steel which permits repeated sterilizing of the instrument without rusting. The use of hardened high speed tool steel enables the very small jaws to maintain their original condition without bending, breaking or undue wear. Of
course,- other hardened material may be used as an insert where the insert has a tensile and shear strength as good as, or better than, the high speed steel abovedescribed. A cutting means on such a type of tool speeds up the dentists work and requires one less tool to produce the wire form. Insofar as is known the pliers of this invention are the first offered to the orthodontist which provide means for making helical or open loops as small as twenty-five-thousandths of an inch in diameter in the tempered wire used by Orthodontists.
Terms such as left," right, up, down, bottom," top," front," back," in," out" and the like are applicable to the embodiments shown and described in conjunction with the drawing. These terms are merely for the purposes of description and do not necessarily apply to the position in which the light wire pliers may be constructed or used.
While a particular embodiment of the pliers and an alternate embodiment have been shown and described it is to be understood the invention is not limited thereto since modifications may be made within the scope of the accompany claims and protection is sought to the broadest extent the prior art allows.
What is claimed is:
l. A light wire pliers for Orthodontists and the like in which the distal ends of the jaws are adapted to form very small open and closed loops in tempered wire, said pliers including (a) a pair of handle portions main tained in a pivotal relationship to each other by means of a pivot pin; (b) a pair of jaw portions with one of these attached to each of the handle portions; (0) a hardened insert attached as by soldering and the like to provide the working face of each jaw, said hardened insert having tensile and shear characteristics which are at least equal to that of heat treated high speed tool steel hardened to about 60 Rockwell C, one of the jaws having the insert and the supporting jaw portion formed as a tapered member having a substantially circular cross-section extending from the tip of a portion near the inward termination of the jaw, this round jaw having its smaller distal end about one thirty-second of an inch in diameter and with the other jaw having the insert and supporting jaw portion formed with a rectangular cross-section extending from the tip to a portion near the inward termination of the jaw and with the jaw having a taper substantially like that in the rounded jaw and with the distal small end having a width of approximately one thirty-second of an inch, this rectangular cross-sectional jaw further having its gripping face formed with at least two shallow grooves each adapted to grip a wire transversely of the longitudinal length of the jaw and between the closed together jaws, and (d) a cutting means carried on the pliers and actuated by the closing of the jaws to cut the tempered wire when the jaws are closed, said cutting means being a pair of hardened inserts carried on the handle portions, one insert being carried on each handle and mounted adjacent the pivot pin so that their sharpened edges face each other and when the handles are closed the cutting edges compressively cut the wire when the jaws are brought to a closed condition absent a wire therebetween.
2. A light wire pliers as in claim 1 in which the jaws are about five-eighths of an inch in length and the taper increases from the distal one thirty-second of an inch width to about three-sixteenths inches in width.