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Publication numberUS3782125 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 1, 1974
Filing dateJan 11, 1972
Priority dateJan 11, 1972
Publication numberUS 3782125 A, US 3782125A, US-A-3782125, US3782125 A, US3782125A
InventorsHoll E
Original AssigneeHoll E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Earth shoring apparatus
US 3782125 A
Abstract
Two opposed, parallel series of suitably guided, elongate, non-interlocking, steel sheeting elements are driven vertically into the earth adjacent to an area where earth is to be excavated, to shore against earth collapse. The driving of the sheeting elements is accomplished by hydraulic or other fluid means associated with such elements, and the weight of relatively massive manifolds and fluid-supply and fluid-distribution pipes is utilized to assist gravitation of the sheeting elements into the earth as the hydraulic fluid flushes earth away from beneath the sheeting elements. Under many soil conditions, additional weight is imposed upon the upper ends of the sheeting elements to assist the hydraulic or fluid means. The imposition of suction through the hydraulic means may be employed under some soil conditions to de-water the earth area at or adjacent to the excavation.
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United States Patent 1191 1111 3,782,125 Hull Jan. 1, 1974 i 1 EARTH SHORING APPARATUS [76] Inventor: Edward J. Hall, 320 Warwick Ave., Primary ExammerDenms Taylor South Orange, NJ 07079 A!trneyRobert Henderson [22] Filed: Jan. 11, 1972 [57] ABSTRACT [2H Appl' 216,936 Two opposed, parallel series of suitably guided, elongate, non-interlocking, steel sheeting elements are [52] US. Cl. 61/41 A, 61/63 driven Vertically into the earth adjacent to an area [51] Int. Cl E21d /12 Where earth is to be excavated, to Shore against earth 581 Field of Search 61/41 A, 36 A, 53.74, Collapse The driving Of the Sheeting elementS- is 6I/63 4 175 21 complished by hydraulic or other fluid means associated with such elements, and the weight of relatively [5 References i d massive manifolds and fluid-supply and fluid- UNITED STATES PATENTS distribution pipes is utilized to assist gravitation of the sheeting elements into the earth as the hydraulic fluid 3,584,465 6/1971 Holl 61/41 A flushes earth y from beneath the Sheeting 1,024,822 4/1912 Bignell 6l/53.74 d 21,59,210 11/1953 stengel elaL 61/41 A ments. Un er many s01 conditions, additional weight 823 [29 (M906 LcFcvre v 61/5374 is imposed upon the upper ends of the sheeting ele- 1,1ss:5s2 5/1916 Bignell 61/53.74 mems to assist the hydraulic Or fluid means- The 1,588,754 6/1926 Langworthy 61/53.74 x position of suction hrough he hydraulic means may 1,905,643 4/1933 Johnson 6l/53.74 X be employed under some soil conditions to de-water 2.6 3.4 /195 T mp t n 6 /5 -74 the earth area at or adjacent to the excavation. 3,606,757 9/1971 De Weese et a1. 61/41 A 3,668,874 6/1912 Krings 61/41 A 7 Chums, 11 Drawing Flgures 50 50 64 48 48 68 68) 64 FLUID l"" 4 FLUID SUPPLY {T /n... SUPPLY 1 74 a L 62' T 4 I 1: 62 66 "-nr% 1i: %-L|E,(L l q 14,, iv h '1 40 42 :51: 4O :1 ii! iii :55 f ,38 3a 4'- ao fi --40 iii 51 Ill 40 40 Ell/20 '4 34 34 36 :i;,.- l if PAIENTEDJAH 1mm 3 78? 125 sum 10F s w mu W fw 0 w Ill l l l l I I l I l l I I ll Hufln h l lml l n fim w 3 6 G I w F 8 a /W l 4 5 I L" I wm mwwnwwm w wwmmmmwwm w W PH. run I. .n dh I I I 1 I I l I l I II II 7w 4 2 w DY 2 m .HU 6 S PATENTEDJM 1 1974 SHEU 3 OF 5 :FIG. 3

l In FIG.7

PATENTEDJAH 11914 3,782,125

SHEEF M W 5 FLUID SUPPLY 1 EARTH SHORING APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is often necessary to provide earth shoring means for preventing the collapse of earth as digging progresses in forming trenches or other excavations in pipe laying or other more or less equivalent operations.

In forming suitable earth shoring means, so-called sheeting has been employed such as, for example, horizontally disposed coplanar wooden boards held in edge to edge relationship by suitable bracing means. More recently, vertically disposed, coplanar sheeting elements of wooden boards or of elongate, side edge interlocking steel elements have been employed as sheeting means for shoring excavations.

Such vertical sheeting elements, as hitherto employed and driven, involve serious drawbacks. Thus, they had to be individually elevated, and then precisely guided and driven, necessitating the allowance of considerable headroom above ground level to accommodate the lengths of the sheeting elements to be driven and also requiring additional headroom for the boom of a crane for holding the sheeting elements vertically in proper position for driving and for aiding in the support of pile driving apparatus employed to drive the sheeting elements into the ground.

The use of pile driving apparatus damages the upper and lower ends of the vertical sheeting elements and also compacts the underlying earth thereby increasing resistance to the driving force, and sometimes causing such severe earth vibrations as to damage existing nearby buildings or'other structures.

There are other drawbacks in the prior art practices, but the foregoing should show the need for improvements in the indicated art.

THE GENERAL OBJECTS OF THIS INVENTION Without laboring the advantages of the present invention over the indicated prior practices, it should suffice to say that the objectives of the present invention are to provide substantially improved and less costly means for shoring earth to prevent its collapse upon digging of a trench or other excavation. The use herein of the word trench" should be understood as referring to any trench or excavation in which the present invention may be employed. Also, the term driven" is used herein to comprehend not only the forcing of the sheeting elements into the earth but also the treatment of underlying earth enabling said elements to settle into the earth.

Further and more specific objectives are to provide improved and more economical means for driving vertical sheeting and for de-watering the earth at the excavation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWING In the accompanying drawing which illustrates preferred means according to this invention for earth shoring and earth de-watering:

FIG. 1 is a vertical, partially sectional view of the principal parts of apparatus according to this invention, as located in relation to a shallow, initially dug trench, in position to commence driving of vertical steel sheeting elements simultaneously at opposite sides of a trench to be excavated.

FIG. 2 is a view, somewhat similar to FIG. 1, but showing the apparatus as shortly before completion of the driving of the vertical steel sheeting.

FIG. 3 is a vertical view, partly in section, of only certain parts of the apparatus, approximately in positions which they occupy at the completion of excavating of the trench.

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of a portion (of indefinite length) of the apparatus overlying an area to be excavated, which may be considered to be for a trench to receive a sewer pipe or the like.

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a rigid, rectangular steel frame constituting an important part of the apparatus of this invention.

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary detail of FIG. 1.

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary detail, viewable with reference to FIG. 4, illustrating certain pipe connecting means which are usable to condition the apparatus for de-watering purposes.

FIGS. 8 and 9 are perspective views of cleats for holding upright, steel sheeting elements in proper vertical positions during driving thereof.

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the association of the cleat of FIG. 8 with a steel, vertical sheeting element, and also with an inner guide member or stringer to hold said sheeting element in proper vertical position during driving thereof.

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the opposite or obscured side of the structures shown in FIG. 10 to make clear the association of the cleat of FIG. 9 with a steel, vertical sheeting element, and also with an outer guide member or stringer to hold said sheeting element in proper vertical position during driving thereof.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION In some respects, the earth shoring apparatus according to the present invention is similar to the apparatus disclosed in my US. Pat. No. 3,584,465 dated June 15, 1971, to which reference may be had in'relation to the present disclosure. The principal difference between the disclosure of my said patent and the present invention is that, according to the latter, the sheeting elements are driven with the use of hydraulic or other fluid means, while, in this disclosure of my said patent, they are driven by mechanical impact such as is afforded by a pile driver or by a vibratory device.

According to the present invention, similar, elongate, steel sheeting elements 20 are employed in vertical positions. FIG. 4 shows the upper ends of two parallel series of such elements, almost abutting each other sidewisely along opposite sides of an area where a trench is to be dug. These sheeting elements may electively be of various shapes in cross section, but are illustrated as of a preferred modified V" shape. adjacent,

Most of the remainder of the shoring apparatus is arranged to vertically drive and guide the sheeting elements 20 into their shoring positions and to hold them in place during excavating operations and during operations taking place in the trench.

It may be assumed, for the purpose of this description, that a long, straight, relatively narrow trench is to be dug, to receive a large sewer pipe or the like as indicated in chain lines at P in FIG. 3. Before any of the disclosed apparatus is used, an initial, shallow trench A is dug, and a counter trench B is cutaway along each margin of the trench A. Because of the shallowness of the dug portions A and B, no shoring is thus far needed.

One or more rigid, rectangular frames 22 (FIG. of steel are lowered into the bottom of the initial trench A, these being placed in end to end abutting relationship if, as is often the case, more than one such frame is needed to extend them substantially throughout the length of the deeper trench to be dug. The trench A, as shown in FIG. 1, should preferably be wider than the frames 22, at least to the extent of about twice the face to face width of a sheeting element 20, to provide clear areas at opposite sides of the frames.

Flat cross supports 24 are then laid across the initial trench A, preferably in positions directly above the ends of the frame or frames 22. The ends of the cross supports 24 rest upon the upwardly facing surfaces of the counter trench B. Rigid inside stringers 26, preferably of about the same lengths as directly underlying frames 22, are laid upon the cross supports 24 directly above the side margins of the underlying frames, these stringers being limited against inward shifting by angle brackets or equivalent lug elements 28, riveted or otherwise suitably fixed to the upper faces of the cross supports 24.

Somewhat similar, rigid, outside stringers 30 are laid upon the cross supports 24, parallel to the inside stringers 26 and spaced from the latter slightly more than the face to face width of the sheeting elements 20 which are to be employed. Outer lug elements 32 are suitably fixed to the cross supports to limit the outward shifting of the outside stringers 30.

After the described disposition of the stringers 26 and 30, the steel sheeting elements 20 are individually carried by a crane and lowered into vertical, slightly spaced side-edge to side-edge positions between the inside and outside stringers until their lower ends descend into place within the clear areas at the outer sides of the frame 22. As the sheeting elements 20 are thus positioned, cleats 34 and 36 are used to the extent necessary to hold the positioned sheeting elements against material tilting from their vertical attitudes. These cleats, detailed hereinafter, are employed in engagement with a sheeting element 20 and with the stringers 26, 30 and the side members of the frame 22. They may be used with each sheeting element as the latter are positioned or with every second or third sheeting element of a series, as may be needed, to hold the sheeting elements against material tilting.

The sheeting elements 20, at opposite sides of the initial trench and disposed along the sides of a single one of the frames 22 may be driven simultaneously; and separate, similar hydraulic assemblies are preferably provided for driving the sheeting elements associated with each frame 22.

The following is a description of one of said hydraulic assemblies arranged for simultaneously driving all the sheeting elements 20 related to a single one of the frames 22.

Each of the sheeting elements 20 is provided with a vertical pipe 38 extending within the V of said element and from the top or near the top to the bottom end or slightly below the bottom end of the sheeting element. These pipes are suitably slidably guided in their related sheeting elements by suitable restrainers 40 (FIGS. 1, 2, and A pair of manifolds 42, of considerably greater diameter than the pipes 38, are secured by "U" bolts 44 upon and toward opposite ends of rigid, cross-wisely disposed manifold supports 46 located at opposite ends of the hydraulic assembly and, if needed, at an intermediate point of said assembly. Thus, the manifolds are supported to extend longitudinally of and adjacent to the series of sheeting elements which are at opposite sides of the trench. The ends of the manifolds 42 are closed by preferably removable caps 43.

The supports 46 and the manifolds 42 thereon are hung upon the upper ends of adjacent sheeting elements 20 by means of chains 48, suitably connected at their lower ends to upper parts of the U bolts 44 or directly to some part of said supports; the chains 48 having books 50 engaged over the upper ends of adjacent sheeting elements. This arrangement serves to impose the weight of the manifolds 42 and the manifold supports 46 upon the upper ends of some of the sheeting elements.

The weight of the manifolds 42 and the cross supports 46 may somewhat similarly be imposed upon the other sheeting elements by means of hooks 52 on chains 54, the lower ends of which may be welded to the manifolds or may be suitably secured to straps 56 extending around the manifolds adjacent to said other sheeting elements. Thus, the weight of the manifolds and cross supports is applied to all of the sheeting elements to supplement, for driving purposes, the hydraulic means disclosed herein.

Short pipe studs 58 (FIG. 6) are welded or otherwise fluid-tightly fixed into the manifolds 42, being spaced apart horizontally to correspond approximately to the spacing of the pipes 38 of the sheeting elements 20 to be driven. At the outer ends of these pipe studs are provided shut-off valves 60; and preferably flexible connections 62 are employed to interconnect said valves and the upper ends of adjacent vertical pipes 38.

Each manifold 4 is provided with a supply pipe 64 connected to a pump 66 which receives water or other fluid from fluid supply 68, said pump and fluid supply being shown by symbols in the drawing.

THE MANNER OF UTILIZING THE APPARATUS After all the sheeting elements to be driven have been placed in their initial or non-driven positions indicated in FIG. 1, the manifolds 42 with their related supports 46, and with their pipe studs 58 and valves 60 connected thereto, are lifted by a crane into their places as shown in FIG. 1. Concomitant of thus positioning the manifolds, the hooks 50, 52 of the chains 48 and 54 are engaged over the upper ends of their ajdacent, related sheeting elements so that the latter, collectively, support the manifolds and all other apparatus in fixed relation to the manifolds. Also, the valves 60 and pipe studs 58 of each manifold are connected by their flexible connections 62 of the upper ends of their adjacent, related vertical pipes 38.

Then, each supply pipe 64 is interconnected between the related manifold 42 and pump 66; and the latter is connected to a suitable source 68 of fluid supply.

The hydraulic driving of the plural sheeting elements 20 is started upon completion of assembling of the apparatus as hereinbefore described. All valves 60 are opened and operation of the pumps 66 is commenced. This results in fluid being forcibly ejected from the open or orificed lower ends of the pipes 38 as indicated by diverging irregular lines in FIG. 1.

The forcibly ejected fluid cuts away the earth immediately beneath the sheeting elements 20, thereby enabling them to descend into the earth largely by their own weight. The weight of the manifolds 42, the cross supports 46 and everything carried by the latter will, of course, contribute to the descent of the sheeting elements into the earth because of the chain connections of said parts of the apparatus to the upper ends of said sheeting elements. If needed, any suitable mass, affording added weight, may be placed upon the supports 46, as indicated at 74 in FIGS. 1 and 2, to aid additionally in the descent of the sheeting elements.

When the just described descent of the sheeting elements has progressed to about the extent indicated in FIG. 2, the hydraulic driving is suspended temporarily, and the stringers 26 and 30 and the cross supports 24 are removed. Then, the hydraulic driving of the sheeting elements is resumed, and is completed when the upper ends of the latter are about level with the adjacent earth, as shown in FIG. 3. Upon completion of the driving, the cross supports 46 and manifolds 42 and all related weights are still hung by chains 48, 54 upon the sheeting elements 20.

At this point in operations, the frame 22 is still supported on the bottom of the initial trench A where deepening of that trench has not yet been commenced. Plural chains 70, at this time, are connected by their hooked ends, between the four corners of the frame 22 and the upper ends of adjacent, completely driven sheeting elements 20, to give support to said frame even after underlying earth is later dug away.

If the condition of the earth where the final or deep trench is to be dug is such that de-watering of the earth is not necessary, the flexible connections 62 are all disconnected from their related pipes 38, and the manifold supports 46 and all the hydraulic apparatus carried thereby are removed by suitable crane means. At that point, the frame 22 is held by chains 70 approximately at the level shown in FIG. 3.

The planned bottom of the trench to be dug is indicated at C in FIG. 3, from which it may be seen that the sheeting elements 20 are of such length and driven to such a depth that their lower ends are below the level of the planned bottom C of the trench.

After the chains 70 are hooked to the frame 22 to supportthe latter, the digging means are arranged to extend down through said frame and are operated to dig the trench to its full depth C. During and after such digging, the shoring walls constituted of the sheeting elements 20 are held against inward collapse or shifting by the frame 22 near said elements upper ends and by the earth remaining between the lower ends of the sheeting elements.

If de-watering is desired before and during the digging of the trench to its full depth and during pipe laying or other work therein, the hydraulic apparatus is not removed from the upper ends of the sheeting elements 20 but is left in place at least until the need for de-watering ends. To effect de-watering, the operation of pumps 66 is reversed (if they are the reversible type) or oppositely acting pumps or suction pumps are substituted for the pumps 66 to extract excess water from the earth.

When the need for de-watering ends, and there is no longer any need for the hydraulic apparatus, said apparatus may be removed by suitable crane means.

If it is desired, the pumps 66 may be of sufficient capacity to work, either for the driving of the sheeting elements or for de-watering, through more than a single manifold 42 for each pump, in which case plural manifolds 42 may be interconnected by sleeve connections 72, substituted for caps 43, as shown in FIG. 7.

The apparatus of this invention may be utilized beyond its above-indicated uses, to aid in extracting the sheeting elements 20 after the work in the trench has been completed and the trench refilled with earth. For this purpose, the hydraulic apparatus is left in place during digging of the trench, during work in the trench, and during the refilling of the trench. Thereafter, fluid is pumped downwardly in the pipes 38 by the pumps 66, thereby, to some extent, lubricating the sheeting elements and adding some propulsion upwardly to the latter to aid the crane means in extracting the sheeting elements from the earth.

The cleat 34 (FIG. 8) is of substantially rigid metal formed with a V portion 34a which nests within a corresponding V portion of a related sheeting element 20, as shown in FIG. 10, and has two inwardly expanded lips 3417 which fit snugly over an upstanding flange of the inside stringer 26.

The cleat 36 (FIG. 9) is also of substantially rigid metal formed with side members 36a and a V portion 3612 within which nests a corresponding V portion of a related sheeting element 20, as best seen in FIG. 11. The cleat 36 has an outwardly expanded lip 36c which fits snugly over an upstanding flange of the outside stringer 30.

It will be apparent that, with cleats 34, 36 used on every sheeting element 20 to be driven or upon selected ones of said elements, the latter will be held against material departure from their desired vertical attitudes.

As shown in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, cleats 34 are also preferably used to cooperate between the frame or frames 22 and sheeting elements 20 to give further assurance against departure of the sheeting elements from their vertical attitudes.

It should be apparent that this invention achieves all its stated objectives and presents a substantial improvement in the art of earth shoring.

I claim:

1. Earth shoring apparatus comprising:

a. two opposed, approximately parallel series of vertically disposed, elongate, relatively rigid, sheeting elements;

b. spacing means extending between opposed upper end portions and opposed lower portions of said elemnts of said two series to maintain approximately uniform spacing therebetween corresponding approximately to the width of an earth area of a trench to be dug;

c. vertical pipes, fixed to and extending vertically from upper end portions to lower end portions of said sheeting elements and opening at said lower end portions;

(1. a pair of rigid, horizontally disposed manifolds, separately supported by said two series at upper portions of sheeting elements thereof;

e. fluid-supply pipes connecting said manifolds to a source of supply of fluid; and

f. fluid-distribution pipes connecting said manifolds to the upper ends of said vertical pipes;

g. whereby fluid, introduced into said manifolds and thence into said vertical pipes and forcibly ejected from the open lower ends of the latter, flushes earth from beneath said sheeting elements to facilitate gravitation of the latter into the earth, and the weight of said manifolds materially assists such gravitation.

2. Earth shoring apparatus according to claim 1, said spacing means extending between opposed upper end portions of said sheeting elements comprising rigid, crosswisely-disposed manifold supports upon opposite end portions of which said manifolds are disposed.

3. Earth shoring apparatus according to claim 2, said spacing means extending between opposed lower portions of said sheeting elements comprising a rigid, horizontally disposed, rectangular frame; with respect to which said series of sheeting elements are slideable during said gravitation thereof.

4. Earth shoring apparatus according to claim 3, further including intermediate spacing means comprising spaced, rigid, horizontal, cross supports extending between areas at outer sides of said series of sheeting elements; and rigid, horizontal, outer and inner stringers, supported upon said cross supports, located respectively outside of and inside of the sheeting elements of both said series and constrained by said cross supports to slideably engage and guide said series during gravitation thereof.

5. Earth shoring apparatus according to claim 4, further including cleats, slideably coacting between said stringers and said series and between said frame and said series to aid in guiding the sheeting elements of said series during their said gravitation.

6. Earth shoring apparatus according to claim 4, said manifolds and their said supports and said fluid-supply and fluid-distribution pipes being removable from said series after gravitation of the latter to provide an adequate area for trench digging operations.

7. Earth shoring apparatus according to claim 4, further including suspension means, connected between said rectangular frame and upper portions of sheeting elements of both said series, and being of such dimensions as to hold said frame suspended in an approximately horizontal position between and toward the upper limits of siad two series to space the latter apart following completion of digging of the trench.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3969904 *Feb 11, 1974Jul 20, 1976Hudswell Morrice Ltd.Method of laying a pipeline in a trench
US4044564 *Feb 9, 1976Aug 30, 1977Griswold James LTrench shoring assembly with corner guard accessory
US4154062 *Dec 1, 1976May 15, 1979Koehl Jean M G RMultiple stage telescopic trench lining
US4376599 *Jan 22, 1981Mar 15, 1983Josef KringsDitch shoring unit
US4487530 *Sep 17, 1982Dec 11, 1984Morrice Anthony R SMethod of and apparatus for shoring a trench
US5199824 *Aug 3, 1992Apr 6, 1993Smith Jeffrey F MExcavation shoring system
US5302054 *Sep 23, 1992Apr 12, 1994W. E. WinklerHole shoring system
US5758993 *Jun 11, 1996Jun 2, 1998Slurry Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for forming successive overlapping voids in the ground along a predetermined course of travel and for producing a subterranean wall therein
US5931608 *Aug 8, 1997Aug 3, 1999Wilkinson; Ivan R.Trench shoring transport device
US6030150 *Feb 25, 1998Feb 29, 2000Dana A. SchmednechtMethod and apparatus for constructing subterranean walls comprised of granular material
US6247875Dec 17, 1999Jun 19, 2001Dana A. SchmednechtMethod and apparatus utilizing a hollow beam for constructing subterranean walls comprised of granular material
US6821057Apr 5, 2000Nov 23, 2004Maksim KadiuMagnetic shoring device
US7048471Apr 15, 2003May 23, 2006Maksim KadiuShoring device
US7056067Oct 3, 2003Jun 6, 2006Max KadiuTrench shoring device
US7309191Mar 2, 2004Dec 18, 2007Max KadiuShoring system
US8926229 *Sep 13, 2011Jan 6, 2015Bruce Alan ClairTrench box dewatering system
US20040005197 *Apr 15, 2003Jan 8, 2004Maksim KadiuShoring device
US20040170478 *Mar 2, 2004Sep 2, 2004Max KadiuShoring system
US20050074300 *Oct 3, 2003Apr 7, 2005Max KadiuTrench shoring device
EP0075453A2 *Sep 16, 1982Mar 30, 1983Wilkinson, BarbaraMethod of and apparatus for shoring a trench
EP0075453A3 *Sep 16, 1982Mar 28, 1984Hudswell Morrice LimitedMethod of and apparatus for shoring a trench
WO1999007948A1 *Aug 6, 1998Feb 18, 1999Wilkinson Ivan RTrench shoring transport device
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/282
International ClassificationE02D17/06, E02D7/00, E02D7/26, E02D17/08
Cooperative ClassificationE02D7/26, E02D17/08
European ClassificationE02D17/08, E02D7/26