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Publication numberUS3785258 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 15, 1974
Filing dateJun 26, 1972
Priority dateJun 26, 1972
Publication numberUS 3785258 A, US 3785258A, US-A-3785258, US3785258 A, US3785258A
InventorsAron E, Griffith L
Original AssigneeGraphic Systems
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Type composing apparatus having novel character width derivation structure
US 3785258 A
Abstract
Type composing apparatus is disclosed as including means for representing its binary code a series of characters, means for generating a relative width value for each character, means for representing a succession of point size factors, one for each character, and means for multiplying a relative width value assigned to each character by a point size factor for that character. The means for multiplying associated pairs of relative width values and point size factors is disclosed as comprising a memory having stored therein products of relative width values and point size factors. Means are shown for addressing and extracting from the memory an adjusted width value and point size factor. The means for generating a relative width value for each character is depicted as including a read-only integrated circuit memory having permanently stored therein at mutually exclusive addresses a relative width value for each of the characters. One embodiment of a photocomposing machine is disclosed.
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United States Patent [191 Aron et al.

[ Jan. 15, 1974 [75] Inventors: Edward A. Aron, Needham, Mass; Louis E. Griffith, l-lampstead, NH.

[73] Assignee: Graphic Systems, Inc., Lowell,

Mass.

22 Filed: June 26, 1972 211 Appl.No.:266,473

Related U.S. Application Data [63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 878,368, Nov. 20, 1969, and a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 43,763,

INPUT BUFFER OUTPUT Ream eH CODE REGISTER DECODER FONT m MEMORY 29 SELECTION SWITCH 22 Primary ExaminerJohn M. Horan Attorney-Alfred H. Rosen et al.

[5 7] ABSTRACT Type composing apparatus is disclosed as including means for representing its binary code a series of characters, means for generating a relative width value for each character, means for representing a succession of point size factors, one for each character, and means for multiplying a relative width value assigned to each character by a point size factor for that character. The means for multiplying associated pairs of relative width values and point size factors is disclosed as comprising a memory having stored therein products of relative width values and point size factors. Means are shown for addressing and extracting from the memory an adjusted width value and point size factor. The means for generating a relative width value for each character is depicted as including a read-only integrated circuit memory having permanently stored therein at mutually exclusive addresses a relative width value for each of the characters. One embodiment of a photocomposing machine is disclosed.

9 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures WIDTH LOOK-UP i MEMORY CASE MEMORY MULTIPLI- CATION MEMORY PA-IENIEDJAM 1 51974 'SHEEIZOFS MEMORY MATRIX PATENTEDJAHW 3785.258

sum 5 or 6 TYPE COMPOSING APPARATUS HAVING NOVEL CHARACTER WIDTH DERIVATION STRUCTURE CROSS-REFERENCE TO COPENDING APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 878,368 filed Nov. 20, 1969 and Ser. No. 43,763 filed June 5, 1970.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A type composing system requires, for use in justification, inter alia, an input for each character processed which states the space which the character will occupy in a composed line of type. This character width information is customarily developed by first deriving a relative or normalized width value for character and then multiplying this relative width value by a point size factor (which may provide for inter-character spacing) which accounts for any scaling of the basic character size.

Prior art methods and structures for deriving relative width values for each character have generally suffered from being relatively expensive, difficult to manufacture, inconvenient to handle, and unreliable, and have had unwieldy input and output connections. Further, they have been relatively inflexible in their control of character spacing.

The multiplication of each relative width value with a predesignated point size factor has in the past been approached by applying well known electronic multi plication techniques. But even the most efficient and economical electronic multipliers which meet minimum performance requirements are inevitably relatively expensive and slow; further, for the most part they have been complicated and difficult to use and have been likely to produce significant round-off errors. Finally, prior art multiplying devices have been relatively inflexible in their ability to effect a major alteration in a character spacing program; e.g., as is required to kern a line of characters.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object of this invention to provide in type composing apparatus, improved structures and methods for deriving character width information for use in justification of a line of characters.

More particularly, it is an object to provide improved apparatus and methods for deriving for each character to be processed a relative width value and an adjusted width value representing the product of an assigned relative width value and point size factor.

It is yet another object to provide such apparatus which is simpler, less expensive, more reliable and faster and which has greater performance, less power consumption and greater flexibility in the control of character spacing than prior structures.

Further objects and advantages of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part become apparent as the following description proceeds. The features of novelty which characterize the invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS For a fuller understanding of the invention, reference may be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 illustrates schematically a system for deriving character width information for use in composition of a line of characters;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of the multiplication memory shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a truth table describing the contents of the multiplication memory shown schematically in FIGS. 1 and 2;

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic view of a photocomposing machine according to one embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic view of character display and optical projection means in the device of FIG. 4; and

FIG. 6 is a flow diagram of an electronic control center for the machine.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIG. 1 shows very schematically a system for deriving character spacing information in accordance with the principles of this invention. The overall system and associated method will be described first, followed by a detailed description of certain aspects of the system with which this invention is primarily concerned.

The system input is illustrated as comprising a punched paper tape 10 carrying in binary code a series of characters to be recorded and other information necessary to the operation of the associated type composing equipment, including information as to character case and font. In one highly successful embodiment which has been constructed, the tape has a six bit capacity, however, the capacity and nature of the input are not important to the teachings of this invention. Alternatively, the character and associated information could be supplied to the system from a keyboard or other input device.

In the illustrated embodiment the tape 10 is read by a tape reader 12 which supplies coded character and associated information to an input register 14 which in turn feeds a buffer code memory 16. The buffer code memory 16 is capable of storing a number of character codes at least as great as the pre-designated number of characters in a line of type. Storage of a line of character codes in the buffer code memory 16 obviates the need to run the tape 10 through the reader 12 a second time after the necessary spacing information for justification has been derived during an initial run. The character codes stored in the buffer code memory 16 are supplied successively to an output register 18.

The coded paper tape 10 used with a system embodying the teachings of this invention normally includes in the sequence of characters, characters of both upper and lower case and characters of different fonts, for example, a duplex of related fonts such as bold and the correspondence italics. In order to justify a line of type during composition thereof it is necessary to know, inter alia, the space in each line allocable to each character and to the inter-character spaces. As is well known, alphanumeric characters differ in relative width; also, like characters in different fonts are apt to have different relative widths. Still further, the relative width of a character will be greater in upper case than in lower case. The above makes obvious the necessity, for justification purposes, of deriving for each character a relative width value.

In the illustrated embodiment the means for deriving a relative width value is illustrated schematically as including a width look-up memory 20. This memory may take the form of a read-and-write random access memory of any of a variety of commercially available types. Relative width values, one for each character, are stored in the memory at mutually exclusive addresses. The memory is addressed in the illustrated embodiment by a total of eight lines of information, six from the output register 18 and two from a decoder 22 supplying decoded character case information through a case memory 24 and decoded font information through a font memory 26. Because in the illustrated embodiment only fonts with one of two different sets of relative widths are handled on any given tape 10, one line of information from each of the case and font memories 24, 26 is adequate to carry all the necessary information.

The output from the memory is five lines of binary information which may specify up to 32 different relative width values this number of different values has been found to be completely adequate for general purpose type composition.

Alternativelyin accordance with one aspect of this invention the width look-up memory 20 may take the form of a low-cost read-only integrated circuit memory. This memory will be described in detail hereinafter.

The above-described relative width value derived for each character can be thought of as a normalized value which identifies the width of each character relative to all other characters, but which does not correspond to the actual spacing of the characters when ultimately composed in a line of type. A system according to this invention is adapted for use with a type composing machine capable of selecting or recording a character in type of various sizes or point values. For example, the illustrated system may be incorporated as part ofa photocomposing system which has an optical projection system capable of imaging the characters on a recording material at any ofa predetermined number of magnifications. FIG. shows schematically a size selection switch 28 for selecting a character point size of 5, 5 V2, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, ll, 12, 14,16, or 18. The switch 28 is shown as comprising a wiper arm 30 carrying a contact 32 which is swept over a plurality of terminals 34 respectively associated with the point size values which may be selected. The terminals 34 are connected by leads 36 to a binary encoder 38 which translates the selected point sizes into binary codes representing point size factors corresponding in value to the associated point sizes.

Photocomposing apparatus of the type with which the invention is compatible also includes means for effecting an incremental (step-wise) relative movement between a recording head and a photosensitive material. This stepwise incremental movement is used to allocate to each character the predetermined spacing in the line which has been assigned to it. Customarily the motive means for effecting the described incremental movement includes a stepping motor capable of rapidly driving the transported element a designated number of increments or space units.

To determine the number of increments through which the stepping motor must be driven to allocate correct spacing information for a given character, the relative width of each character must be adjusted by multiplication with a point size factor (which may be thought of as a scaling coefficient). The product is an adjusted width value which may be supplied directly to the stepping motor for translation by motor escapements into steps of the movable element in the recording process.

As set forth above, prior art arrangements for effecting multiplication of a relative width value with a particular point size factor are relatively expensive, cumbersome and inflexible in use, and slow, and have other drawbacks discussed above. In accordance with this invention a greatly improved means for effecting multiplication of character relative width values and respectively associated point size factors is provided. The novel multiplication means includes a memory having stored therein substantially all possible products of relative width values w and point size factors p.

In a preferred embodiment the memory 40 may take the form of a read-only integrated circuit memory of the MOS (metal oxide silicon), bipolar, or other commercially available types. A very satisfactory type composing system has been constructed and operated employing a pair of bipolar read-only memories (ROMs), designated Model 3301, made by the Intel Corporation of Mountain View, California. The memories are organized as 256 word by four bit arrays (1,024 total bits). Two of these memories are connected back-to-back to form a single memory having a 256 word by eight bit organization. By the use of a memory such as is described, the described products of w and p can be obtained very fast -a typical access time for the described memory is, for example, 60 nanoseconds. Power dissipation by the memory is extremely low, for example, in the order of 7% milliwatt per bit.

The memory 40 is addressed by eight bits of information, five lines being supplied from the width look-up memory 20, and three lines from the encoder 38 which carry type size information.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a memory such as the one described above which may be used in parallel connection with a second identical memory to provide the necessary 256 word by eight bit array. Referring to FIG. 2, the eight lines of addressing information are shown as appearing at pins labeled A -A An input decoder 46 receives the five most significant bits of address information, labeled A -A and contains the x" decoder and address drivers. The input decoder 46 feeds the memory matrix 48.

An output encoder 50 receives the three least significant bits of address information, labeled A A and contains y decoder and address drivers. The output decoder 50 is coupled to an output buffer 52 which develops four data bits at pins labeled 0 -0 The second like memory receives the same address information and supplies at similar output buffer the additional four data bits.

FIG. 3 represents a truth table designating the contents of a memory which may be constructed to implement the principles of this invention. The left-most column labeled w represents 32 different relative width values which are to be multiplied by various point size factors p". The p values are shown across the top of the table. In the preferred embodiment six point type is chosen as the standard type size having a p value equal to unity. Type of other sizes are scaled upwardly or downwardly from the six point standard. The p values shown are 5/6, representing type of five points; p-fi/ l2, reis'rasefitihgaw ser 5 76 561m p- 1, representing type of six points; and p values equal to 7/6, 4/3, and 3/2, representing type of 7, 8, and 9 points, respectively. The table is only partially completed, showing representative adjusted width values for characters having a relative width w of 36-29 units and a size of 5 /2 points (shown as being stored as word numbers 32-39 in the memory), and for characters having relative widths w of 36-30 and a size of six point (stored in the memory as word numbers 64-70). In the table, -0 are the eight output data bits representing character adjusted width values. The binary point, as designated, appears between the output data bits O and 0 By way of example, assume that a character having a relative width w of 35 (as derived from the width look-up memory 20) is to be printed at 5 V2 points. Referring to the table in FIG. 3, at the location appointed word number 33 is stored in binary code the number 32. The exact product of 35 and 11/1 2 is 32 1/12. Since the least significant bit (0,) has a value of 1, the 1/12 remainder is dropped. For a value of w equal to 34 (word number 34) the adjusted width value 31 A is stored. This product represents a round-off from an exact value of 31 l/l6. The product of w and p for w==33 and p= l l/ 12 (mannerisms) is represented as an adjusted width value of 30 A which is an exact representation of the actual product of these two factors.

In the portion of the FIG. 3 table for p l (6 point type), it can be seen that the data bits to the right of the binary point (0 -0 are all equal to zero since no fractional values are generated in the multiplication of unity and w, all values of which are whole numbers.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention the encoder 38 develops a three bit code characterizingthe point size factors in the low half of the range of factors namely, 5, 5 /2, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The upper half of the range represents a doubling of the point size factors in the lower half of the range. The encoder 38supplies a signal to a Xl/XZ gate 42 identifying whether the selected point size is in the lower range or in the upper range. The gate 42, which may take the form of an and/or gate, effects a doubling of the adjusted character width value supplied to it from the multiplication memory 40 if the signal from the encoder 38 indicates that the selected point size factor is in the upper range. If the information from the encoder 38 supplied to the gate 42 indicates that a point size factor in the lower range has been selected, the adjusted width value from the multiplication memory 40 is passed unaltered through the gate 42. The output from the gate 42 is supplied toan accumulator 44 which functions in a well-known manner to add character and inter-character spaces for use by justification apparatus (not shown). The output is-also fed, after suitable processing when appropriate, to the described stepping motor driving the movable element in the character recording process.

The described multiplying structure, incorporating as the principal element a relatively low cost, high performance, very rapid and reliable memory device is much superior to multipliers used in prior type composing apparatus. Other memories of like structure but different content may be readily substituted to dramatically change the character spacing program. Such flexibility is very useful, for example, in kerning. Another advantage of multipliers according to this invention lies in the simplicity and east of use thereof.

A more detailed description of the width look-up memory 20 will now be engaged. The memory 20 may be an integrated circuit ROM, for example, of the bipolar or MOS type, having generally the same specifications as the memory 40. By way of example, if two sets of 102 characters each are carried on a given character carrier, a 256 word memory is needed. Five bits are sufficient to identify 32 different relative width values, an adequate number for general purpose type composition of the nature performed by photocomposing machines with which this invention is intended to be used. Thus, a 256 word by eight bit memory substantially as described above, may be employed. As described above, the memory 20 is addressed by eight lines of information carrying a succession of binary character codes. At the output (eight lines, three of which are unused) is developed a relative width value for each character code by which the memory is addressed. The character relative width values are utilized as discussed above.

The control structures and methods for character information as shown in connection with FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 can be employed for the control of many types of photocomposing machines. For example, photocomposing apparatus as disclosed in Higonnet and Moyroud U.S. Pat. No. 2,790,362 or photocomposing apparatus such as disclosed in Peery U.S. Pat. No. 2,787,654 and other photocomposing apparatus as disclosed in prior patents and as now commercially available may be improved by the control system described in these figures.

The control system as described was expressly designed and constructed for and has been combined with photocomposing apparatus of the type disclosed and claimed in co-pending application Ser. No. 878,368 filed Nov. 20, 1969 and entitled PI-IOTOCOMPOS- ING MACHINE WITH FLEXIBLE FIBER OPTICS SCANNING MEMBER. In that application is disclosed combination apparatus for printing alphanumeric and other character information by optical means. The machine as therein disclosed is illustrated in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 as follows:

In FIG. 4 is illustrated one embodiment of a photocomposing machine useful in combination with the control mechanisms of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, including generally, a character display device 70, an optical projection system 71, a flexible fiber optics bundle 72 and a recording station 73. These general components are so arranged operatively that a character is flashilluminated in the character display device and is projected by optical projection system 71 onto a fixed end of fiber optics bundle 72. The other end of the fiber optics bundle is movable in a scanning mode at the recording station 73, whereby a selected character is recorded in its desired position along a line on a photosensitive recording material in the recording station. The mode of motion of the movable terminal of fiber optics bundle 72 is a line-by-line motion across a surface such as a page. Generally speaking, the path projected onto the page is a narrow band desirably corresponding to a line or row of alphanumeric characters. The motion is considered generically a scanning motion, as it progresses line-by-line across the surface, but more specifically, it is a stepping motion consisting of thousands of discrete movements along the line.

The character display device, generally designated 70 and illustrated in FIGS. 4 and comprises a transparent character display drum 75 rotatably mounted on a post or axle 76. The periphery of the drum, which acts as a film strip receiving member 77, is transparent and may be constructed of a material such as glass or a transparent plastic material. According to the preferred embodiment, the entire drum 75 is constructed of an acrylic resin such as, for example, lucite.

Around the circumference of the drum 75 immediately adjacent to the film strip receiving member 77 are upper and lower flanges 79 and 80. The film strip receiving member 77 and these two flanges 79 and 80 are accurately machined to receive and hold a character storage member 71 in accurate position or register. The machine is as accurate as is consistent with production requirements. In the case of one specific machine, desirably, the upper and lower flanges are machined so that the face of film strip receiving member was 2 inches, with a tolerance of +0.002 inch and minus zero, whereby the character storage member is held in precise register.

At one or more positions around the circumference ofthe drum 75 and associated with the film strip receiving member 77 is a fastener 82 such as a rod, clamp or the like which is adapted to receive and hold one end of the character storage member 81. Desirably, the character storage member may be a strip of photographic film having characters and other marks recorded thereon and having a hole 83 near one end thereof which is adapted to slip around and beheld snugly between fastener 82. A second fastener 84 is also mounted on the character display drum and is positioned to hold the opposite end of the character storage member 81. Either or both of the fasteners 82 or 84 may be spring mounted and held in a retaining position by a spring 85. An insert hole 86 permits finger access to the fasteners 82 and 84 so that the spring 85 may be released, thus releasing one or both ends of the character storage member 81.

The character display drum 75 may be adapted to receive, display and convey one or several film records or character storage members 81. In practice, it has been found desirable and adequate to mount two members 81 on a drum 75, corresponding to two different type fonts such as ordinary light face type and italics. Several may be employed to add the option of bold face or other type styles, if desired. In addition, the effective printing speed of the machine corresponds to one character per drum revolution per character storage member, and machine speed may, if desired, be multiplied by a factor corresponding roughly to the number of character storage members 81 mounted on drum 75. Alternatively, more than one complete set of characters may be recorded on one character storage member.

Mounted within the character display drum 75 and positioned behind film strip receiving member 77 is a light 88 mounted for example, on a support member 89 secured to the frame of the machine. Opposite light 88 and with film strip receiving member therebetween, is

a photocell 90 suitably mounted on a support 91 adapted to receive and respond to illumination from light 88.

A lamp 93 is positioned also within the character display drum 75 and mounted on a suitable support 94, also secured to the frame of the machine. Light 88 and lamp 93 are positioned in different locations within the drum and desirably, the light 88 is positioned within the upper half of the drum 75 and the lamp 93 is positioned within the lower half of drum 75. Lamp 93 is capable of being flashed for an extremely short duration, such as, for example, a lamp of the type generally known as stroboscopic. This lamp may be an xenon lamp and is triggered for an extremely short duration flash. It has been found satisfactory to trigger this lamp for a flash duration of about 3 microseconds.

The entire drum assembly, consisting of the character display drum 75 and members mounted thereon is rotatably mounted on axle 76. This is accomplished for example, by means of a hub 96 mounted on bar 97 which may be connected, for example, with a rotatable sleeve 98. At the lower end of the sleeve 98 is a pulley 99 operatively driven by a drive member or belt 100 which, in turn is operatively mounted to be driven by pulley 101 on drive motor 102.

The character storage member 81 is a suitable permanent storage device having recorded thereon the information which is to be printed ultimately at the recording station 73. When the character storage member 81 is part of a photocomposing machine, the recorded information generally will be alphanumeric characters, including numbers, letters, punctuation and the like. These alphanumeric characters may be of any form desired, such as standard type face for photocomposition as ordinarily practiced in the printing industry. The character information may be capital letters, lower case letters, bold or light face, italics or whatever form is desired. They may be characters suitable for recording in the English language or in a foreign language and they may be characters for recording for the human eye or for machine reading. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the character storage member is easily removable and replaceable so that a series of different character storage members can correspond to a number of different type faces. In this way, the type corresponding to an entire print shop can be represented by a few film strips. Desirably, the character storage member is a strip of high contrast photographic film on which has been recorded a row of alphanumeric characters 104 and a row of character lines or timing lines 105. As illustrated in the drawings, the alphanumeric characters are recorded in a row near the bottom edge of the character storage member 81, lying on their sides, and the timing'lines are located in a row near the top edge of the member positioned vertically when the character storage member is mounted, on the film strip receiving member. The timing lines are positioned to pass between light 88 and photocell 90, while the characters pass between lamp 93 and optical projection system 71. The output of these timing lines is fed as an electric signal (as will hereinafter be described) to control means which identifies character position from character line information.

The optical projection system, generally designated 71, is illustrated in both FIGS. 4 and 5, but is perhaps more readily understood in the enlarged simplified presentation in FIG. 5. This optical projection system includes a plate or disc 107 which is rotatably mounted on a shaft 108. A flexible drive 111 may be mounted on shaft 108 to control its rotation and thus to bring a selected lens 114 to the operating position. In actual practice, the flexible drive 111 terminates in a control panel (not shown) at the front of the machine, thus permitting external control of the position of disc 107. A gear 109 mounted on shaft 108 meshes with and drives a position switch gear 110 on position switch 112.

A plurality of projection members or lenses 114 is mounted on disc 107 each lens being of a selected focal length and magnification ratio, so as to project an image of controlled magnification ratio from the face of film strip receiving member 77 to a fixed terminal end 115 of fiber optics bundle 72. Detent dimples 116 are adapted to receive a spring mounted detent ball (not shown) to releasably fix a selected one of the lenses 114 in operable position.

The recording station generally designated 73 comprises means to mount the output end of the fiber optics bundle 72 movable in a scanning or stepping mode and means to mount a recording member preferably movable at a 90 angle to the scanning motion of the fiber optics bundle, all as hereinafter described.

A carriage 120 is movably mounted on guide rods 121 and 122 which in turn are mounted to the machine frame. The fiber optics bundle 72 extends in a bend or loop and is mounted with'its output terminal 124 on the carriage, whereby the output terminal end 124 of the fiber optics bundle 72 is movable in a scanning mode across the recording station 73. A stepping motor 125 drives a pinion 126 operably engaging a rack 127 which transports the carriage 120 and thus the output terminal across the recording station.

Positioned on the recording station are upper and lower shafts 129 and 130 which carry sheet feed rollers I31 operable to convey a sheet or web of photosensitive material, such as paper or film 132 across the re cording station in a direction at right angles to the direction of motion of carriage 120. Drive gear 134 is mounted on lower drive shaft 130 and operatively engaging gear 135, movable by a sheet member stepping motor 136. Upper shaft 129 and the upper feed rollers are followers and are not driven.

As desired, the output terminal end of the fiber optics bundle may terminate in virtual contact with the photosensitive paper or film 132 or, preferably, may termi' nate in a projection lens positioned to focus onto the paper or film the light image carried by the fiber optics bundle 72.

Optionally, as desired for other utilizations, the operation of the drive mechanism, the optical projection system 71 end of the fiber optics bundle 72 may be reversed so that the fiber optics bundle may receive scanning information at its output terminal end and transmit it to its fixed terminal 115 in a device for encoding documentary information.

In FIG. 6 is illustrated a flow diagram of an electronic control center for the control and operation of the machine illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5. The control center generally comprises a tape reader 138 and a keyboard 139 alternatively or simultaneously operable to supply an input signal into input circuits 140. The input circuits 140, in turn, feed into a main control unit 141. A calculator unit 142 is connected to receive signals from size switches 144 (illustrated for example as position switch 112 in FIG. and to receive a signal from main control unit 141 and to return a signal into main control unit 141. An output signal from main control unit 141 is fed to an escape and leading control 145 which, in turn, feeds an output signal to the leading motor 147 and the escape motor 145. The main control unit 141 also feeds a signal to the photograph unit control 146 which receives a signal from the photocell pick up (illustrated for example as photocell in FIG. 5). The output of the photograph unit control is a signal operating flash unit 149 (to flash lamp 93 in FIG. 4.)

The invention is not limited to the particular details of construction of the embodiments depicted, and it is contemplated that various and other modifications and applications will occur to those skilled in the art.

Therefore, because certain changes may be made in the abovedescribed apparatus without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention herein involved, it is intended that the subject matter of the above depiction shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

We claim:

1. The improvement in type composing apparatus wherein a character printer scans along a printing line, comprising means controlling character spacing for line justiflcation for said type composing apparatus including means for generating a succession of signals designating relative width values "w characterizing the relative widths of a series of characters, and means for representing a succession of point size factors p, one for each character and means for retrieving a value corresponding to a multiple of a relative width value assigned to each character by a point size factor for that character, said improvement comprising:

a memory having stored therein products of w and p;

means for addressing said memory successively with paired values of w and p characterizing said characters in said series;

means for deriving as an output from said memory a succession of adjusted width values for said series of characters corresponding to products of w and p; and

control means controlled by said adjusted width values to advance the scanning of said character printer along the scan line at spacings corresponding to said adjusted width values.

2. The improvement in type composing apparatus wherein a character printer scans across a printing line comprising means controlling character spacing for line justification for said type composing apparatus including means for generating a succession of signals designating binary-coded relative width values w characterizing the relative widths of a series of characters, and means for representing a succession of binarycoded point size factors p, one for each character, means for retrieving a value corresponding to a multi ple of a relative width value assigned to each character by a point size factor for that character, said improvement comprising:

a read-only integrated circuit memory having permanently stored therein at mutually exclusive address locations substantially all possible products of w and p;

means for addressing said memory successively with paired values of w and p characterizing said characters in said series; and

means for deriving as a binary output from said memory a succession of products of w and p representing adjusted width values for said series of characters.

3. The improvement in type composing apparatus comprising combination means controlling character spacing for line justification comprising:

input means for representing in binary code a series of characters;

a read-only integrated circuit memory having permanently stored therein at mutually exclusive addresses a width value for each of said characters;

means responsive to said input means for addressing said memory with successive binary character codes; and

means for deriving from said memory in binary code a series of width values respectively associated with said series of characters.

4. The improvement in type composing apparatus comprising combination means controlling character spacing for line justification comprising:

input means for representing in binary code a series of characters;

a first memory having stored therein at mutually exclusive addresses a relative width value for each of said characters;

means responsive to said input means for addressing said first memory with successive binary character codes;

means for deriving from said first memory in binary code a series of relative width values w respectively associated with said series of characters;

means for representing a succession of point size factors p, one for each character; and

means for retrieving a value corresponding to a multiple of a relative width value assigned to each character by a point size factor for that character, comprising:

a second memory having stored therein products of w and p;

means for addressing said second memory successively with paired values of w and p characterizing said characters in said series; and

means for deriving as an output from said second memory a succession of products of p and w representing adjusted width values for said series of characters. I

5. Type composing apparatus comprising an optical character printer adapted to scan along a printing line, means to flash an image of an alphanumeric character to said printer, means to move a photorecording medium adjacent said printing line and positioned to receive optical alphanumeric characters therefrom, means controlling character spacing for line justification for said typecomposing apparatus including means for generating a succession of signals designating relative width values H characterizing the relative widths of a series of characters, and means for representing a succession of point size factors p, one for each character and means for determining a multiple ofa relative width value assigned to each character by a point size factor for that character, said improvement comprising:

a memory having stored therein products of w and p;

means for addressing said memory successively with paired values of wand p characterizing said characters in said series;

means for deriving as an output from said memory a succession of adjusted width values for said series of characters corresponding to products of w and p; and

control means controlled by said adjusted width values to advance the scanning of said character printer along the scan line at spacings corresponding to said adjusted width values.

6. In a photocomposing apparatus, an input circuit into which binary coded signals are successively fed which correspond to characters to be processed;

a first memory circuit controlled by said input circuit generating binary coded signals which correspond to the possible relative widths of the characters to be processed;

a size selection circuit generating binary coded signals corresponding to the selected size of the characters to be processed; and

a circuit controlled by said first memory circuit and said size selection circuit generating binary coded signals corresponding to the size of the characters to be processed, said circuit controlled by said first memory circuit and said size selection circuit and comprising:

a second memory circuit in which signals are stored corresponding to the possible size of the characters to be processed and which generates said signals according to the control by the first memory circuit and the size selection circuit to control character spacing in said photocomposing apparatus.

7. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein said second memory circuit is a read-only memory.

8. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein said second memory circuit is a read-only integrated circuit memory.

9. The improvement in type composing apparatus wherein a character printer scans along a printing line, comprising means controlling character spacing for line justification for said type composing apparatus including means for generating a succession of signals corresponding to relative width values w" characterizing the relative widths of a series of characters, and means for representing a succession of signals corresponding to point size factors p," one for each character and means for retrieving a value corresponding to a selected adjusted width value assigned to each character and its point size factor, said improvement comprising:

a memory having stored therein a plurality of widths corresponding to adjusted width values;

means for addressing said memory successively with paired signals corresponding to values of w and p characterizing said characters in said series;

means for deriving as an output from said memory a succession of absolute width values for said series of characters in response to signals corresponding to w and p; and

control means controlled by said adjusted width values to advance the scanning of said character printer along the scan line at spacings corresponding to said adjusted width values.

\ mg O UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patint No. 3,785,258 Dated Jan. 15, 1974 Inventofls) E.A Aron; L .E Griffith It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

[ In The Abstract, I

line 2 delete "its" and insert -in- Column 1 line 17 after "for" insert the- Signed and Scaled this sixteenth D ay 0f March 1976 [SEAL] Attest:

RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DANN Arresting ff Commissioner ofPatents and Trademarks UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patient No 3,785,258 Dated Jan. 15, 1974 Inventofls) E.A. Aron; L.E. Griffith.

It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below: 0 v

r In The Abstract, 1

line 2, delete "its" and insert in Column 1, line 17, after "for" insert the Signed and Scaled this sixteenth Day Of March 1976 Q [SEAL] Attest:

RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer Commissioner oj'Parents and Trademarks o I. J

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2876687 *Jun 24, 1952Mar 10, 1959Graphic Arts Res Foundation InType composing apparatus
US3422736 *Mar 22, 1965Jan 21, 1969Photon IncType composing apparatus
US3511141 *Mar 6, 1967May 12, 1970Monotype Corp LtdPhotocomposer motor control apparatus
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5724498 *Jun 7, 1995Mar 3, 1998Adobe Systems IncorporatedMethod and apparatus for concealing character modifications made for text composition purposes
US5724596 *Aug 25, 1992Mar 3, 1998Lathrop; Stephen P.Algorithmic character-space adjustment computed from character-sequence-based constants and font size
US5803629 *Mar 14, 1997Sep 8, 1998Paul H. NevilleMethod and apparatus for automatic, shape-based character spacing
Classifications
U.S. Classification396/553, 199/18, 400/6, 276/8, 396/552
International ClassificationB41B27/00, B41B27/32
Cooperative ClassificationB41B27/32
European ClassificationB41B27/32
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Effective date: 19890915