|Publication number||US3785383 A|
|Publication date||Jan 15, 1974|
|Filing date||Mar 29, 1971|
|Priority date||Mar 29, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3785383 A, US 3785383A, US-A-3785383, US3785383 A, US3785383A|
|Original Assignee||Anglemyer A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (18), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 11 1 1111 3,75,383 Dotto Jan. 15, 1974 ELECTROSTATIC WAND Primary Examiner-William E. Kamm  mentor: Gianni A. Dom) Dayton Ohio Att0rneylrvin V. Gleim, Edward M. Tritle and Francis M. Crawford  Assignee: Alfred A. Anglemyer, Dayton, Ohio 221 Filed: Mar. 29, 1971 [571 ABSTRACT I Electrostatic means radiating electrical energy at se- [21 1 Appl' 128313 lected frequencies of the order of megacycles per seci cud is safely and harmlessly coupled capacitively to [52 US. Cl. 128/414 tissue Structure of a human being or of an animal with 51 1m. 01 A6ln 1/06 no signifiesni flow of elections for reducing sensiiiviiy  Field of Search 128/404, 413, 414, to p at least temporarily The radiating means y 12 5 330313; 313/152 comprise an evacuated glass envelope containing a selected atmosphere of inert gas and also containing an [56 References Cited electrode that is intermittently subjected to an electro- UNITED STATES PATENTS positive voltage during certain portions of the cycle to promote positive space charges within the envelope g i g together with a controlled amount of ionization of said l0 6/1942 Running 128/404 atmosphere and the production of selected forms of electromagnetic radiation such as infra red light, ultra violet light, visible light, and mixtures thereof.
4 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures VA R/A /9 TRAA/JFORME/FZ FREQUENCY CONVERTER -1 1- v /5 GENERATOR /2 F /4 Z3 2 /-24 DC PPM 1? JY/PPL Y /3 PATENTEDJAN 1 5 1914 SHEEI 2 BF 2 INVENTOR.
G/A/V/V/ ,4. BYW d ELECTROSTATIC WAND BACKGROUND There are many known influences that can reduce or augment the threshold of pain reaction as opposed to pain reception. For example, devices employed heretofore for the relief of pain include heating devices such as hot water bottles, hot packs, electrically heated pads and blankets, radiant heating devices, diathermic devices, whirlpool baths and the like. While such devices are generally effective they are subject to certain disadvantages and/or limitations. Conductive heating devices heat only the areas with which they are in. contact and are not particularly suited for irregular bodily surfaces. Conductive heating devices, such as the whirlpool bath, heat all immersed areas generally rather then locally.
Additionally, it has long been known that skin or cutaneous tissues are quite sensitive to pain whereas certain organs that are more deeply disposed within the body, such as the viscera, are quite insensitive to pain when judged by criteria applicable to the skin but are sensitive to tissue distension or muscular contraction. For example, a limb muscle can be quite painful if exercised while its blood supply is cut off, and other relatively deep tissues to pain include the periosteum (bone covering). Thus, depending upon the nature and location of the factors causing the pain sensation, analgesic methods and/or devices in many instances need to be applied in particular locations for effective relief from pain.
SUMMARY Accordingly, the principal objective of the present invention is to obviate the above-noted difficulties and efficiencies. This is accomplished, in accordance with the present invention, by the provision of means establishing electropositive space charges at high frequencies within an evacuated glass envelope with or without accompanying electromagnetic radiation. It can be applied to tissue structure safely and at a desired location for reducing, at least temporarily, sensitivity to pain.
DESCRIPTION These and other objectives of the invention will become apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a simplified circuit diagram illustrating one embodiment of the invention including means for producing intermittent electropositive space charges within an envelope or envelopes;
FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of one of the envelopes of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a modification of the envelope of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a view illustrating a modified embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a wiring diagram of the converter portion of the embodiment of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 6 illustrates an electrical circuit equivalent to the electrical circuit of human or animal tissue structure.
The human body is known to consist of a composite mass of tissues which have electrical constants like any other substance or matter. In other words, all of the tissues act as conductors of electrical energy to a varying extent. In human tissues, all cells are bathed in lymph or other intercellular fluid and an electrical current, in order to reach the cells, has to pass through this fluid. The tissue fluids consist of a solution of water, albumin, fibrin, and salts.
An equivalent electrical curcuit of human tissue structure is shown in FIG. 6. The electrolyte surrounding the cells is resistive. The cell electrical characteristics are illustrated as being in parallel with the characteristics of the electrolyte. The cell wall or membrane and'the cell interior are each equivalent to resistance and capacitance connected in parallel. The values of capacitance and resistance are a function of cell shape radius andvolume concentration. At low frequencies (below 300 megacycles) current tends to bypass the relatively high capacitance of the cells through the conductants of the electrolyte which surrounds it. As the capacitive reactance drops at higher frequencies, the current passes into the cell. At higher frequencies of the order of 1,000 megacycles current conducts primarily at the skin surface.
Experimental and clinical work with electrical energy of high frequency has shown that this form of energy can pass through electrically non-conductive surfaces because dielectric permeability or conductivity increases with the increase of the frequency of currents. The flow of an electrical force through the insulating or dielectric medium is known as a current capacitive current in contrast to the conduction" current through an ordinary electrical circuit at 60 cycles per second or with direct current. The unit of dielectric permeability is that of air under normal pressure. Body tissues and fluids transmit electrical field force from to times better than air space.
Such prior experimental and clinical work has also revealed that structures such as fat, bones, and so forth are relatively poor conductors and may have currents conducted through them only if sufficiently high frequency currents are applied to them.
Prior clinical and experimental work has also shown that the various diseases and/or ailments to which tissue may be subjected are sensitive or are resonant at differing frequencies. Accordingly, it is desired both to provide a method and means to supply sufficient numbers of frequencies to meet all of the combinations of reactance and resistance that may be presented by living tissue structure. There areliterally an infinite number of electrical circuits within human tissue and they require a range of frequencies to meet the various combinat ions of reactance and resistance to permit penetrationof the electrical energy into the tissue structure. These equivalent electrical circuits of the tissue structure all have a different electrical impedance and they will conduct radio frequency current at a maximum peaking level when the impedences of these many circuits are at resonance with the frequency.
Apparatus embodying the present invention is indicated generally in FIG. I and comprises a variable frequency generator 10. Variable frequency generators are previously known and will not be described in detail except to state that they comprise a tunable electrical circuit and suitable means selectively controlling the variable frequency output at a desired frequency.
The variable frequency output from generator 10 is fed through line 12 into a converter ll which also received the output from a direct current power supply via connecting lines l4, 15. The converter includes a tunable circuit which functions to deliver a converter output signal with full-wave voltage amplification of the signal received from generator at a desired value of output current, and at a frequency corresponding to that provided by the generator.
The output from the converter is fed through a line 18 to the primary winding 19 of transformer 20. The primary winding 19 is connected to ground through a line 21. The secondary winding 22 of the transformer is connected by lines 23, 24 to a pair of glass envelopes 25, 26. Envelopes 25 and 26 are identical in construction so that the following description concerning one of these envelopes will apply equally to the other.
Line or conductor 23 is connected at one end to the secondary winding 22 of transformer and its opposite end is connected to an electrode 27 which is housed within evacuated glass envelope 25. As shown in FIG. 2, the inner end of glass envelope is silver plated to provide a full mirror surface 28 surrounding the distal end of the electrode. The opposite end of envelope 25 is formed to a ball-shaped enlargement 29 the inner surface of which is provided with about 5 percent silver plating 30.
Envelope 25 also houses therein an annular ring 16 of conductive material that is connected to anode 27 by a flexible connector 17. Ring 16 is smaller in size than the internal diameter of the envelope 25 so as to be freely slidable along the extent of the envelope.
For reasons which will appear as the description proceeds, it is desirable to provide means for adjustably positioning ring 16 at selectable positions along the extent of envelope 25. This is accomplished in accordance with the invention by the provision of a permanent magnet 32 housed within an annular housing 31 of a suitable material such as plastic that will not interfere with the magnetic attraction exerted by magnet 32 on ring 30. Housing 31 is fitted to a sleeve 33 having an internal dimension slightly greater than the external dimension of envelope 25 so that the housing and sleeve are also slidable along the extent of the envelope. As the housing is selectively positioned at various selected locations along the extent of envelope 25, the magnetic attraction exerted by magnet 32 on ring 16 causes the ring to follow such movement of the housing to a selected position of the ring.
In accordance with the invention, the glass envelope may contain an atmosphere which has been evacuated to a pressure of about 28 mm. of mercury prior to adding 1 mm. of mercury of a gas such as helium and also about l/lO mm. of mercury of another gas such as neon.
During operation of the device, at proper portions of the operating cycle the transformer 20 will drive conductor 23 and the anode 27 to a potential which is electrostatically positive relative to ground. However, since the anode 26 is isolated in an essentially nonconductive atmosphere, no significant electron flow will occur because there is no significant source of electrons which can be moved by the positive voltage, and the electrode 27 merely becomes electrostatically positive. The same is true with respect to the anode contained within envelope 26 when the conductor 24 receives a positive voltage. Accordingly, the respective electrodes contained within envelopes 25, 26 function as intermittent positive electrostatic poles. When the electrode in envelope 25 is electrostatically positive, the electrode housed within envelope 26 is at a negative or ground potential, and vice versa.
The previously described quantities of helium and neon which were introduced into the atmosphere contained within envelopes 25, 26 permit a controlled amount of ionization to occur within said atmospheres. Such ionization assists in distributing intermittently positive voltage to the ball-shaped enlargements 29 and, as ionization occurs within the envelopes, electrons are drawn toward the electrodes 27, thus promoting positive space charges within each of the ballshaped enlargements of the respective envelopes.
Such ionization also produces a certain amount of radiant energy in the form of illumination which may pass through the glass envelopes to ground.
Preferably, envelopes 25, 26 are each provided with a shield (not shown) of high capacity with respect to the electrode that it surrounds thus diminishing the electrostatic field strength at the glass which immediately surrounds each ofthe electrodes. This prevents an undesired arcing which would otherwise result should a grounded conductor be placed in proximity to the exterior of the glass wall surrounding either of the electrodes.
With the device in operation, the electrodes within envelopes 25, 26 function as isolated electrostatic poles that are intermittently driven positive and negative. When one of the electrodes is placed in contact with tissue structure, as indicated in FIG. 6, the electrostatic field which is changing rapidly in the megacycle frequency range becomes capacitively coupled to ground by the equivalent electrical circuit of the tissue structure. The skin tissue will then experience intermittent positive voltages so that electrons in the skin tissue are exposed to active agitation but essentially no current flows between the skin tissue and the glass envelope. The degree of such agitation will be greatly increased when both envelopes 25, 26 are applied to the tissue structure.
By careful pre-selection of the nature of the gases introduced into the glass envelopes and also by careful selection of the optical transmittency of the envelopes, various forms of electro-magnetic radiation can be permitted to accompany such electron agitation. Thus, at the same time the electron agitation is taking place, the tissue structure may also be irradiated with infra red light, or with ultra violet light, or with visible light, or with mixtures of the three.
Regarding such electro-magnetic radiation, it is to be recognized that skin tissue structure will have varying capacities to absorb such radiation and as absorption occurs electrons are freed within the skin tissues. More specifically, for a given frequency and exciting voltage, a certain amount of electron agitation will occur in the skin tissue structure being touched by the glass envelopes. If the skin tissue is simultaneously irradiated with light of a proper frequency, the degree of electron agitation within the skin tissue can be increased, and by controlling the light color, the depth of light penetration can also be controlled.
Obviously, there is a vast range of optical excitations that can be caused to accompany the electrostatic agitation of electrons in the tissue structure. Experiments have shown that beneficial effects from the particular combination of helium and neon, noted heretofore, are obtained. Beneficial results are also observed if the helium and neon are replaced by about 1 mm. of mercury of argon. Beneficial results have also been observed when the glass envelope is so-called black glass" having a high ultra violet transmission and the gas atmosphere within the envelope comprises air evacuated to a pressure of about 28 mm. of mercury to which 1 mm. of xenon has been added. The beneficial results noted include relief from pain from localized cuts and bruises, relief of arthritic pain, toothaches, and the like, sometimes for prolonged periods of time.
Without intendingto limit the present invention, it is my present preference to employ a transformer having a secondary designed to provide voltages of the order of l2,000-l5,000 volts across their secondaries.
In FIG. 3, there is shown a glass envelope of the same basic construction as that described above in connection with FIG. 2, the principal difference being that in FIG. 3 the glass envelope terminates with a pointed projection having a small end portion 2%. As noted heretofore, the controlled atmosphere within the glass envelope and the presence of certain selected gases therein promotes a positive space charge at the end of the envelope which is opposite the electrode. The relatively pointed shape of the electrode in FIG. 3 functions to concentrate such positive space charge and is sufficiently small in physical dimensions that treatment can be applied to a relatively small and carefully selected portion of skin tissue structure.
Those skilled in the art are aware of the fact that there is a known relationship between frequency and wave length. And it can be shown that the wave length of electro-magnetic energy corresponding to a frequency of 1,000 megacycles per second is about 30 centimeters in length, and that for a frequency of 300 megacycles the corresponding wave length is about 100 centimeters.
In accordance with the present invention the distance between the mirrored surfaces 28 and 30 is chosen to correspond with one quarter wave length of the desired frequency. Thus, by utilizing a distance between mirrored surfaces 28 and 30 of about centimeters, the wave harmonics and the adjustability provided by the selectively positionable ring 16 provides effective utility over a frequency range of from about 300 to about 1,000 megacycles.
A modification of the device is illustrated in FIG. 4. The device shown in FIG. 4 differs from that of FIG. 1 in that a single transformer 20a having a secondary winding 22a provided with a center tap to ground is connected to the glass envelopes 25, 26. Transformer 20a has its primary winding 19a connected to a suitable source of alternating current such as a conventional 115 volt, 60 cycle, source. In this embodiment, the variable frequency generator, the converter and the direct current power supply elements are not employed.
The embodiment of FIG. 4 functions essentially like that of FIG. 1 in that, although the device is supplied with a 60 cycle alternating current, the glass envelopes 25, 26 function essentially as indicated above since the selective positionability of ring 16 between the reflective surfaces of mirrors 28 and enables the device to function at selected frequencies within the above noted frequency range. Thus, the embodiment shown in FIG. 4 is suitable for use by physicians in their offices where the expense and complication of the additional equipment shown in FIG. 1 may not be economically feasible.
Converter 11 comprises terminals 12a, 14a, 15a and an output terminal 18a interconnected by an electrical circuit 40, as shown in FIG. 5. Terminal 12a is adapted to be connected to line 12 to receive a signal from variable frequency generator 10. Terminals 14a, 15a are adapted to be connected to lines 14, 15, respectively, to receive negative and positive voltages from direct current power supply means 13.
The electrical circuit superimposes the variable frequency signal upon the direct current voltage at differing levels thereof and thereby provides at output terminal 18a a full-wave output signal of desired wave form, such as a square wave, and corresponding to the frequency of the selectable variable frequency input signal. In accordance with'the invention, said electrical circuit comprises semiconductor materials such as diodes and transistors of both the p-n-p and the n-p-n type and employs, in a follower type circuit, complementary symmetry to take advantage of the opposite bias and signal polarities of the transistors.
The electrical circuit includes negative line 14b and positive line 15b with output signal line 18b interposed therebetween. Lines 14b, 15b, respectively, are connected to terminals 14a, 15a and each is interconnected with output signal line 18b by complementary amplifier circuits each of which comprises a plurality of transistors. Transistor 41 is of the p-n-p type and is base connected by line 42 in series with resistor 43 to line 15b. Transistor 41 is emitter-connected by line 44 in series with resistor 45 to line 1512. It will be understood that resistors 43, 45 will have differing values of resistance chosen to provide the proper bias voltage for transistor 41. Transistor 46 is of the n-p-n type and is base-connected by line 47 to receive the collector voltage of transistor 41. Line 18b is series connected by lines 48, 49 and diodes 50, 51 to receive the collector voltage of transistor 46.
Transistor 52 is also of the n-p-n type and is baseconnected by lines 53, 54, diodes 55, parallelconnected with by-pass resistor 55a to line 47 to receive the collector voltage of transistor 41. Transistor 52 is emitter-connected to line 15!) by lines 56, 57 and series-connected resistor 58 to provide desired voltage to the emitter.
Transistor 59 is base connected by line 60 to receive the emitter voltage of transistor 52. Transistor 59 is of the p-n-p type and its emitter is series-connected by resistor 61 and line 56 to line 15b. The collector of transistor 59 is series-connected to line 18b by resistor 62.
Transistor 63 is of the n-p-n type and is baseconnected by line 64 to receive the collector voltage of transistor 59. The emitter of transistor 63 is connected by line 65 to line 15b, and its collector is seriesconnected to line 18b by resistor 66. Connected to lines 57 and 60 and in parallel with resistor 58 is a line 67 including diodes 68.
Transistors 59a and 63a are similarly connected between lines 14b and 18b with corresponding connected lines, resistors, and diodes bearing a like number with the suffix 11. However, in the case of the transistors, where transistor 59 is of the p-n-p type, transistor 59a is of the opposite type, that is n-p-n type. Similarly, transistor 63 is of the n-p-n type and transistor 63a is of the p-n-p type.
Additionally, transistor 52 and transistor 52a are of opposite types, the former being of the n-p-n type and the latter being of the p-n-p type. Transistor 52a is base-connected in series with resistor 69 which in turn is connected to line 18b. Line 70 interconnects the collector of transistor 52 with the emitter of transistor 52a.
Transistor 41a is of the n-p-n type, opposite from that of transistor 41, and is base-connected by lines 71, 72 and in series with resistor 73 to line b. The emitter of transistor 41a is connected by lines 48a, 74 to the base of transistor 52a. The collector of transistor 41a is series-connected by line 75 and resistor 76 to line 14b.
As noted heretofore, a variable frequency signal is superimposed upon direct current signals. The superimposed signal is received by transistor 80 which is base-connected to line 71 with its collector seriesconnected to line 14b by resistor 81. Transistor 80 is of the n-p-n type and its emitter is interconnected with the collectors of transistors 82, 83 by line 84.
Transistors 82, 83 are both of the n-p-n type. Transistor 82 is base-connected to ground, and its emitter is series-connected to line 151) by resistor 43 and line 85. Similarly, the emitter of transistor 83 is seriesconnected to line 15b by resistor 43a and line 86. Transistor 83 is base-connected to terminal 12a for receiving the variable frequency signal from line 12 by line 12b and resistor 87 which may be variable, if desired.
While particular embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, various changes and modifications can be made without departing from the invention and it is intended in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications that fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An electrostatic wand for the relief of pain upon contact with tissue structure comprising walls of electrically-insulating material forming an enclosure having therein an elongate evacuated cavity, and
an electrically-conducting member extending through said enclosure walls and having one end portion disposed within one end of said cavity and having a second end portion terminating externally of said walls and adapted to be connected to a source of electropositive electrical voltage pulses of the order of about 12,000 to about 15,000 volts and at variable frequencies in the range of about 300 to about 1,000 megacycles per second,
said walls having a tissue-contacting external surface positioned opposite said one end of said cavity capacitively coupling said variable frequency pulses to ground potential when said surface is in contact with tissue structure,
mirror surfaces within said cavity at opposite ends thereof and adjacent said conducting member and said external surface respectively,
an annular member of electrically conducting material slidably disposed within said cavity for reciprocation therein,
means electrically connecting said annular member to said conducting member, and
means slidably mounted externally of said walls for reciprocation thereon and concomitantly selectively positioning said annular member,
wherein said cavity is evacuated to a pressure of about 28 mm. of Hg. below atmospheric pressure and said cavity contains an inert gas at a pressure of about 1 mm. of Hg. absolute.
2. A wand according to claim 1 and additionally including means magnetically coupling said annular member with said externally mounted slidable means.
3. Structure according to claim 1 wherein said mirror surfaces are spaced apart a distance about one fourth of the wavelength corresponding to the frequency at the lower end of said frequency range.
4. Structure according to claim 3 wherein said distance is in the range from about 7 centimeters to about 25 centimeters.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,785,383 Dated January 15, 1974 Inventofls) ni-A. DOtto It is certified that error. appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
On the cover sheet, in the heading, item  should read as follows Assignee: l/2 to Alfred A. Anglemyer,
Dayton, Ohio v Signed and sealed this1 8th day of June (SEAL) Attest: a
I EDWARD M. FLEITCHYERI,JR. I c. MARSHALL DANN AttestingOffiCer Commissioner of'Patents v USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 w u.s. GOVERNMENT Hi1 rm no OFFICE IBIS 0-366-334.
F ORM PO-105O (10-69)
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1570041 *||Mar 12, 1923||Jan 19, 1926||Adolph W Gast||Electrode for high-frequency generators|
|US1655783 *||Sep 14, 1926||Jan 10, 1928||Gallois Robert||Electrode for the combined therapeutic application of high-frequency current and of ultra-violet radiation|
|US2286110 *||Jan 18, 1940||Jun 9, 1942||William Running||Diathermy apparatus|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4402311 *||Mar 19, 1980||Sep 6, 1983||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Endoscope for medical treatment|
|US4646743 *||May 9, 1984||Mar 3, 1987||Parris Danny M||Therapy radiation apparatus for veterinary medicine|
|US4846178 *||May 11, 1987||Jul 11, 1989||Beijing Information Technology Institute||Electric field therapeutic apparatus|
|US4930504 *||Nov 13, 1987||Jun 5, 1990||Diamantopoulos Costas A||Device for biostimulation of tissue and method for treatment of tissue|
|US4989605 *||Mar 31, 1989||Feb 5, 1991||Joel Rossen||Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) device|
|US5038780 *||Apr 29, 1988||Aug 13, 1991||The Biotronics Research Corp.||Method and apparatus for capacitively regenerating tissue and bone|
|US5259380 *||Nov 15, 1990||Nov 9, 1993||Amcor Electronics, Ltd.||Light therapy system|
|US5540681 *||Jan 10, 1994||Jul 30, 1996||Medtronic Cardiorhythm||Method and system for radiofrequency ablation of tissue|
|US5571152 *||May 26, 1995||Nov 5, 1996||Light Sciences Limited Partnership||Microminiature illuminator for administering photodynamic therapy|
|US5573533 *||Apr 10, 1992||Nov 12, 1996||Medtronic Cardiorhythm||Method and system for radiofrequency ablation of cardiac tissue|
|US5584830 *||Mar 30, 1994||Dec 17, 1996||Medtronic Cardiorhythm||Method and system for radiofrequency ablation of cardiac tissue|
|US5908444 *||Jun 19, 1997||Jun 1, 1999||Healing Machines, Inc.||Complex frequency pulsed electromagnetic generator and method of use|
|US6217604||Aug 24, 1998||Apr 17, 2001||Healing Machines, Inc.||Method for treating diseased states, in particular AIDS, using an electromagnetic generator|
|US7979121||Jul 12, 2011||Lazure Scientific, Inc.||Method and apparatus for physiological treatment with electromagnetic energy|
|US20040167589 *||Feb 22, 2003||Aug 26, 2004||Chester Heath||Viral-inhibiting apparatus and methods|
|US20070073372 *||Nov 8, 2006||Mar 29, 2007||Chester Heath||Viral-inhibiting apparatus and methods|
|US20070265663 *||Dec 13, 2006||Nov 15, 2007||Azure Limited Partnership 1||Method and apparatus for physiological treatment with electromagnetic energy|
|WO1996037255A1 *||Mar 18, 1996||Nov 28, 1996||Light Sciences Limited Partnership||Microminiature illuminator for administering photodynamic therapy|
|International Classification||A61N1/40, A61N1/06, A61N5/06|
|Cooperative Classification||A61N1/06, A61N5/0619, A61N1/40|
|European Classification||A61N1/40, A61N5/06C6, A61N1/06|