US 3788111 A
A lock of the pin tumbler type having locking blades within a rotating cylinder. The locking blades extend on both sides of the cylinder and lock the cylinder against rotation when the key is withdrawn. Locking grooves in the frame receive the blades to prevent rotation. The locking edges of the blades, and the groove edges, are inclined slightly from the axis motion of the blades so that, in the locking position, the edges of the blades are wedged against the groove edges, preventing even the slightest rotation of the cylinder.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United, States Patent 1191 Parlier 1 Jan. 29, 1974  KEYLOCK FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Inventori Roger Ernest Parlier, Villa Pfelac, 1,536,674 7/1968 France 70/379 R Perroy, Switzerland 1,172,981 v 6/1964 Germany 70/364 R Filed: Feb. 8, 1972 Appl. No.: 224,534
Foreign Application Priority Data Feb, 24, 1971 Switzerland 2636/71 US. Cl. 70/364 R, 70/377, 70/379 R, 70/DlG. 60
Int. Cl E05b 15/14, EOSb 29/02 Field of Search 70/364 R, 377, 379 R, 380, 70/DIG. 60, 375, 461
11/1967 Lett 7/1938 Gray 70/377 X ,lrimerym iaqmi e rli be tk-..
Wm. O. Heilrnan [5 7] ABSTRACT 4 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJAN 29 I974 sum 1 [IF 3 KEYLOCK The present invention relates to a keylock comprising a rotating cylinder within a frame which contains diametrically disposed locking blades and return springs adapted to cause said blades to engage at one end in a locking groove of the frame when the key is withdrawn.
This lock is characterized by the fact that the cylinder comprises a case having end parts of generally circular shape connected to each other by two longitudinal parts, each having a cross-section having the shape of a circular segment and the parallel inner faces of which constitute the opposite walls of a crosswise recess in which there is contained a removable assembly supporting the locking blades and the return springs.
One of the features of the invention includes the use. of diametrically disposed locking blades which engage grooves in both sides of the frame. Such a lock is very difficult to open without the proper key.
Another feature of the invention is the wedge-like action of the locking blades within the grooves in the frame. Theblades are spring urged to seat firmly in the grooves and make manipulation of the lock without the key practically impossible.
Still another feature of the invention is the manner of retaining the springs within the rotating cylinder, thereby simplifying assembly operations.
One embodiment of the lock forming the object of the invention is shown by way of example in the accompanying drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section through this embodiment along the line 11 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a section perpendicular to the section of FIG. 1, along the line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are cross-sections taken along the lines 33 and 4-4 respectively of FIG. 1 on a slightly larger scale;
FIG. 5 is a cross-section along the line 55 of FIG. 1, on a larger scale;
FIG. 6 is a detail view in perspective of the spring enclosures on a larger scale;
- FIG. 7 isa detail view of the locking blades on a larger scale.
The double-cylinder lock shown comprises in a frame 1 two opposing cylinder 2, 2' held axially in the frame by rings 3 and a tongue 4 mounted for rotation on the inner ends of the two cylinders (FIG. 2).
The two cylinders 2, 2' are identical; they each have a case of generally cylindrical shape 5 comprising end parts 5a and 5b of generally circular shape connected to each other by two longitudinal parts 50 and 5d having a cross-section of the shape of a circular segment (FIG. 5). The inner faces 6a and 6b of the parts 50 and 5d which are established in parallel planes constitute the opposite walls of a recess 6 which passes through the cylinder.
The two cylinders 2, 2 are intended to turn in the frame 1. v
The tongue 4 has an opening 4a in the form of a cross. The inner end parts Sb of the two cylinders 2 and 2 are cut so as to form diametric slots 7 and 7'. In the slot 7 there are engaged the diametrically opposed wings 8a and 8b of a first slider 8 which is thus fixed in rotation with the cylinder 2. In the slot 7' there are engaged the corresponding wings of a second slider 8' which is fixed in rotation with the cylinder 2.
The two sliders 8 and 8', which are rotatably mounted on a central pin 9, have cylindrical bearing surfaces housed in bores of corresponding diameter drilled in the end parts of the cylinders. The pin 9 and the two sliders 8 and 8 are movable axially and in the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 the slider 8 is engaged in the opening 4a of the tongue 4 which is thus fixed in rotation with the cylinder 2. The slider 8 which is pushed back into the slot of the cylinder 2 is, on its part, completely freed from the opening of the tongue 4. The end parts of the case 5 are pierced by an axial opening 11 in which there can slide the tail 12a ofa flat key 12 shown introduced into the cylinder 2' of the lock in the lower portion of FIG. 2. The shank of the key has lateral grooves 12b and the opening 11 has complementary ribs which permit the passage of the key only in one direction. The length of the key is determined in such a manner that its front end 12c cooperates with the pin 9 to bring the slider of the cylinder in which the key is engaged into engagement with the tongue 4, while releasing the opposite slider from the tongue.
As a result of the cross shape imparted to the opening 4a of the tongue, the latter can be mounted on the cylinders in four different angular positions apart from each other. This possibility of mounting the tongue in positions 90 apart without turning it makes it possible to effect an adjustment of the position of the tongue by only partially withdrawing the cylinder alone whose slider is in engagement with the tongue in order to free it from said slider. During this operation, which requires the removal of the ring 3 of the cylinder to be displaced, the other cylinder remains in position and its inner end continues to serve as pivot for the tongue which therefore cannot be freed from the frame 1.
This possibility of modifying the angular position of the tongue by 90 without removing one of the cylinders, nor having to turn the tongue, makes it possible to place the tongue easily on the right or on the left, depending on the use of the lock, without the danger of losing any parts.
The bore holes of the frame 1 containing the cylinders each have two axial locking grooves 13, 15 (FIGS. 2 and 5), which are diametrically opposite, adapted to engage the ends of the locking blades described below, and intended to prevent the cylinders from turning as long as a key of suitable shape is not introduced into the cylinder.
In the continuous recess 6 of each cylinder there are housed eleven small parallel guide plates 15 which are held assembled in a package by two axial rods 16 threaded in corresponding holes of said plates (FIGS. 1 and 3).
The stationary plates 15 and the rods 16 thus constitute a removable unit inserted in the continuous recess 6 of the case 5 of the cylinder.
Each plate 15 has a straight edge 15a resting against the adjacent face 6b of the recess 6, two circular edges 15b and 15c being inscribed in the bore of the frame 1, and a linear edge 15d parallel to the edge 15a which is engaged in a narrow corresponding groove 60 recessed in the face 6a of the recess 6 (FIGS. 1 and 5)..
The edge 15d is on an edge portion 15e of the plate which is thinner due to lateral recesses 15: recessed in the latter (FIG. 6). The recesses 15: house the return springs 25 for the locking blades.
In their right-hand parts 15f threaded on the rods 16 (FIG. 5) the guide plates rest against each other, while their left-hand parts 15g, which are formed with notches (FIG. 1), leave between each other free slots in which there are housed ten locking blades 19. These blades 19 have parallel sides 19a and 19b in contact with a shoulder 15h of the adjacent stationary plate 15 and with the face 6a of the continuous recess 6 respectively (FIG. 5).
Each blade 19 contains a notch 22 cut therein. This notch comprises a bottom part 23 through which the shank 12a of the key passes and an entrance part 24 (FIG. 5). One edge 23a of the notch is adapted to cooperate with the lower edges of the key, while a spring compressed between an edge 24a of the notch and a bearing plate 26, urges the blade 19 downward (FIG. 5). In the absence of the key, the blade 19 is moved by the spring 25 into an extreme lower position determined by the stop of the lower end part 190 of the blade in the corresponding locking groove 14 (FIG. 5).
During the displacement of the key in the cylinder, the blade is caused to rise upon the passage of a high portion of the key such as that indicated at 122 (FIG. 5) or 12a (FIG. 2) and the opposite end part 19d of the blade 19 which is caused to pass beyond the outer surface of the cylinder, then passes momentarily into the opposite groove 13. Since the locking grooves 13 and 14 are slightly staggered laterally towards the left with respect to the axis BB of the cylinder (FIG. 3), the key can therefore be withdrawn only in the single angular position of the cylinder which is shown in the figure.
The bearing plate 26 is engaged, as can be noted from FIG. 6, in longitudinal grooves 27a recessed in the linear edges 15d of the plates 15 and which extend in directions perpendicular to the slots 20.
The grooves 27a are arranged along two lines which are shifted laterally from the axial plane of the cylinder.
The locking blades 19 can be mounted in both directions in the slots 20 to cooperate with one or the other of the edges of the key, the corresponding bearing plate 26 being displaced accordingly.
When several adjacent locking blades 19 are placed in the same direction, like the three blades 19x, 19y and 191 (FIG. 2) for instance, a common bearing plate 2611 can be provided. I
In a variant, the plates 15 connected by the rods 16 can be replaced by a single element in which there are developed guide slots for the locking blades 19 and the springs 25.
This element, which is produced, for instance, by molding, could also have foundry cast bridges resulting from casting to replace the bearing plates 26. These bridges can be provided in different positions, depending on the type of cylinder. Such a method of manufacture which makes it possible to reduce the cost is particularly indicated in the case of locks intended for the automobile industry which must be very low in cost.
As shown in FIG. 7, the locking groove 14 has lateral flanks 14a, 14b which are inclined with respect to each other and the end parts of the locking blades engaged in said groove have lateral edges which have the same inclination. The groove 13 and the opposite end parts of the blades are shaped in the same manner.
In advanced position, the inclined edges of the locking blades therefore strike against the convergent flanks of the grooves 13 and 14, then preventing even the slightest rotation of the cylinder.
Furthermore, as a result of this inclination, the widths dx, dy, dz of the end of the blades of different lengths varies so that the outer angles X, Y, Z of the blades are not arranged in the same plane but are shifted laterally, as indicated at el and e2 in the case of the blades which are visible in FIGS. 7.
As a result of these shifts, the outer angles of the blades brought to the diameter of the bore hole are then not arranged on the same generatrices, but remain staggered, so that it is impossible, in case an attempt is made to pick the lock by means of skeleton keys, progressively to bring each blade to rest against the edge P of the groove as the result of a slight rotation of the cylinder, as can be done with other known locks having blades.
As a matter of fact, if all the blades are withdrawn slightly by means of a skeleton key, a blade whose radial position would then permit its resting against the edge of the groove is precisely shifted rearward with respect to another blade which has not been sufficiently withdrawn and can therefore not be caused to touch said edge.
Furthermore, due to the fact that some blades protrude' on two opposite sides of the cylinder, even a slight rotation of the cylinder is impossible in case of an attempt to pick the lock. As a matter of fact, for picking the look, a special tool may be used in order to withdraw blades gradually, but this action can be carried out only on those blades operating from the same side, so that those operating from the other side remain in engagement with the side walls of the corresponding groove and still prevent any angular movement of the cylinder.
The fact that the conical blades of different length penetration to a greater or lesser extent into the grooves also makes it impossible to establish, by prior determination of their locking position, the shape to be imparted a skeleton key.
The advantages of the lock shown are as follows:
a. Due to its cage shape, the case of the cylinder has better rigidity, the strength of the lock is increased thereby and the cutting on the lathe of said part, which must be effected with precision in order to avoid play on the part of the cylinder in the body, is thereby facilitated.
b. The assembly of the locking blades which varies from one lock to another can be mounted as a unit in the case of the cylinder by simple sliding in the recess passing through the latter. These units can be prepared in advance and delivered separately for mounting as required in the locks.
c. The angular position of the tongue can easily be modified so as to form a right-hand or left-hand lock without having to turn the tongue around and by means of a very limited displacement of only one of the cylinders.
a. The convergent shape of the locking grooves and of the end parts of the locking blades considerably increases the difficulties in picking the lock, which is practically pick-proof.
e. Finally, the locking blades and the intermediate guide plates can easily be formed by stamping, which also decreases the cost of manufacture.
1. In a lock having a rotatable cylinder. and a series of diametrically positioned locking blades housed in a frame, the improvement comprising:
a. a plurality of locking grooves on both sides of the frame for receiving the locking blades when a key is withdrawn, said grooves formed with straight sloping sides making the base of the groove shorter than the top;
b. an axial recess in the rotatable cylinder for receiving a key and for housing the locking blades in spaced relation;
0. said locking blades formed with ends having straight inclined sides for tightly engaging said locking grooves in the frame;
d. a return spring for each locking blade, said springs positioned in the rotatable cylinder and engaging a plate secured to the cylinder and a portion of the locking blade for urging the blade to move one of its ends into its locking groove; and
e. a plurality of retaining plates, one for each blade,
. 6' for retaining the locking blades adjacent to their locking grooves.
2. A lock according to claim 1 wherein the rotatable cylinder is removable and is formed by a series of guide plates connected to each other by at least one traverse rod, said guide plates each formed with a notch for producing slots for positioning said locking plates.
3. A lock according to claim 1 wherein two rotatable cylinders are mounted in axial alignment, one on each side of a supporting member for operation by a key from either side; said cylinders coupled to an operating tongue which is axially movable by the end of the key to engage a bolt for operating the lock.
4. A lock according to claim 1 wherein said locking grooves on both sides of the frame comprise recessed portions in the frame which extend for the entire length of the rotatable cylinder, the axis of each groove disposed parallel to the cylinder axis. l=