Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3790703 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 5, 1974
Filing dateJul 21, 1971
Priority dateJun 17, 1970
Publication numberUS 3790703 A, US 3790703A, US-A-3790703, US3790703 A, US3790703A
InventorsCarley A
Original AssigneeCarley A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for thermal viscosity modulating a fluid stream
US 3790703 A
Abstract
A method and apparatus for thermal viscosity modulating a fluid stream by time varying the temperature of the stream in response to an intelligence signal. The method and apparatus are useful for "printing" or forming an ink image of an original in black and white or color. In the preferred embodiment, a plurality of fluid printing ink streams are thermal viscosity modulated in response to an electrical signal which represents a scanned original. Each fluid ink stream corresponds to a resolution element across the serially or parallel scanned original. The image of the original is formed or "printed" on a suitable fluid receptor, such as paper, by depositing the fluid streams in varying amounts on the receptor according to the viscosity of each of the streams. The thermal viscosity modulation of the fluid stream is accomplished in a preferred embodiment by passing the fluid streams under pressure through capillaries each having a thin film electrical resistor formed on the inner wall thereof. The scanned original electrical signal is impressed across the capillary electrical resistor to heat the fluid ink stream in accordance with the signal. By varying the amount of heat, the viscosity of each stream is modulated as a function of the value of the corresponding resolution element of the original.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Carley Feb. 5, 1974 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR Primary ExaminerBernard Konick THERMAL VISCOSITY MODULATING A Attorney, Agent, or FirmChittick, Pfund, Birch, FLUID STREAM Samuels & Gauthier [76] Inventor: Adam Loran Carley, 45 Linnaean St., Cambridge, Mass. 02138 [57] ABSTRACT [22] Filed: July 21, 1971 A method and apparatus for thermal viscosity modulating a fluid stream by time varying the temperature [21] Appl' 164510 of the stream in response to an intelligence signal. The Related US. Application Data method and apparatus are useful for printing or [63] Continuation-impart 6f Ser. N0. 46,935, June 17, forming an ink image of an Original in black and White 1970, Pat. No. 3,741,118. or color. In the preferred embodiment, a plurality of fluid printing ink streams are thermal viscosity modu- [52] [1.5. CI l78/6.6 R, 101/335, 346/1, lated in response to an electrical signal which repre- 346/ 140 sents a scanned original. Each fluid ink stream corre- [51] Int. Cl. G0ld 15/18 sponds to a resolution element across the serially or [58] Field of Search... 346/1, 140, 76 R, 74 ES, 75; parallel scanned original. The image of the original is 178/66 R, 96; 219/21 1 formed or printed on a suitable fluid receptor, such as paper, by depositing the fluid streams in varying [56] References Cited amounts on the receptor according to the viscosity of UNITED STATES PATENTS each of the streams. The thermal viscosity modulation 2,633,796 4/1953 Pethick 346/74 ES ux g g g i i in a pgeferred 3,134,849 5/1964 Frohbach 6:61 346/140x 0 y pas,smgt e Stream? er 3,161,882 12/1964 Mullin 346 74 ES f caplnanes 9 having a thm film elecmcal 3,270,637 9 1966 Clark 346 140 ux reslstor formed on the Inner Wall thereof The Scanned 3,359,566 12/1967 Donalies 346/ 140 original electrical signal is impressed across the capil- 3,656,169 4/1972 Kashio 346/75 lary electrical resistor to heat the fluid ink stream in 2,437,365 11/1949 3 346/76 R accordance with the signal. By varying the amount of We1glet al heat viscosity of each stream is modulated as 3 2,556,550 6/1951 Murray 346/1 function of the value of the corresponding l i element of the original.

27 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures s l 22, 1 l8 SCANNER MEMORY V a /9 PRESSURE 4, [0 SOURCE PAIENTEDFEB 14 3.790.703

sum 1 or 2 l6 .22, I I 2, f

' SCANNER v MEMORY k PRESSURE 1 SOURCE COMPUTER INVENTOR- ADAM L. CARLEY I PAIENIEUFEB 5:914

2 HF PRES E 30 S RCE C CK SHIFT REGISTER FIG-7 S CH INVENTOR' ADAM L. CARLEY Y METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THERMAL VISCOSITY MODULATING A FLUID STREAM CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application is a continuation-in-Part application of my application Ser. No. 46,935, filed June 17, I970 for METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ELEC- TRONIC LlTHOGRAPI-IY now US Pat. No. 3,741,118.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION technique which employs a plate on which the areas corresponding to the inked areas of the image have different properties than the other areas. An aqueousbased fountain solution is applied to the plate and adheres only to the non-ink areas. An oil-based ink is then applied to the plate. The ink is repelled by the fountain solution and adheres only to the ink-receptive areas of the plate. The plate is then brought into contact with the paper (direct lithography) or with a resilient rubber blanket which in turn prints on the paper (offset lithography).

The second technique, letterpress, utilizes a plate on which areas corresponding to the inked section of the image are raised. When the ink is applied to the plate, the ink adheres to the raised portions only. The image is then printed by bringing the paper into contact with the inked plate.

The gravure technique employs a plate on which areas corresponding to the inked section of the image are indented. The printing ink is applied to the plate and then the plate is wiped with a doctor blade leaving printing ink only in the indented portions. When the paper is brought into contact with the plate, it absorbs the ink from the indented portions.

The printing processes described above all require that a plate be prepared prior to the printing process which contains in some permanent form the image to be printed. In practice, such plates are used on presses repeatedly so as to rapidly produce many copies of the same image. However, it is not possible to introduce a new image without interrupting the printing process to change the plate. This is not only costly from an equipment standpoint, but it is also expensive in terms of the down time for the printing press.

Recent advances in technology have produced a number of copying techniques. The various electrostatic processes, including xerographic copying, employ techniques which do not involve a permanent plate, but instead create a charged pattern on a photoconductor, such as, zinc oxide or selenium, to which a powdered ink selectively adheres. The photoconductor is either on an intermediary, e.g., drum, or the paper itself. Unfortunately, the electrostatic processes have several limitations: the electrostatic ink is much more expensive than printers ink; the quality is noticeably inferior to conventional printing; and, the process is unacceptable for photographic work.

Photography or chemical imaging is a technique in which the variations involve light-sensitive chemical reactions, heat sensitive chemical reactions, possible intermediary images, developing reagents, chemical image transfers and the like. The per-print cost is relatively high and the processes are generally slow and inconvenient. However, the quality is good; especially when silver chemistry is employed.

Although each of the printing or imaging techniques discussed above is suitable for certain applications, the technical limitations and economic tradeoffs of each technique substantially preclude the use of a single technique in a broad range of imaging applications. It is, accordingly, a general object of the present invention to provide a new method and apparatus for printing or imaging which obviates many of the technical limitations of the existing techniques and which provides competitively acceptable economic tradeoffs.

It is a specific object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for modulating a fluid stream with an intelligence signal.

It is another specific object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for printing an image of high quality at low cost and at high speeds.

It is still another object of the invention to provide a method and apparatus for printing a visible image from an image in scanned electronic form.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for printing which utilizes thermal viscosity modulation of a stream of printing ink.

It is still a further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for printing which prints the same or different images in continuous sequence.

It is a feature of the invention that the above objects can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the final printed image while at the same time providing a competitive cost per-print/quality ratio.

These objects and other objects and features of the present invention will best be understood from a detailed description of a preferred embodiment thereof selected for purposes of illustration and shown in the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view in partial perspective and block diagram form illustrating the printing or imaging system of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged detailed view showing the tip of the printing head in relation to the ink receiving paper;

FIG. 3 is a greatly enlarged view of a representative cross-section taken through the tip of the printing head showing the capillary cross section;

FIG. 4 is a simplified diagrammatic view of the ink distribution dystem; and,

FIGS. 5A and 5B are block diagrams of the circuitry employed in thermal viscosity modulating the stream of printing ink through the printing head tip capillaries.

FIG. 6 is an alternative construction of the printing head illustrating the use of conductive or electromagnetic radiation heating of the printing ink; and,

FIG. 7 is still another alternative construction showing an air brush" transfer system and electrostatic means to facilitate ink transfer.

Turning now to the drawings and particularly to FIG. 1 thereof, there is shown in diagrammatic view and partial perspective and block diagram form a printing or imaging system constructed in accordance with the present invention. An original 10, such asa document or photograph, having an image or indicia 12 thereon is scanned by a conventional scanner 14, such as, a flying spot scanner. The scanning action is indicated diagrammatically in FIG. 1 by the two arrows identified by the reference numeral 16. Other known scanning techniques also can be used including parallel wire, TV and facsimile scanning of the original.

The output signal from the scanner 14 on line 18 comprises an electrical signal having a characteristic which varies in accordance with the light value of each element of the scanned original 10. The scanned electrical signal on output line 18 constitutes an intelligence signal since it represents in electrical form the intelligence information of the scanned original 10. Alternatively, the intelligence signal can be directly generated by a computer 19.

The electrical intelligence signal on line 18 can be used directly to actuate a printing head assembly 20, as will be described in detail below, or it can be stored in a suitable memory 22 for subsequent utilization. In broad terms, the printing head assembly 20 comprises a means for depositing a modulated fluid stream upon a suitable fluid receptor. Expressed in printing technology, the printing head assembly 20 controls the deposition of a printing ink 24 upon an ink receptor 26, such as, paper, or an intermediate ink transfer medium. The printing ink is contained in an ink reservoir 28 under pressure from a pressure source 30. The ink reservoir is fluidly coupled to a printing head 32. The ink or fluid 24 is discharged in a modulated stream from the printing head in accordance with the intelligence signal from scanner 14. The apparatus for modulating the ink stream with the intelligence signal will be discussed below in connection with FIGS. 2 through 5.

Vertical scanning, in the sense of TV signal scan, is provided at printing station 34 by the relative movement of the printing head assembly 20 and the ink receptor 26. For the purposes of illustration, this relative movement is provided by a conventional belt-drive system, indicated generally by the reference numeral 35. Other variations in the means for producing relative motion between the ink receptor and the printing head assembly can be employed depending upon the desired machine configuration. For example, the printing head assembly can be moved across the ink receptor. Similarly, a drum transport mechanism can be used to move the ink receptor passed the printing head assembly printing station 34.

Looking at FIG. 2, there is shown in cross-section and greatly enlarged, a portion of the printing head 32. The printing head or "doctor" by analogy with the use of that term in the gravure printing process, can be considered as a knife blade extending across the width of the paper and angled with the moving ink receptor 26. The printing ink 24 is delivered from the ink reservoir 26 through a plurality of capillaries 36 which terminate at the printing head edge 38 in a corresponding plurality of capillary orifices 40.

The ink dispensing capillaries 36 deposit the ink onto the paper 26 in the pattern of the original image 12. The number of capillaries depends upon the desired resolution, the number of colors and the width of the paper 26. At the present time, printing practice uses resolutions or screens in the range of 60-200 elements per inch and one to four colors except in specialized circumstances. For a standard, 8% inch wide page,

150 screen, and process color (four colors), the printing head 32 and 5,100 capillaries. Under other circumstances, the number of capillaries 36 could be under or over 10,000.

In the greatly enlarged side view of FIG. 2, four color capillaries 36a, 36b, 36c and 36d are shown for each single picture element. These four color capillaries, respectively, are fluidly connected to separate pressurized ink reservoirs containing yellow, blue, magenta, and black ink.

For purposes of illustration, only one such ink reservoir has been shown in FIG. 1. The four capillary orifices 40 are positioned as close as possible to each other and to the forward or downstream edge of the doctor blade in order to prevent the wet ink from being smeared by the doctor blade.

It has already been mentioned that the ink flow through the capillaries is modulated in accordance with the scanned intelligence signal from either scanner 14, memory 22, or computer 19. The intelligence information is impressed upon or modulates the printing ink 24 by thermal viscosity modulation. Thermal viscosity modulation of the printing ink is accomplished by selectively heating the printing ink in each capillary tube. Heat is applied to the ink by the wall of the capillary which is partially or totally covered by a thin film resistor 42. The electrical signal which represents the desired image is impressed after the suitable amplification or other processing across the resistor 42 causing ohmic heating thereof. Since both the thin film resistor 42 and the ink itself have a relatively small thermal mass, the heat generated produces a rapid temperature change in the moving ink. Preferably, the entire length of the capillary tube is heated in unison thereby causing the microscopic column of ink to suddenly accelerate due to viscosity modulation.

Looking at FIG. 3, which is a view in cross-section of a capillary tube taken perpendicularly to the direction of ink flow, it can be seen that the capillary tube 36 has an elongated rather than circular configuration. This shape is desirable in order to decrease the time required to thermal viscosity modulate the flowing ink. With this structural configuration, it is possible to obtain very rapid changes in temperature of the ink in the capillaries using frequencies in the audio range.

The thermal mechanisms of the system are relatively straight forward. The flow rate through the capillary tube, ignoring end effects, is given by where 1 is the viscosity, p is the pressure difference, G is a factor of dimension cm representing the geometry of the capillary, and F is the flow rate in volume/time if the viscosity is absolute (poises), or mass/time if the viscosity is kinematic (stokes).

The 1; of liquids decreases markedly when they are heated. For many oils, viscosity can be varied by a factor of over 1,000 by varying the temperature. Even water is six times thicker near freezing than near boiling. By using a suitable vehicle for the ink, it is possible to produce a thousand times more flow through a hot capillary than through a cold capillary with a continuous range in between. Current printing practice indicates that a flow ratio of approximately 100:1 is required for quality work. The ink flow can be shut off completely by turning off the pressure or by lowering the capillary temperature to virtual soldification of the ink. However, for purposes of illustration in the present invention, it is assumed that white" is an invisibly small ink flow, but not zero.

A variety of suitable vehicles can be used for the ink. Successful tests have been conducted using AMCD Copy Duplicator CD-l 18 ink sold by the Copy Duplicator Division of the AM Corporation, 1,200 Babbitt Road, Cleveland, Ohio. The ink vehicle, and the ink as a whole, should have a wide dynamic range of viscosity as a function of temperature. Many oils, including some presently or previously used as vehicles in conventional printing inks have the desired characteristics. These oils include mineral oils, castor oil and linseed oil. It is also possible, of course, to use a water vehicle albeit with a much more limited dynamic range of viscosity as a function of temperature.

Each thin film resistive element 42 is surrounded by an electrical insulator 44 and a heat sink 46 which provide the dominate mode of heat loss, as well as, electricalinsulation and mechanical strength. The heat sink 46 is maintained at or below the lowest temperature desired and preferably is constructed from a metal and is shared by all of the capillaries 36. A separate fluid cooling system (not shown) can be employed to remove heat from the heat sink 46 if the signal power levels produce more heat than can be dissipated by the heat sink.

The insulator 44 conducts heat from the capillary to the heat sink and has a preselected thickness or thermal resistance which is compatable with the other physical parameters of the system. The choice of various physical parameters determines the time response of the printing or imaging system. For faster time response, the capillaries are narrower, the pressure is higher, the insulator thinner and more power is dissipated by the thin film resistor 42 and absorbed by the heat sink. For a slower response, these parameters are less restrictive.

Referring now to FIG. 4, there is shown in simplified diagrammatic view an ink distribution system for the present invention. As mentioned previously, the ink reservoir 28 is pressurized by a pressure source 30. The printing ink 24 in reservoir 28 passes through a ink filtration system indicated generally at 48, in order to remove any particulate matter which might clog the printing head capillaries. The filtered ink passes into a final ink chamber 50 and then down into each of the capillaries 36. If desired, the printing ink 24 can be preheated by passing the ink through an electrically powered preheating station 52. The use of the preheating technique minimizes or substantially eliminates end effects in the capillaries.

The circuitry employed in the thermal viscosity modulation of the stream of printing ink through the printing head tip capillaries is shown in block diagram form in FIGS. 5A and 5B. Referring first to FIG. 5A, there is shown the circuitry for a one dimensional scan. By optical means which are not part of the invention, a line 54 of the original image 12 is color separated into the three primary colors. Conventional devices such as dichroic mirrors, color filters or prisms can be employed to achieve the color separation of the image. The color separate image of the line 54 is focused by an optical system, indicated representationally and identified by the reference numeral 56, onto a linear arrangement of photocells 58 which transduce the line image into electrical signals. Although the electronics for only one primary color is shown in FIG. 5A, it should be understood that the same circuitry is repeated for the two other primary colors. The fourth color, black, does not require photocells 58, since its value can be calculated from the other colors, but may have them for reasons well-known in the television art.

Color matrixing and gamma adjustment are performed electrically by conventional circuits identified by the reference numeral 60. When the proper signal has been derived, it is amplified by power amplifiers 62 which drive the capillary ohmic heaters 42. It will be appreciated that while not explicitly shown, there is a polarity inversion involved in the system since the resistors 42 are powered for black" and unpowered for white.

The circuit shown in FIG. 5B depicts in block diagram form the electronics for a two dimensional scan. The image information is supplied as a scanned electronic signal such as a television signal. In general, the parameters of the scanned electronic signal, such as frame-rate, number of lines, differ markedly from a standard television signal and the signal is noninterlaced. The signal can be generated in a number of ways either directly by electronic equipment such as a computer, or from video-tape or by a camera using electronic or mechanical scanning with or without image storage (integration) and with a scanned or unscanned light source. Conventional camera technology and electronic signal generation and processing are employed in the presentinvention and need not be described in detail. It is sufficient to note that some of the currently available camera technique which can be employed to produce the scanned electronic signal include: image orthicon, vidicon, flying-spot scanner, rotating mirrors, rotating prisms, scanned laser light source and dichroic mirror color separation.

The television or signal parameters are selected for the speed, aspect ratio, and resolution desired. Compared to standard 525 line television signals, representative values for printing three 8 /z X l 1 inch copies per second at lSO-screen resolution are: l/lO the frame rate; 10 times the resolved picture elements; and the same bandwidth.

In the case of color printing, the colors in the original are separated and matrixed electronically to produce separate television signals for each color ink used in the printing process. In addition, gray-scale (gamma) correction to the television signal is done before it is fed to the printing unit. As shown in FIG. 5B, the television signal for the color in question comes in on a video bus 64 extending across the width of the printing head 32. The signal is then descanned by well known circuit techniques such as, a shift register sampler comprising shift register 66 and samplers 68. Amplifiers and resistors 62 and 42 respectively, perform the same function as in connection with FIG. 5A. Interconnections between the colors for matrixing purposes are not required, but the shift register 66 may be shared by all colors.

It will be appreciated that the electronic configuration shown in FIG. 58 has the advantage that the image can be manipulated or stored for subsequent usage while in electronic form. Manipulations include transmission, storage, collating, masking, mixing, negative, contrast enhance, color correction and other specialized alterations such as sequence numbering of printed forms. These manipulations of the electronic signal are performed by conventional and well-known signal processing circuits or by computer.

FIG. 6 illustrates in diagrammatic form two altemative constructions of the printing head, which utilize conductive heating or electromagnetic radiation absorptive heating of the printing ink. Two electrodes 70 and 72 are positioned within the ink reservoir 28 at the entry to capillary 36, which capillary is formed in an electrical insulator 74. If electrically conductive printing ink is employed, the intelligence signal modulated current flow through the ink between electrodes 70 and 72 produces the desired thermal viscosity modulation. Suitable power amplification can be provided in this mode of operation.

Electromagnetic radiation heating of the printing ink is another method which can be utilized to achieve thermal viscosity modulation of the printing ink. In this case, the intelligence signal on line 18 (or from computer l9) modulates a source 76 of radio frequency energy. The modulated rf is applied to the capillary electrodes 70 and 72 through switch means 78.

In order to obtain a smoother transfer of the ink from the capillary orifices to the ink receptor 26, the preferred printing system utilizes an air brush and electrostatic transfer techniques. Looking at FIG. 7, there is shown in simplified form both the air brush and electrostatic transfer systems. The air brush system comprises a source 80 of pressurized gas, such as air, and an outlet nozzle 82 positioned above the capillary orifices. The high velocity air stream exiting from nozzle 82 forces the discharged ink from the capillaries downwardly onto the paper ink receptor 26. The printing head is positioned with little or no gap between the head and the ink receptor. It will be appreciated that the air brush structure shown in FIG. 7 comprises what is known in the art as focused air brush.

Electrostatic ink transfer techniques can also be employed either alone or in combination with the air brush system shown in FIG. 7 or the simple friction transfer system depicted in FIG. 2. A high voltage potential either DC or rapidly pulsed is applied between the ink receptor 26 and the printing head 32. For purposes of illustration, the source of the high voltage potential is illustrated in FIG. 7 as a conventional battery 84. However, it will be appreciated that other conventional sources of a steady state or pulse DC potential can be employed.

Having described in detail a preferred embodiment of my invention, it will be appreciated that the invention can be used in a number of applications. Typically, such applications include photocopying, printing, computer printout, soft copy output with a non-drying ink printed on an endless belt of washable material, facsimile, photographic printing, direct photography, typewriter, and telegraphic printers.

What I claim is:

l. A method for thermal viscosity modulating a fluid stream with an intelligence signal comprising the steps of:

l. passing the fluid stream through a modulation station using a motive source having sufficient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the fluid stream to modulate the flow of said fluid stream; and,

2. time varying the temperature of at least a portion of the fluid stream at the modulation station in response to the intelligence signal whereby said sig nal is impressed upon said fluid stream in the form of thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the fluid stream which correspondingly alter the flow of the fluid stream.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the intelligence signal is an electrical current and the temperature of said fluid stream is time varied at the modulation station by passing the electrical current through a resistive element that is located at said modulation station and in thermally conductive contact with said fluid stream.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein said fluid is electrically conductive and said intelligence signal is an electrical current which is passed through said fluid stream at said modulation station.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said intelligence signal comprises electromagnetic radiation which is absorbed by said fluid stream at said modulation station.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein said viscosity modulated fluid stream is deposited upon a fluid receptor.

6. A method of printing an image comprising the steps of:

l. generating an electrical signal which represents the image in scanned form;

2. passing at least one stream of printing ink through a modulation station using a motive source having sufficient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the fluid stream to modulate the flow of said fluid stream;

3. time varying the temperature of at least a portion of the printing ink stream at the modulation station in response to the electrical signal whereby said signal representation of the scanned image is impressed upon the printing ink stream in the form of thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink stream which correspondingly alter the flow of the ink stream; and,

4. depositing at least a portion of said thermal viscosity modulated printing ink stream upon an ink receptor in accordance with the scanned form of said image.

7. The method of claim 6 wherein said electrical signal is generated by scanning an original which contains said image.

8. The method of claim 6 wherein said electrical signal is computer generated.

9. The method of claim 6 further characterized by:

l. introducing said modulated ink stream into a rapidly flowing stream of gas; and,

2. directing the ink carrying gas stream against said ink receptor whereby the thermal viscosity modulated ink is deposited on said ink receptor.

10. The method of claim 6 further characterized by establishing an electric potential between said modulation station and said ink receptor.

11. An apparatus for printing an image comprising:

1. means for generating an electrical signal which represents the image in scanned form;

2. printing ink reservoir means;

3. means for pressurizing said reservoir means, said pressurized ink reservoir means being a motive source having sufficient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the' ink to modulate the flow of said ink;

4. means defining at least one capillary tube, said tube being fluidly coupled at one end to said ink reservoir means and open at the other end to form an ink discharge orifice;

5. ohmic heating means positioned for thermal coupling to the ink passing through said capillary tube;

6. means for applying said electrical signal to said ohmic heating means whereby said electrical signal is impressed upon said ink in the form of thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink which correspondingly alter the flow of the ink; and,

7. means for producing relative motion between an ink receptor and the discharge orifice of said capillary tube corresponding to the scanned form of said image.

12. The printing apparatus of claim 11 wherein said capillary tube defining means defines a plurality of capillary tubes which represent one horizontal scan of said image and wherein said means for producing relative motion produces a relative motion corresponding to the vertical scan of said image.

13. The printing apparatus of claim 11 wherein said means for generating an electrical signal comprises an optical scanner.

14. The printing apparatus of claim 11 wherein said means for generating an electrical signal comprises a computer.

15. The printing apparatus of claim 11 further characterized by focused air brush means positioned to direct the thermal viscosity modulated ink exiting from the ink discharge orifice onto said ink receptor.

16. The printing apparatus of claim 11 further characterized by means for establishing an electrostatic potential between said capillary and said ink receptor.

17. The apparatus of claim 11 further comprising heat sink means thermally coupled to the printing ink within said capillary.

18. A method of printing an image comprising the steps of:

1. generating an electrical signal which represents the image in scanned form;

2. passing at least one stream of printing ink through a modulation station using a motive source having sufficient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the printing ink stream to modulate the flow of said printing ink stream;

3. time varying the temperature of at least a portion of the printing ink stream at the modulation station in response to the electrical signal whereby said signal representation of the scanned image is impressed upon the printing ink stream in the form of thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink stream which correspondingly alter the flow of the ink stream; and,

4. entraining the thermal viscosity flow modulated printing ink stream in a gas stream and, thereafter 5. depositing the entrained printing ink stream on an 2. printing ink reservoir means; 3. means for pressurizing said reservoir means, said pressurized ink reservoir means being a motive source having sufficient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink to modulate the flow of said ink;

4. means defining at least one capillary tube, said tube being fluidly coupled at one end to said ink reservoir means and open at the other end to form an ink discharge orifice;

5. electrical signal responsive heating means positioned for thermal coupling to the ink passing through said capillary tube;

6. means for applying said electrical signal to said heating means whereby said electrical signal is impressed upon said ink which correspondingly alter the flow of the ink; and,

7. means for producing relative motion between an ink receptor and the discharge orifice of said capillary tube corresponding to the scanned form of said image.

20. The apparatus of claim 19 further comprising focused airbrush means positioned to direct the thermal viscosity modulated ink exiting from the ink discharge orifice onto said ink receptor.

21. The apparatus of claim 19 further comprising heat sink means thermally coupled to the printing ink within said capillary.

22. An apparatus for printing an image comprising:

1. means for generating an electrical signal which represents the image in scanned form;

2. printing ink reservoir means, said pressurized ink reservoir means being a motive source having suffi cient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink to modulate the flow of said ink;

3. means defining a printing ink modulation station having an inlet and an outlet with the inlet being fluidly coupled to saidprinting ink reservoir means;

4. means with appreciable mechanical admittance for causing the ink to pass through said printing ink modulation station;

5. electrical signal responsive heating means positioned for thermal coupling to the printing ink passing through said printing ink modulation station;

6. means for applying said electrical signal to said heating means whereby said electrical signal is impressed upon said printing ink in the form of thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink which correspondingly alter the flow of the printing ink; and,

7. means for producing relative motion between an ink receptor and the outlet of said printing ink modulation station corresponding to the scanned form of said image.

23. The apparatus of claim 22 further comprising focused airbrush means positioned to direct the thermal viscosity modulated ink exiting from the outlet of said printing ink modulation station onto said ink receptor.

24. The apparatus of claim 22 further comprising heat sink means thermally coupled to the printing ink at said printing ink modulation station.

25. An apparatus for printing an image comprising:

1. means for generating an electrical signal which represents the image in scanned form;

2. printing ink reservoir means, said pressurized ink reservoir means being a motive source having sufficient mechanical admittance to permit thermally produced variations in the viscosity of the ink to modulate the flow of said ink;

3. means defining a printing ink modulation station having an inlet and an outlet with the ink being fluidly coupled to said printing ink reservoir means;

4. means with appreciable mechanical admittance for causing the ink to pass through said printing ink modulation station;

5. means for impressing said electrical signal upon the printing ink in the form of thermally produced. I

variations in the viscosity of the ink which correspondingly alter the flow of the ink; and,

6. means for producing relative motion between an ink receptor and the outlet of said printing ink dance with the scanned form of said image.

Patent No. 3,790,703

Dated February 5, 1974 It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

' Column 8,

Column 2, line 54, "dystem" should be --system.

line 2, "and" should be -has--.

line 4, "100" should be --'l0'00--.

line 5, "the" second occurance should be -said-. line 55 "electric" should be -electrostatic".

Colunm 4, Column 4,

Column 10, line 28 delete "pressurized". Column 10, line 63 delete "pressurized". Column 10, line 11, after "said ink" insert in the form of thermally'produced ,variations in the viscosity of the ink-.

Column 11, line 2, "ink" should be -inlet-.

Signed and sealed this 26th day of November 1974.

(SEAL) Attest:

c. MARSHALL DANN McCOY M. GIBSON JRA'.

Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2487865 *Feb 27, 1947Nov 15, 1949Eastman Kodak CoPhotoelectric line scanning
US2556550 *Feb 27, 1947Jun 12, 1951Eastman Kodak CoHeat sensitive printing element and method
US2633796 *Apr 5, 1944Apr 7, 1953Hoe & Co RPrinting means using electric fields
US3134849 *Aug 9, 1961May 26, 1964Metromedia IncMeans for sequentially depositing toner powder
US3161882 *Aug 5, 1960Dec 15, 1964Minnesota Mining & MfgGalvanometer using electrostatic orifice recording means
US3270637 *Oct 3, 1963Sep 6, 1966Xerox CorpElectroviscous recording
US3359566 *Aug 1, 1966Dec 19, 1967Xerox CorpMotor action capillary
US3480962 *May 22, 1967Nov 25, 1969Xerox CorpFacsimile recording system
US3656169 *May 19, 1970Apr 11, 1972Casio Computer Co LtdMethod and apparatus for writing characters
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3974767 *Nov 19, 1975Aug 17, 1976Bengt Petersson New Products Investment AbPrinting method and apparatus
US4046073 *Jan 28, 1976Sep 6, 1977International Business Machines CorporationUltrasonic transfer printing with multi-copy, color and low audible noise capability
US4117518 *Nov 11, 1976Sep 26, 1978Skala Stephen FInk drop facsimile system
US4164745 *May 8, 1978Aug 14, 1979Northern Telecom LimitedPrinting by modulation of ink viscosity
US4250512 *Sep 14, 1979Feb 10, 1981Siemens AktiengesellschaftHeating device for recording heads in ink mosaic recorders
US4251824 *Nov 13, 1979Feb 17, 1981Canon Kabushiki KaishaLiquid jet recording method with variable thermal viscosity modulation
US4275290 *Jun 14, 1979Jun 23, 1981Northern Telecom LimitedThermally activated liquid ink printing
US4312009 *Feb 5, 1980Jan 19, 1982Smh-AdrexDevice for projecting ink droplets onto a medium
US4314258 *Feb 4, 1980Feb 2, 1982The Mead CorporationInk jet printer including external deflection field
US4314263 *Jul 17, 1980Feb 2, 1982Carley Adam LFluid jet apparatus
US4322754 *Jun 21, 1979Mar 30, 1982Kenneth Mason Holdings LimitedSystems for processing printed data
US4359744 *Nov 3, 1980Nov 16, 1982Exxon Research And Engineering Co.Ink jet printer with peristaltic pump
US4514768 *Sep 23, 1983Apr 30, 1985Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki KaishaImage forming apparatus
US4561789 *Jun 22, 1984Dec 31, 1985Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Public Corp.Thermal ink transfer printing system
US4611219 *Dec 20, 1982Sep 9, 1986Canon Kabushiki KaishaLiquid-jetting head
US4638328 *May 1, 1986Jan 20, 1987Xerox CorporationPrinthead for an ink jet printer
US4660058 *Sep 11, 1985Apr 21, 1987Pitney Bowes Inc.Viscosity switched ink jet
US4670271 *Jun 27, 1985Jun 2, 1987Joytronix, Inc.Food imprinting cassette means
US4710780 *Mar 26, 1987Dec 1, 1987Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Recorder with simultaneous application of thermal and electric energies
US4710784 *Jul 2, 1986Dec 1, 1987Tokyo Electric Co., Ltd.Ink jet printing device
US4723129 *Feb 6, 1986Feb 2, 1988Canon Kabushiki KaishaBubble jet recording method and apparatus in which a heating element generates bubbles in a liquid flow path to project droplets
US4740796 *Feb 6, 1986Apr 26, 1988Canon Kabushiki KaishaBubble jet recording method and apparatus in which a heating element generates bubbles in multiple liquid flow paths to project droplets
US4751531 *Mar 26, 1987Jun 14, 1988Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Thermal-electrostatic ink jet recording apparatus
US4751533 *Mar 26, 1987Jun 14, 1988Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Thermal-electrostatic ink jet recording apparatus
US4752783 *Mar 26, 1987Jun 21, 1988Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Thermal-electrostatic ink jet recording method and apparatus
US4782347 *Mar 31, 1987Nov 1, 1988Canon Kabushiki KaishaRecording head using a plurality of ink storing portions and method of carrying out recording with the use of the same
US4785311 *Jan 27, 1987Nov 15, 1988Canon Kabushiki KaishaRecording head apparatus and method having pluralities of crossed electrodes
US4881089 *Mar 26, 1987Nov 14, 1989Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Thermal-electrostatic ink jet recording apparatus
US5159349 *Oct 3, 1991Oct 27, 1992Canon Kabushiki KaishaRecording apparatus which projects droplets of liquid through generation of bubbles in a liquid flow path in response to signals received from a photosensor
US5302971 *Sep 21, 1992Apr 12, 1994Canon Kabushiki KaishaLiquid discharge recording apparatus and method for maintaining proper ink viscosity by deactivating heating during capping and for preventing overheating by having plural heating modes
US5381166 *Nov 30, 1992Jan 10, 1995Hewlett-Packard CompanyInk dot size control for ink transfer printing
US5521621 *Jan 12, 1994May 28, 1996Canon Kabushiki KaishaBubble jet recording apparatus with processing circuit for tone gradation recording
US5576747 *Sep 22, 1994Nov 19, 1996Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Electrostatic hydrodynamic jet writing method using electro-rheological fluid and apparatus thereof
US5745128 *Aug 16, 1996Apr 28, 1998Hewlett Packard CompanyMethod and apparatus for ink transfer printing
US5754194 *Jun 7, 1995May 19, 1998Canon Kabushiki KaishaBubble jet recording with selectively driven electrothermal transducers
US5812162 *Apr 10, 1996Sep 22, 1998Eastman Kodak CompanyPower supply connection for monolithic print heads
US5841456 *Aug 20, 1992Nov 24, 1998Seiko Epson CorporationTransfer printing apparatus with dispersion medium removal member
US5893960 *May 3, 1993Apr 13, 1999Lexmark International, Inc.Adhesive backing degradable by mineral oil
US5909227 *Apr 10, 1996Jun 1, 1999Eastman Kodak CompanyPhotograph processing and copying system using coincident force drop-on-demand ink jet printing
US5914737 *Apr 10, 1996Jun 22, 1999Eastman Kodak CompanyColor printer having concurrent drop selection and drop separation, the printer being adapted for connection to a computer
US5984446 *Apr 10, 1996Nov 16, 1999Eastman Kodak CompanyColor office printer with a high capacity digital page image store
US6012799 *Apr 9, 1996Jan 11, 2000Eastman Kodak CompanyMulticolor, drop on demand, liquid ink printer with monolithic print head
US6126846 *Oct 24, 1996Oct 3, 2000Eastman Kodak CompanyPrint head constructions for reduced electrostatic interaction between printed droplets
US6241333 *Jan 14, 1997Jun 5, 2001Eastman Kodak CompanyInk jet printhead for multi-level printing
US6705711Jun 6, 2002Mar 16, 2004Oće Display Graphics Systems, Inc.Methods, systems, and devices for controlling ink delivery to one or more print heads
US6817692 *Jun 27, 2003Nov 16, 2004Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Inkjet recording device and recording method
US7040729Feb 13, 2004May 9, 2006Oce Display Graphics Systems, Inc.Systems, methods, and devices for controlling ink delivery to print heads
US8011300Feb 21, 2007Sep 6, 2011Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Method for high speed variable printing
US8061270Feb 21, 2007Nov 22, 2011Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Methods for high speed printing
US8136936Aug 20, 2008Mar 20, 2012Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Apparatus and methods for controlling application of a substance to a substrate
US8328349Aug 20, 2008Dec 11, 2012Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Compositions compatible with jet printing and methods therefor
US8402891May 11, 2011Mar 26, 2013Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Methods for printing a print medium, on a web, or a printed sheet output
US8434860Aug 11, 2011May 7, 2013Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Method for jet printing using nanoparticle-based compositions
US8496326Jan 11, 2012Jul 30, 2013Moore Wallace North America, Inc.Apparatus and methods for controlling application of a substance to a substrate
US8689689 *Nov 10, 2005Apr 8, 2014Spraying Systems Co.System and method for marking sheet materials
US8733248May 2, 2011May 27, 2014R.R. Donnelley & Sons CompanyMethod and apparatus for transferring a principal substance and printing system
US8833257Feb 21, 2007Sep 16, 2014R.R. Donnelley & Sons CompanySystems and methods for high speed variable printing
DE2858824C2 *Oct 3, 1978Jun 5, 1996Canon KkFlüssigkeitsstrahl-Aufzeichnungsvorrichtung
DE2858825C2 *Oct 3, 1978Nov 27, 1997Canon KkFlüssigkeitsstrahl-Aufzeichnungsvorrichtung mit elektrothermischem Wärmeerzeugungswiderstand
EP0298580A2 *Jan 14, 1988Jan 11, 1989Dataproducts CorporationInk jet image transfer lithographic apparatus and technique
WO1983004005A1 *Apr 15, 1983Nov 24, 1983Ncr CoInk jet printer
Classifications
U.S. Classification358/296, 347/48, 346/3, 347/61, 347/3, 347/6, 347/100, 101/335
International ClassificationB41M1/06, B41C1/06, B41C1/10, B41M1/00, B41C1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB41C1/1066, B41M1/06, B41C1/06
European ClassificationB41M1/06, B41C1/06, B41C1/10N