US 3791142 A
The engine, in one embodiment thereof, comprises an impulse velocity, staged turbine operative under the influence of energized fluid to provide thrust, or rotary torque, or both. Ancillary fluid admitting means are provided to enhance thrust or to depressurize the plenum chamber/exhaust space of the engine so that the engine can function with a low pressure-differential with respect to the inlet and outlet thereof. The turbine is coupled to a housing and frame in a manner accommodating for thermal expansion thereof relative to the housing and frame. Downstream of the turbine, straight exhaust pipes or nozzled exhaust pipes are through connected with the plenum chamber/exhaust space for venting expanded fluid from the turbine.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Caldarelli FLUID-POWERED ENGINE  Inventor: Antonio Caldarelli, Apt. 29 Clinton Manor, 281 W. Clinton St, Dover, NJ. 07801  Filed: Sept. 14, 1972  Appl. No.: 289,002
 US. Cl 60/263, 60/3931, 60/3933, 248/8  Int. Cl. F02k 11/00, F02c 7/20  Field of Search 60/39.31, 262, 263, 39.59, 60/3932; 244/54; 248/5-8; 277/45, 48, 49
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,003,316 10/1961 Kerry 60/266 X 3,625,009 12/1971 Schairer et a1... 60/261 1,460,051 6/1923 Bostedo 60/263 X 2,469,439 5/1949 Lundquist.... 60/3931 X 1,637,604 8/1927 Clark 248/3 X 2,635,422 4/1953 Landgraf 60/264 2,443,054 6/1948 Putz et al..... 60/3931 53,542 3/1866 Prindle 277/48 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 536,360 5/1922 France 248/8 Primary Examiner-Carlton R. Croyle Assistant ExaminerRobert E. Garrett Attorney, Agent, or Firm.loseph T. Skelley  ABSTRACT The engine, in one embodiment thereof, comprises an impulse velocity, staged turbine operative under the influence of energized fluid to provide thrust, or rotary torque, or both. Ancillary fluid admitting means are provided to enhance thrust or to depressurize the plenum chamber/exhaust space of the engine so that the engine can function with a low pressuredifferential with respect to the inlet and outlet thereof. The turbine is coupled to a housing and frame in a manner accommodating for thermal expansion thereof relative to the housing and frame. Downstream of the turbine, straight exhaust pipes or nozzled exhaust pipes are through connected with the plenum chamber/exhaust space for venting expanded fluid from the turbine.
10 Claims, 20 Drawing Figures PATENTEU FEB. I 2 m4 SHEEI 1 BF 4 PATENTED FEB 12 I974 saw a BE A OwO ow, om Nb om m 8 PATENTEU FEB 12 I974 mm Wm mm SHEET b (1F FLUID-POWERED ENGINE This invention pertains to fluid-powered engines, such as torque-generating engines and thrustgenerating engines, and in particular to a fluid-powered engine which, selectively, generates rotary torque, or thrust, or both.
It is an object of this invention to disclose a fluidpowered engine comprising a frame, an energized-fluid expander coupled to the frame, first fluid admitting means for admitting energized fluid to said expander, means for venting expanded fluid from said expander, wherein said venting means comprises outlet pipes, and including means for selectively mounting nozzles to said pipes for developing thrust from fluid vented therethrough, and shaft means coupled to said expander for deriving rotary torque therefrom.
A feature of this invention, in one embodiment thereof, comprises the use of an impulse velocity, staged turbine engine for deriving thrust therefrom, by venting the expanded fluid therefrom, or for deriving rotary torque therefrom, by powering a power shaft from the turbine rotor, and includes means for aspirating and de-pressurizing the tubine, by admitting a secondary supply of energized fluid to the turbine outlet means, to derive enhanced thrust therefrom and thereby, or for enabling the engine to operate over a lower-pressure-differential spectrum, with respect to the'inlet and outlet thereof.
Further objects and features of this invention will become more apparent by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying figures, in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of the novel engine, shown coupled to a frame;
FIG. 2 is a partial, plan view of the engine, shown enlarged from the view of FIG. 1, partially illustrative of the mounting arrangement for the turbine within the housing or shell;
FIG. 3 is a side view, partially in cross-section, of the stator assembly;
FIG. 4 is a side view, in cross-section, of the rotor assembly;
FIGS. 5 and 6 are opposite end views of the stator assembly;
FIGS. 7 and 8 are opposite end views of the rotor assembly;
FIG. 9 is an end view illustrative of the mounting of a stator lug slidably, and thermally-expansively, within a lug cap fixed to the housing or shell;
FIG. 10 is an axially-disposed cross-sectional view of the sealing arrangement for the shaft at the forward end of the engine;
FIG. 11 is a side view of the vent pipe assembly with vent nozzles and ancillary nozzles employed therewith;
FIGS. 11A and 11B are illustrative of optional arrangements in which the vent pipe assembly employs either straight vent pipes or simple, nozzle exhaust devices;
FIG. 12 is a side view of the engine beam mounting arrangement;
FIGS. 13 and 14 are end views of the beam mounting arrangement, taken along sections 13-13 and l4-l4 of FIG. 12;
FIG. 15 is a plan view of the engine strut mounting assembly;
FIGS. 16 and 17 are sectional views of the strut mounting assembly taken along sections 16-16 and l717 of FIG. 15; and
FIG. 18 is an axially-disposed cross-sectional view of the sealing and bearing arrangement for the shaft at the aft end of the engine.
As shown in FIG. 1, the engine 10 comprises an impulse velocity, staged turbine, by way of example, enclosed in a shell 12 which is supplied energized fluid by means of fluid admittance pipes 14 and nozzles 15, and which vents the expanded fluid by means of vent or exhaust pipes 16.
The turbine 18 of the engine powers an output shaft 20 through coupling flanges 22 which receive the shaft 20 and the rotationally torqued turbine rotor shaft 24. Shaft 24 and one of the flanges 22 (and optionally shaft 20 and the other of the flanges 22) are splined to accomodate for thermal migration of shaft 24.
A strut assembly 26, and a mounting beam assembly 28, interposed to either sides of the engine 10, allow for thermal migration of the engine axially, and radial growth of the forward drive end of the engine, and further details of this arrangement are illustrated and described subsequently.
The strut assemblies 26 (see FIG. 2) are coupled to a forward bearing housing 30 which has a pair of short beams 32 extending therefrom. The beams 32 are bolted to webs or weldments 34 fixed to the shell 12 through slotted beam apertures 36 which accommodate assembly and allow for thermal expansion of the forward end of the engine relative to the frame 38 and- /or the strut assemblies.
The turbine 18 comprises a stator 40 and a rotor (FIGS. 4, 7 & 8), in which the stator is formed with axially extending lugs 42 to either ends thereof. The forward lugs 42 are securely bolted to the nozzle block (i.e., the portion of shell 12 which carries the nozzles 15), while the rearward lugs 42 are slidably received in lug caps 44 bolted to the interior of the shell. The turbine l8 occupancy of the shell 12 is depicted in outline form in FIG. 2; thus it is to be noted that the shell has an area downstream of the turbine which serves as a plenum chamber 45 for the expanded fluid which exits from the turbine 18.
FIGS. 3, 5, and 6 are illustrative of the stator assembly construction. The stator 40 comprises an outer split ring 46, bolted together at 48, and an inner ring 50, to which three stages 52, 54, and 56 of blades 58, 60, and 62 are fixed. As can be seen, lugs 42 are integral with, and extend from the outer split ring 46. FIGS. 4, 7, and 8 are illustrative of the rotor assembly construction. The rotor 64 comprises an outer welded ring 66, the same being welded at 68, for each of the three stages shown. An axially-extending shaft has discs or hubs with blades 72, 74, and 76 formed thereon. The outer radial ends of the blades have dowels 78 extending therefrom which are received in dowel holes 80 formed in the rings 66.
In greater detail, FIG. 9 illustrates how lugs 42, extending from the rearward end of the stator 40, are slidably supported in the lug caps 44 bolted to the interior of the shell 12. Thus, one end of the stator 40, i.e., the forward end thereof, is securely fixed to the shell 12; the rearward end, however, is slidably accommodated by the shell to allow for thermal, axial growth of the stator relative to the engine housing outer shell 12. The stator 40 is fixed to the nozzle block portion of the shell 12 and can move in one direction parallel to the axis of the engine.
Strut assemblies 26 (one being shown in FIG. are fixed to a ring support 82 which, in turn, carries internally thereof a bearing and packing holder 84. The holder has an internal recess and a central bore which, respectively, receive a self-aligning bearing 86 and the rotor shaft 70. A bearing retaining ring 88 and spring 90 are serially disposed behind bearing 86 and before another bearing retaining plate 92, thrust bearing 94, and a collar 96. At the opposite end of holder 84 there is a conical recess 98 in which are disposed a plurality of packing-type seals 100, 102, and 104 of diminishing outside diameter. a packing gland 106 restrained by a spring 108 constrains the seals 100, 102, and 104 in the recess 98 and securely about shaft 70. Piston-type seals 110 interposed between spring 108 and a final pair of thrust bearings 112 cooperate to seal and support shaft 70 in bearing housing 30.
Typical exhaust pipe 16 details are shown in FIG. 11. Here it is shown that nozzles 114, of circular crosssection, are fixed within larger, circular l.D. pipes 16. Nozzles 114 and pipes 116 are fixed in rectangular blocks 115 which are enclosed within and welded to adjoined ends of pipe sections 16. Chord-defined areas A and B" (to either sides of the block 115) of the pipe sections admit of the by-pass of fluid therethrough. Pipes 116 are through-connected with the nozzles. By this arrangement, the engine will admit of the introduction of a secondary supply of energized fluid to the pipes 16 to augment and enhance thrust derived from the basic engine, and to aspirate and depressurize the exhaust space, the plenum chamber 45 downstream of the turbine 18. To derive the basic thrust from the engine, replaceable nozzles 118 are threadedly carried on the ends of the pipes 16.
When it is desired to derive simple thrust from the engine, without augmentation by secondary fluid supply pipes 116, pipes 116 and nozzles 114 are removed and supplanted with the nozzles 118' shown in FIG. 11B. Conversely, if only rotary torque is required of the engine, straight pipes 119 are threadedly joined to the ends of pipes 16. In this latter circumstance, pipes 16 and pipes 119 serve only as simple exhausts. All the power of the engine is transmitted to shaft 20 (FIG. 1) to drive a generator, or pumps, or whatever.
FIGS. 12, 13, and 14 illustrate the novel mounting of the shell 12 to the engine frame 38. To opposite sides of the shell 12 are carried axially-disposed I-beams 120. At the forward, or upstream end of the shell 12, the I- beams 120 are welded at 122 and 124 to the shell 12 and to a plate 126. Plate 126, in turn, is securely bolted to a corresponding plate 128 carried by frame 38 (FIG. 1). At the other end of beams 120, a plate 130 is welded, here too at 124, to the beams 120. However, the other side of each beam 120 is not secured to the shell 12. On the contrary, a slidable support arrangement carries the other end of the beam or, rather, an intermediate portion of the beam 120 to the shell 12. This slidable support arrangement includes a pair of angle weldments 132, which are welded to the shell 12, and define a slide track 134 therebetween. This track receives one web 136 of the beam 120 thereunder. Further, a pair of angular standoffs 138, mounted on studs 140, slidably receive the other web 142 of the beam 120 thereupon. Stand-offs 138 have slots 143 formed therein to permit a thermal migration of the studs therealong, and the stand-offs further are welded to the beam 120. This inventive arrangement allows the engine shell to migrate, thermally, relative to the frame 38 while assuring a secure fixing of the shell to the frame 38.
Thermal migration is also the consideration which gave rise to the provisioning of the strut assemblies depicted in FIGS. 15-17. Each strut assembly 26 is the same, so only one is illustrated in detail in FIGS. 15-17. These assemblies each comprise an elongated strut 144 which is fixed at one end thereof to the frame 38 (FIG. 1) and which carries a sleeve 146 at the other end thereof. A limb 148 carried by the ring support 82 (FIG. 10) is slidably received in the sleeve 146. The other end of the limb 148 carries a bar 150 transverse thereto. Bar 150 is slidably received in rectangular cutouts 152 formed in spaced-apart, oppositely disposed angles 154. Angles 154 are fixed to the frame 38. A rod 156 extends from the bar 150, in penetration of frame 38 through a bore 158 provided therefor. The framereceived terminal end of the rod 156 is threaded and receives a pair of lock nuts 160 thereat. The lock nuts 160 cooperate with spring retainers 162 and the bar 150, to constrain springs 164 to either sides of the rod 156.
A terminal flange 170, FIG. 18, has a center bore 172 formed therein, the bore having a pair of diverse inner diameters, only the smaller of which, diameter 174, is shown, which also have a shoulder rim 178 therebetween which serves as a seat for a self-aligning bearing 180. Bearing 180 receives the terminal end of shaft 70.
A plug 182 is threadedly fitted into the inner diameter forceably up against a spacer (not shown) which holds the bearing 180 securely against the rim 178. A pair of seal rings 184 envelop an inner end of shaft 70 within the inner diameter 174.
Throughout, lubrication channels and ports and the like for bearings and other rotary components of the engine have not been shown. Appropriate lubrication systems and arrangements are well known to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains and are believed to not require detailed disclosure herein.
The advantages proceeding from my novel engine, which comprises both a rocket or thrust motor and a turbine, are several. Principally, it is not necessary for air to be used for operation. Yet, air for fuel combustion, toward gas generation, can also be used. In flight in outer space, the engine can use compressed gases: gases generated by burning a fuel and oxidizer, gas generated by decomposing hydrogen peroxide, etc. Obviously, decomposed hydrogen peroxide fluid, for engine operation, would have a saluatory effect on the ecology, as the breakdown of this source yields water and oxygen. With rocket nozzles, the engine can be used to propel vehicles of all types while, at the same time, providing shaft horsepower for many devices. The engine is operative with either a low or a high pressure differential. With the engine acting as both a turbine and a rocket motor, under low pressure differential, there will occur few seal leaks. The aspiration arrangement makes it possible for the turbine to have a lower inlet pressure than is conventional in this art. Further, the aspiration arrangement, which is also the ancillary fluid inlet, makes it unnecessary for total thrusting fluid to pass through the turbine thus, the turbine will operate at lower temperatures than would ordinarily obtain for the thrust derived.
Many of the novel constructional features are selfevident from the figures, yet, it is thought advisable to highlight a few of these here. Significantly, thrust developed by the engine is transmitted to the frame, yet, the engine is thermally migratory relative the frame. Heavy springs incorporated in the bearing assemblies sustain acceleration shocks. The bearing and shaft arrangement depicted in FIG. 10, cooperative with the splining provisioning of shaft 20, and couplings 22, and slots 36, facilitate thermal migration of the engine in one axial direction. Further, hollow sleeves 186 carried by bolted-together weldments 188 slidably support the pipes 16 (FIG. 1) to allow for thermal migration in the opposite axial direction.
Only one preferred embodiment of the total engine is depicted here; clearly, from my teaching, other embodiments will occur to others. Typically, the nozzle block end of the engine is contemplated to be a casting or forging. Optionally, it could be formed of a solid block by machining. The opposite end of the engine is defined of flanges. Other closing heads could be used, of course, such as an ellipsoidal-shaped, threaded head.
While I have described my invention in connection with a specific embodiment thereof, therefore, it is to be clearly understood that this is done only by way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of my invention as set forth in the objects thereof and in the appended claims.
1. A fluid-powered engine, comprising:
an energized-fluid expander coupled to said frame;
first fluid admitting means for admitting energized fluid to said expander;
means for venting expanded fluid from said expander;
said venting means comprising outlet pipes, and including means for selectively mounting nozzles to said pipes for developing thrust from fluid vented through said pipes; and shaft means coupled to said expander for deriving rotary torque therefrom; wherein said mounting means includes resilient strut assemblies interpositionally coupled to said expander and to said frame; and
each of said strut assemblies comprises an elongated strut fixed at one end thereof to said frame, and having a sleeve element at the other end thereof, an elongated limb fixed at one end thereof to said expander, having an intermediate portion thereof slidably confined within said sleeve element and a bar fixed transverse to said limb at the other end thereof, weldments fixed to said frame having oppositely disposed slots formed therein, said bar being slidably disposed within said slots, a rod fixed to and extending from said bar in penetration of said frame, and springs in envelopment of said rod arranged to cooperate with said rod, frame, and bar to resiliently maintain said expander in intermediate positioning, at one end thereof, within said frame.
2. An engine, according to claim 1, further including: means coupled to said pipes for aspirating and depressurizing said expander.
3. An engine, according to claim 2, wherein:
said frame includes means for enclosing said expander therewithin;
said enclosing means comprises a plenum chamber;
said venting means and said aspirating and depressurizing means are throughconnected with said plenum chamber.
4. An engine, according to claim 3, wherein:
said expander has an inlet side and an outlet side; and
said plenum chamber is disposed downstream of said outlet side of said expander. 5. An engine, according to claim 1, further including:
second fluid-admitting means for admitting energized fluid into said venting means, from a source external of said expander, for enhancing said thrust.
6. An engine, according to claim 1, wherein:
said expander comprises an impulse velocity, staged turbine, having a stator assembly and a rotor assembly;
said shaft means comprises a rotary shaft of said rotor assembly;
said rotary shaft has an output section; and further including means for coupling a power shaft to said output section;
said coupling means having means accommodating axial movement of said output section relative to said frame.
7. An engine, according to claim 6, wherein:
said mounting means comprises means accommodating an axial, thermal migration of said expander relative to said frame.
8. An engine, according to claim 7, wherein:
said expander has a pair of axially disposed mounting beams fixed thereto;
said beams being fixed, at one end only, to both said expander and said frame for thermal movement therewith;
said beams being fixed for thermal movement therewith, at the other ends thereof, only to said frame; and
said beams each having a portion at a location spaced from said one end which is movably fixed to said expander to allow for relative movement therebetween under thermal effect.
9. An engine, according to claim 8, wherein: said mounting means further comprises means accommodating for a radial, thermal migration of said expander relative to Said shafts axis.
10. An engine, according to claim 1, further including:
means for sealing said shaft about the periphery thereof;
said sealing means including a packing gland holder fixed in envelopment of said shaft, said holder having a recess formed therein which, cooperative with said shaft, defines an annular space of conical cross-section;
a plurality of packing-type seals of diminishing outside diameter disposed within said annular space;
a packing gland abuttingly disposed against an outermost seal of said plurality thereof; and
' spring means urging said gland constrainingly against said outermost seal.