US 3792295 A
A machine for generating compressive energy from kinetic energy, comprising a plurality of weights mounted for rotation on a shaft which is disposed at an angle with respect to the axis of rotation. The shaft, and the weights mounted thereon, are driven about the axis of rotation by an electromagnetic drive comprising a segmented annular electromagnet, each segment of which is energized in advance of a magnetically sensitive element on the shaft to rotate the element, shaft and the weights about the axis. By suitable crankshaft linkage, the rotational motion is transmitted to linear motion of pistons which yield the compressive energy to be generated.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
0 United States Patent 91 [111 3,792,295
Garbi [4 Feb. 12, 1974 ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE SYSTEM Primary ExaminerD. F. Duggan  Inventor: Frank Garbi, 48-21 40th St., Long I Island City, NY. 1 1104  ABSTRACT  Filed: May 1972 A machine for generating compressive energy from  Appl. No 249,560 kinetic energy, comprising a plurality of weights mounted for rotation on a shaft which is disposed at an angle with respect to the axis of rotation. The shaft, [2?1 310/46, and the weights mounted thereon are driven about 81 the axis of rotation by an electromagnetic drive com-  References Cited UNITED STATES P'ATENTS R22,549 9/1944 Plensler 310/82 2,378,668 6/1945 Vickers 3,595,103 7/1971 Wildhaber 74/800 ION prising a segmented annular electromagnet, each seg ment of which is energized in advance of a magnetically sensitive element on the shaft to rotate the element, shaft and the weights about the axis. By suitable crankshaft linkage, the rotational motion is transmitted to linear motion of pistons which yield the compressive energy to be generated.
6 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PAIENTEDF'EBIZ'HH I 3.792.295
- sum 1 0F 3 V ION l ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention arises from the need to convert relatively moderate but continuous quantities of electrical energy into kinetic and thence into compressive energy capable of exerting relatively large forces for certain durations of time. The invention is intended for large scale use wherein the dimensions of sizes and weight are such that very large amounts of kinetic energy are stored in the high speed rotation of the weights, ready to be extracted in linear motion of compression piston pumps.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention comprises an electromagnetic drive for a system of extended weights whereby the weights are rotated at substantial speeds, yielding large amounts of kinetic energy which may be tapped by a suitable crankshaft linkage which connects to pump pistons. The electromagnetic drive consists of a segmented annularelectromagnet, each segment of which is energized in front of an advancing magnetic element. The magnetic element is part of a primary crank system having means to restrict its motion to rotation about an axis. Such rotation is effected by continuing attraction of the magnetic element as it advances about the electromagnet. I
Rotational motion about the axisincludes a system of weights extended from the axis whereby substantial amounts of kinetic energy and inertia are generated.
A secondary crank system converts the rotational motion to reciprocating linear motion of pump pistons which may be used in any suitable manner.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken across line 4-4 of FIG. 1 showing the annular track and the roller follower mounted on the angled shaft.
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the kinetic power system of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION Referring to the drawing, the kinetic power system of the present invention comprises a groundmounted support 12 having a plurality of reinforced concrete or structural steel legs 14 joined at the top by a horizontal platform 16. In the preferred embodiment the structure will be required to absorb great strain and should be suitably strong. Mounted on platform 16 is a base 18 for an annular electromagnet 20 having a plurality of magnetic sections 22. Annular electromagnet 20 is horizontally disposed about a vertical axis which, as will be seen, is the axis of rotation of the major rotating elements of the invention.
Segmented electromagnet 20 is mounted in a collar.
24 supported on base 18 by a plurality of wheels 26 which permit collar 24 to rotate axially. A portion of the circumference of collar 24 is provided with gear teeth 28 and is in engagement with a shaft-mounted worm 30. Worm shaft 32, mounted on base 18, is provided with a handle 34 to permit the worm to rotate in engagement with gear section 28 whereby the annular position of collar 24 and segmented electromagnet 20 may be adjusted.
Extending upwardly through and within segmented electromagnet 20 and disposed at an angle with respect to the said axis is a shaft 36 having a magnetic element 38 mounted thereon in close proximity to the inner annular surface of segmented electromagnet 20. Shaft 36 is supported from below by a knuckle joint support 40 and is supported near its upper end by a roller follower 42 which rides against an annular horizontal track 44 secured in platform 16. The entire assembly of shaft 36, magnetic element 38 and roller follower 42 rotate as a unit about a vertical axis of rotation which is also the axis of annular track 44 and annular segmented electromagnet 20. The juncture between the bottom end of shaft 36 and knuckle joint support 40 is also on the axis of rotation as is a crankshaft 46 which is connected to and extends below knuckle joint support 40.
Secured to shaft 36 are a plurality of weights 48 and 50. While two weights are shown in the drawing, it is clear that any number of weights greater than one may be provided although care must be taken that they counterbalance each other within the limits discussed herein. In particular, at least one weight 48 should extend on the same side of shaft 36 as does roller follower 42, this being this side of the shaft which faces away from the axis of rotation. Weight 48 should be greater than weight 50 which lies on the opposite side of shaft 36. The weight differential between weights 48 and 50 should be sufficient to hold roller follower 42 in constant engagement-against annular track 44 as shaft 36, together with the roller follower and the weights, rotate about the axis of rotation.
The operation of the invention may now be understood. A particular electromagnetic segment 22 is energized and attracts magnetic element 38 which moves toward the energized segment. As magnetic element 38 approaches the energized segment 22, that segment is de-energized and the next succeeding segment in the direction of travel of magnetic element 38 is energized, resulting in magnetic element 38 constantly being advanced by the attraction of energized segments 22. Magnetic element 38 together with its shaft 36 are accordingly magnetically driven by segmented electromagnet 20 to rotate about the axis of rotation. The speed of rotation may easily be controlled by changing the angular distance between an energized segment 22 and magnetic element 38. Such adjustment is easily providedby rotation of collar 24 by means of worm 30. The speed of rotation may be reduced by reduction in that angular distance, and a braking force may be applied by locating the energized segment behind the magnetic element.
It is the opinion of the inventor that the invention makes use of the force of gravity to assist electromagnet 20 in rotating weights 48 and 50 thereby reducing the magnetic strength necessary to rotate the weights. The mechanism by which this is achieved is believed by the inventor to be the following. When at rest weight 48 occupies the lowest position possible by reason of gravity. This position is in a vertical plane extending from magnetic element 38. As magnetic element 38 is initially displaced a fractional amount by the action of electromagnetic segment 22, weights 48 and 50 are prevented by inertial forces from immediately following-that rotational displacement. As a consequence, weight 48 rises and weight 50 drops because of the displacement of magnetic element 38 with respect to weight 48. The force ofgravity now acts upon weight 48 to bring it again to its lowest position vertically beneath magnetic element 38 but since magnetic element 38 has been advanced weight 48 must rotate to attain its lowest position. Moreover, because magnetic element 38 continually advances slightly ahead of weights 48 and S0, weights 48 and 50 are in a constant state of trying to catch up to the position of magnetic element 38, constantly trying to reach a low point. Thus, it is the inventors belief that rotation of the weights is accomplished in large part by the force of gravity.
.Control of energizing and de-energizing the appropriate electromagnetic segments 22' is easily provided by a plurality of switches 52 mounted about theoutermost limits of the circular travel of weight 48. Each switch is connected to the appropriate electromagnetic segments 22 such that as weight 48 passes a given switch a segment 22 in advance of magnetic element 38 is energized and the electromagnetic element 22 which is adjacent magnetic element38 is de-energized. For example, consider FIGS. 2 and'3 which illustrates a given position for shaft 36 and its associated elements.
Weight 48 is passing switch 52a and has actuated the same. Actuation of switch 52a energizes electromagnetic segment 22a and de-energizes electromagnetic segment 22b. In the topview provided in FIGS. 2 and 3 the direction of rotation is counterclockwise. Note, as shown in FIG. 1, that weight 50, a secondary and smaller weight, does not extend as great a radial distance from the axis of rotation as does weight 48., which is the primary and larger weight. Accordingly it is only weight 48 and not weight 50 which contacts switches 52.
Each switch'52 has a cover flap 54 which is secured at one end 56 only to a wall 58, the opposite end of cover 54 being unrestrained. The end 56 of cover 54 which is secured to wall 58 is that in the direction of approach of weight 48 which, as seen in FIG. 3, rotates in a counterclockwise direction. As weight 48 passes a switch 52 it engages cover 54 and depresses the same thereby closing the switch. This condition is shown at switch 52a in FIGS. 1 and 3. As weight 48 passes a given switch the switch returns to its normal off position.
Switches 52 are described as being mechanically actuated. They may also be photoelectric switches, proximity switches or any other suitable switching medium.
Knuckle joint support turns about the axis of rotation on a bearing 60 which is in turn supported by a bearing support framework 62. Extending from knuckle joint support 40 downwardly through bearing 60 and bearing support 62 is crankshaft 46 located at its upper end by bearing 60 and intermediate its ends by bearing 64 secured in a ground member or reinforced concrete base 66. The bottom of crankshaft 46 rests on a thrust bearing 68 which has suitable support in base 66.
Crankshaft 46 in the preferred embodiment is provided with a single crank 70 to which is joined opposed and the pistons may then be used in any conventional.
manner as pump pistons or the like and the output of each piston would be controlled by suitable and normal connections, not shown in the drawing.
In summary, the invention provides a machine fo converting electromagnetic energy into the kinetic energy of rotation of weights 48 and 50 which is'then transmitted through suitable crankshaft and piston rod connections to pump pistons 74 which provide a work output.
In the preferred embodiment the kinetic power system 10 of the present invention would approximate 30 feet high and 40 feet wide at its maximum width. Wall 58, which could be formed as part of reinforced concrete base 66, forms a cylindrical excavation some 6 feet deep and approximately 20 feet in diameter. Weight 48 in the preferred embodiment is approximately 200 pounds and weight 50 is approximately pounds. The speed of'rotation is on The order of RPM. Because of the large dynamic forces which would be generated by over 350 pounds rotating at such a speed, it is desirable to constructthe system such that the weights are below ground level 76. In the unlikely event that a weight becomes disconnected and flies off tangentially to the circle of rotation, retaining wall 58 and the earthen embankment behind would provide suitable security.
If the radial distance from the axis of rotation to the center of mass of each weight is 15 feet, rotation at 180 RPM results in the weightstravelling a a .velocity of some 283 feet/second which is approximately 193 miles per hour. If kinetic energy E be determined by the formula E mv where mass m w/g, v is velocity in feet/second, w is weight in pounds and g is the gravitational constant of 32.174 feetlsecond then, using the dimensions and velocity stated, a kinetic energy of approximately 436,000 foot-pounds is attained.
While the foregoing is illustrative of a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is clear that other embodiments may be had within the teachings hereof. For example, the system may be used to drive rotary pumps such as impeller or propeller pumps. This would avoid the complication of pistons, piston rods and crankshaft.
. It should be noted that the complication of a crankshaft ment means and said rotating means about said axis of rotation,
. f. said segments of said electromagnetic means being disposed in circular orientation upon a platform;
g. said platform being rotatable about said axis of rotation, to increase or decrease the angular distance from an individually energized segment to said magnetic element means and accordingly increase or decrease the speed of rotation of said magnetic element means,
h. said rotating means being connected to suitable drive means.
2. A machine which utilizes electromagnetic energy to generate kinetic energy in accordance with claim 1, wherein:
said rotating means comprises a shaft supported at an angle with respect to the axis of rotation.
3. A machine which utilizes electromagnetic energy to generate kinetic energy in accordance with claim 2, wherein said rotating means additionally comprises:
at least one weight is supported on said shaft at a distance from said axis of rotation.
4. A machine which utilizes electromagnetic energy to generate kinetic energy in accordance with claim 3, additionally comprising:
' a. a plurality of switches, said switches being disposed along the path of rotation of said weight, said switches being electrically connected to said electromagnetic means and being actuated by said weight,
b. whereby said electromagnetic means is selectively energized by the position of said weight with respect to said switches.
5. A machine which utilizes electromagnetic energy to generate kinetic energy in accordance with claim 4, wherein:
said shaft is supported at said angle with respect to said axis of rotation by a circular track supported adjacent said electromagnetic means, said track being co-axial with said axis of rotation, a roller follower mounted on said shaft engaging said track.
6. A machine which utilizes electromagnetic energy to generate kinetic energy, comprising:
a. rotating means, said rotating means being adapted to rotate about an axis of rotation and having a central shaft drive element off the axis of rotation;
b. a weight, said weight being coupled to said rotating means in continuous rotating motion initiated by changes of position of said central shaft and the consequent changes of position of said weight;
c. electromagnetic drive means, said electromagnetic drive means initially displacing said drive element from a first position about said axis of rotation, whereat said weight is at a lower level, to a second position about said axis of rotation, whereat said weight is at a higher level due to initial inertial resistance of the weight to rotation about said axis of rotation; and
d. said continuous rotating motion being sustained partly by said electromagnetic drive means and partly by the force of gravity which reacts to the higher level of said weight,
e. whereby the force of gravity tends to lower said weight to said low level thereby causing rotation of said weight and said rotating means coupled thereto.