US 3795105 A
Control apparatus for a hydraulic jet propulsion water borne craft of the type having a variable area nozzle, thrust reversing means for the nozzle, steering valves, and a power plant such as an internal combustion engine for driving the water pump means that creates the water pressure. The apparatus includes a single operators lever which controls the engine speed and also includes programming means, also controlled by the lever, which controls the area of the nozzle in relationship to the engine speed.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 Aschauer Mar. 5, 1974 CONTROL APPARATUS FOR HYDRAULIC JET PROPULSION WATER BORNE CRAFT  Inventor:
 Assignee: Twin Disc, Incorporated, Racine,
22 Filed: May 2,1972
211 App]. No.: 249,565
George R. Aschauer, Racine, Wis.
 U.S. C1 60/221, 60/230, 115/14, 239/265.19  Int. Cl. F02k l/20  Field of Search. 60/221, 222, 230; 239/265.l9; 1 15/14  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Duport 60/221 X 3,185,124 5/1965 Spence 60/222 X 3,628,558 12/1971 Bah] 137/118 3,680,315 8/1972 Aschauer 60/221 Primary ExaminerClarence R. Gordon Attorney, Agent, or FirmJames E. Nilles [5 7 ABSTRACT Control apparatus for a hydraulic jet propulsion water borne craft of the type having a variable area nozzle, thrust reversing means for the nozzle, steering valves, and a power plant such as an internal combustion engine for driving the water pump means that creates the water pressure. The apparatus includes a single operators lever which controls the engine speed and also includes programming means, also controlled by the lever, which controls the area of the nozzle in relationship to the engine speed.
4 Claims, 15 Drawing Figures PAIENTED 5 4 sum '02 0F117 ENTEDMAR 51914 sum 03 0F 11" PATENTED 51974 3.795.105
sum 'ou ur 11 PATENTEI] MAR 51974 sum 05 0F 11 PATENTEU 5 74 saw '06 0F 11 PATENTED 5 4 SHEET 07 [1F 11 PATENTEDIAR 14- snm 1o vor 11 CGNTROL APPARATUS FUR HYDRAULIC .III'I PROPULSION WATER IEGRNIE CRAFT BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention pertains to control apparatus for hydraulic jet propulsion water borne craft such as shown in the co-pending U. S. Fat. application Ser. No. 79,733, filed Oct. 12, 1970 and entitled Hydraulic Jet Propulsion Apparatus, which issued as US. Pat. No. 3,680,315 on Aug. 1, 1972, and which has been assigned to an assignee common with the present application. Such jet propelled water craft have a variable area nozzle for varying the speed of the craft, and also having reversing gates which reverse the direction of the water jet which is received from the nozzle, to thereby reverse the direction of craft movement. Steering valves are also provided to cause the pressurized water to be ejected to one side of the craft or the other, to thereby steer the craft.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides control apparatus for a hydraulic jet propulsion water craft of the type having a power source such as an engine for driving the water pump, a variable area nozzle, and reversing means for receiving water jet from the nozzle and reversing its direction.
More specifically, the control apparatus includes a single lever which programs the amount of nozzle opening with respect to engine speed. The control apparatus provides high water pressure at the steering valve means at all times, even though the craft is moving slowly, so that immediate and responsive steering is provided. The apparatus, through action of the single control handle, is such that when the lever is pushed to the craft forward position, the engine throttle is opened faster than the nozzle so that high water pressure is available for good control even though the craft is standing still or is moving slowly. Furthermore, the arrangement is such that when the lever is pulled rearwardly in a craft reversing direction, the reversing gates or battles are closed prior to the time the nozzle opens to deliver the jet stream to the baffles.
The present invention provides a single control lever apparatus for proper sequencing of the movement of the nozzle reversing gates and nozzle opening with respect to engine speed increase and for varying the nozzle area in relationship to engine speed, insuring high engine speed and consequently high water pressure for good steering at no or low speed of the craft.
These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will appear hereinafter as this disclosure progresses, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of a jet propulsion apparatus made in accordance with the present invention showing only a fragmentary portion of the water craft to which it is attached;
FIG. 2 is a generally schematic diagram of the control apparatus provided by the present invention as shown in FIG. I, but showing certain parts as being broken away, in section or removed for clarity;
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal cross sectional view through the forward portion, namely the power transmission and the water inlet passage of the apparatus;
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal, cross sectional view through the rearward portion of the apparatus, namely the pump stages, the variable area nozzle and side jet valves, and the reversing mechanism;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary, rear elevational view, taken generally along the line 55 in FIG. I, and showing the two parts of the reversing mechanism moved to the extreme laterally outward position, certain parts being shown in section;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged detailed view taken along the line 66 in FIG. 5, certain parts being shown as broken away or in section for the sake of clarity;
FIG. 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken generally along the line "77 in FIG. 41 and showing the side steering valves and the main variable area nozzle;
FIG. 8 is a sectional view of the side jet valves, the view being taken generally along the line 8-8 in FIG. '7 but on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 9 is a sectional view of the supporting and guiding rollers for the reversing mechanism, the view being taken generally along the line 9-@ in FIG. 5, but on an enlarged scale;
FIG. It) is an enlarged, elevational view of the cam adjustment shown in FIG. 2 for the variable area nozzle;
FIG. II is a plan view of the cam adjustment shown in FIG. I0;
FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of the hydraulic system of the invention;
FIG. I3 is a graph of operating lever movement plotted against engine speed, nozzle area and position of the reverse gates;
FIG. I4 is a view similar to FIG. 2, but showing a modification; and
FIG. I5 is a schematic diagram of the hydraulic circuit of the FIG. I4 modification.
DESCRIFT ION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the general organization of the propulsion apparatus, the water intake is through the opening I (FIG. 3) in the bottom 2 of the craft and the inlet passage 3 extends upwardly and to the rear at a gradually inclined angle. The housing 4(FIG. I) for the water inlet passage terminates in a flange 5 which is secured to a flange 6 of the pump housing 7. The pump housing '7 contains the first stage pump 8 (FIG. 4) and the second stage pump 9, both of which pumps are fixed to the drive shaft It) for rotation therewith at the same speed.
The drive shaft It) is driven from the power transmission T (FIG. 3) which receives its power from the engine E in the craft. The transmission includes a housing H, and a water tight, sliding seal SS is located between the housing H and the drive shaft It}. A similar seal ss is located between the shaft III and the housing SI (FIG. 4) of the pump section.
The rearward end of the drive shaft is journalled in anti-friction bearings 3th (FIG. 4) in the housing 1% of enclosed chamber Eilla of pump section '7.
The main variable area nozzle N (FIG. 4) is located in a housing 34 which is generally circular when viewed in longitudinal vertical cross section. The nozzle N has a wide mouth 35 which generally converges in a rearward direction to terminate in a generally narrower discharge portion 36. The upper surface 3'7 of the nozzle N is generally curved downwardly in a rearward direction, as indicated, while a lower surface 38 of the nozzle is also curved upwardly in a rearward direction. The side walls 40 and 41 of the nozzle are flat and generally vertical, thereby providing a generally rectangular cross sectional area to the nozzle when viewed in a transverse and generally vertical plane.
The nozzle is shown in the position for maximum discharge of water, that is in a fully open position.
The nozzle is rotatably mounted about its shaft 42 (FIGS. 1, 4 and 7) said shaft being fixed to a bifurcated arm 43 (FIGS. 1 and 4). The upper end of the arm is swung in forward and reverse directions by the double action hydraulic cylinder means 45 which is under control of the operator. By contracting the cylinder means 45, the nozzle is caused to rotate in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 4, thereby causing the rear portion 36 of the nozzle to partially close against the upper portion of the housing 34. The nozzle can be rotated from the position shown in FIG. 4, in a counter-clockwise direction to a point where it completely closes the valve and no further rearward discharge occurs.
The above described nozzle is balanced by hydraulic pressure regardless of its position, because the incoming water pressure is always acting against both the surfaces 37 and 38. Furthermore, water pressure is also present in the chambers 68 and 49 between the nozzle and the housing 34, by leaking between the nozzle and the housing, thereby contributing to hydraulic balance of the entire unit. With this arrangement, the nozzle is easily and accurately controlled.
Side steering valves V1 and V2 (FIGS. 1, 4, 7, and 8) are located ahead of the main nozzle N and are conse quently subjected to full water pressure at all times. These valves are located in opposite sides of the housing 34 and extend directly laterally therefrom and are of the butterfly type. These butterfly valves are operated sequentially, through the crank arm 50 by means of the double action cylinder means 51 and 52, respectively. The operation is such that as one valve closes, the other opens thereby permitting water to be forced laterally to one side or the other thereby causing steering of the craft.
The jet propulsion apparatus also includes mechanism for reversing the thrust discharged by the nozzle to thereby slow down the craft or cause it to operate in the reverse direction. This reverse mechanism RM includes laterally separable gates and 61 which slide laterally on the upper track 63 and lower track 64, under the influence of double acting hydraulic cylinder means 66 and 67, respectively. These gates 60 and 61 move together either in an inwardly or outwardly direction so as to respectively, either be directly behind the discharge end of the nozzle to receive the full jet stream therefrom for reversing, or in a laterally outward position where no jet stream is engaged by the gates 60 and 61 and as a result the craft moves straight ahead.
The gates 60 and 61 are generally U-shaped in character. The open end of the U facing in a forward direction in respect to the water craft. A plurality of upper rollers 73 are carried by each of the parts for engagement in the upper track 63. A plurality of lower rollers 74 are carried by each of the gates 60 and 61 for engagement in the lower guide and supporting track 64. This mounting means for the gates 60 and 61 provide an accurate and easily controlled movement of the parts through the operation of the double acting hydraulic cylinder means 66 and 67. As shown in FIGS. 6 and 9, these rollers are staggered, that is to say, two of the rollers 73 and 73b are located rearwardly of the third roller 73c and the load is actually carried by these two rollers of each set of three rollers. The third roller 73c acts as a guiding and incidental bearing roller and by so staggering these rollers, good alignment and assembly is possible.
The control apparatus provided by the present invention is shown best in FIGS. 1, 2 and 32. Generally, the apparatus includes a single operating lever 75 which can be swung from the full line neutral position shown in FIG. 2 to a forward position or a rearward position indicated by the broken lines. The first movement of the handle in either forward or reverse direction places the control apparatus in either forward mode or rearward mode, respectively, and this includes shifting the laterally shiftable gates 60, 61 either to a laterally spaced operative position shown in EEG. H where the jet issuing from the nozzle goes directly outward to the rear, or a laterally closed position where the gates 60, 61 are abutting against one another to thereby reverse the directions of the jet issuing from the nozzle and therefore reversing the direction of the craft. After the direction mode of the gates has been set, further move ment of the lever causes the engine speed to come up so that sufficient water pressure is delivered by the pumps to provide some control for the craft. Then, further movement of the lever in the direction selected causes movement of the nozzle, that is to say, causes the area of the nozzle to change. However, it is necessary to program or schedule the amount of nozzle movement with respect to the engine r.p.rn. In other words, it is desirable to adjust the nozzle area in a man ner so that the speed of the engine comes up quickly compared to opening movement of the nozzle; there is a definite relationship between the amount of opening of the nozzle and the rpm. of the engine. The nozzle area may increase slowly for the first portion of its arcuate movement and then move at a faster rate through later portions of its area adjusting, arcuate movement.
The general organization of the control system is as follows. The control lever 75 is connected by means of the endless cable and chain 76 to a Morse control cable device 78. More particularly, the roller chain sections 76 the endless member 76 are trained around sprocket 79 connected with the handle '75 and sprocket 80 connected with shaft $1 of the cable control device 78. Movement of shaft 81 causes corresponding movement of arms 82, 83 and $4, which in turn are connected, respectively, to the throttle linkage 85, a link 86 leading to the variable area nozzle cam adjusting means 87, and link 88 connected with an arm 8% of the reverse gate valve gt). Thus, adjustment of the lever 75 causes corresponding movements of the engine throttle and nozzle adjusting cam means and the reverse gate valve. These components will now be described in greater detail.
The reverse gate valve is a four-way, two position valve having an inlet conduit 92 from a source of fluid pressure such as a pump 91 (FIG. 12), a conduit 93 which leads from the valve to the sump, a fluid conduit 94 leading via branch 94a to the rod end of the cylinder means 66 and then leading via branch 94b to the rod end of cylinder means 67 of the reverse gate 61. Another fluid conduit 95 leads from the valve 9% and by means of its branch line 5a leads to the head end of cylinder 66 of gate and then by branch 9512 also communicating to the head end of cylinder 67 of gate 61. Thus, when the arm 89 is swung by the control lever in the other direction, fluid is directed from the valve to the cylinders 66, 67, to thereby open the reversing means, that is it pulls the gates 60, 61 apart to permit the jet to be ejected rearwardly directly in a rearward driving mode. When the arm 89 is swung in the opposite direction, the valve 90 is shifted to cause the cylinders 66, 67 to extend, thereby closing the gates 60, 61 together and placing the reversing mechanism in effect to cause reversal of the craft, when the jet is directed into the reverse means.
The cam link means 87 includes an arm 97 which is attached to cable 86 and is also fixed by shaft 97a to a cam member 98 for swinging therewith. A cam follower 99 is mounted on an arm 100 which in turn is fixed to a servo-valve input shaft 101. Thus, movement of the control lever 75 causes the cable 86 to swing the cam member 98 in one direction or the other, consequently causing corresponding oscillation of the input shaft 101, in accordance with the cam 98.
A rotary, synchronizing, servo-valve 105, such as shown in US. Pat. No. 3,254,674, issued June 7, 1966 entitled Rotary Servo Valve, is utilized and is in itself, conventional. It is believed sufficient to say that this valve accepts the signal from the input shaft 101. The valve 105 has a fluid pressure inlet conduit 106, an outlet conduit 107, a work conduit 108 which leads to the head end of nozzle cylinder 45 and also a work conduit 109 which is in communication with the rod end of the nozzle adjusting cylinder 45. The valve 105 also has a feedback shaft 111 extending from the opposite side of the valve from input shaft 101. The feedback shaft is connected directly with the adjusting yoke 43 of the nozzle and therefore any movement of the nozzle due to actuation of the cylinder 45 causes corresponding movement of the feedback valve 111. The valve 105 accepts the feedback signal to control the operation of the hydraulic cylinder 45.
When the input shaft 101 is angularly adjusted by the cam means 87, pressure fluid is directed to the cylinder 45 in the appropriate and corresponding direction to thereby move the nozzle. Movement of the nozzle to any adjusted position causes corresponding movement of the feedback shaft 111 and when the feedback shaft has reached the position corresponding to input shaft 101, further fluid flow to the cylinder 45 ceases because the feedback shaft 111 has then terminated in flow.
Thus, the cam means 87 and the rotary servo-valve 105 act to program or schedule the nozzle movement with regard to engine rpm. and through the action of the single operating lever 75.
As shown in FIGS. 1, 7, 8 and 12, steering nozzles V1 and V2 are located ahead of the main nozzle N and are actuated by their respective hydraulic cylinder units 51 and 52. When these valves are open they act to direct the water pressure laterally of the craft thereby steering it. As shown in FIG. 12, a spring centered valve is provided for receiving pressure fluid from line 121 from a manifold 122 that in turn receives its pressure from the pump 91. Fluid is returned from valve 121 via conduit 123 to the sump S. Pressure fluid is directed from valve 120 to cylinder 51 via conduit 124 and may be directed to cylinder 52 via conduit 125. Conven tional sequential valves 126, 127 may be inserted in conduits 124 and 125, respectively.
A separate control lever 130 (FIG. 12) has an operating connection 131 with the valve 120 for effecting steering. Water pressure is available to steer the craft through nozzles V1 and V2 because the engine speed rises to create the necessary water pressure before the nozzle appreciably'This has the advantage of providing good steering capabilities to the water craft at all times.
The operational characteristics of the control apparatus provided by the present invention are illustrated in FIG. 13 and movement of the operating control lever in either direction is plotted against engine speed and its relationship with the opening of the variable area nozzle. For example, when the lever is moved from neutral to the forward position, it will be seen the engine speed increases for a distance of lever movement before the nozzle begins to open. Then further movement of the lever cuases the nozzle to open slowly and then the rate of nozzle opening increases as the handle movement increases. It will be seen that the reverse gates are open prior to any movement of the control lever in the forward direction. It will also be seen that the engine speed has increased prior to nozzle opening and therefore water pressure is available to the steering valves.
in respect to the movement of the handle in the rearward direction, it will be seen that upon a very small amount of movement of the handle from the neutral position to the rearward position immediately causes the reverse gates to close, thus putting the craft in the reverse mode prior to any engine speed build-up. Here again, the engine speed increases prior to'any substantial opening of the variable area nozzle.
FIGS. 14 and 15 illustrate another modification of the invention. Parts similar to those in the previously described embodiment of the invention will be similarly numbered. lt will be noticed however, a valve (FIGS. 14 and 15) constitutes a programming means for the nozzle actuating means. This valve 140 has been substituted for the rotary valve 105 and the cam means 87. Furthermore, a double cylinder 1412 arranged end to end has replaced the single cylinder .15 of the first modification of the first embodiment.
More specifically, the valve 140 is operated by a linkage 188 to the arm 83 of the control cable device 78. This linkage 103 is then connected to the actuating arm 189 of the valve 140. When the valve is in the position shown in FIG. 15, pressure fluid is directed from con duit 106 and into the valve and then it passes to the right end of the compound cylinder 1412. Fluid pressure from chamber 153 and the intermediate chamber 144 of the compound cylinder is then returned to sump by passing through the valve 140, and line 107 to the sump. In other words, when the compound cylinder is in this position, it is fully contracted.
The compound cylinder can also be extended sequentially in two stages, thereby operating the nozzle in the similar stages. This is accomplished by shifting the valve 140 to the intermediate position wherein pressure fluid is directed via line 145 to the end chamber 143 thereby causing expansion of chamber 143 and partial extension of the compound cylinder. Continued movement of the arm 189 causes the valve to move to the other endmost position wherein pressure fluid is then also directed to the intermediate expansion chamher 144 thereby causing the other piston rod 147 to also extend. Pressure fluid is at that time returned via line 148, through the valve, and then through line 107 to the sump.
RESUME The control apparatus provided for the hydraulic jet propulsion water craft includes the single control lever which, during its initial movement from neutral, places the craft in either forward or reverse mode. Further movement of the lever in either direction then increases engine speed to insure that the pump means provides sufficient water pressure for good boat control.
Continued further movement of the lever in the forward direction then opens the variable area nozzle and this nozzle movement is programmed simultaneously along with engine speed adjustment. The nozzle movement is programmed with regard to engine speed; the nozzle may move rather slowly through its first arcuate movement and then at a faster rate, depending on the engine r.p.m., during other portions of its arcuate adjustment.
When the lever is moved from a neutral to the reverse direction, reversing gates are closed to a reversing position, the engine speed is then brought up to assure good water pressure for boat control and then further movement of the control lever in the rearward direction programs the opening of the nozzle N in relationship to engine speed.
1. In a hydraulic jet propulsion water craft having a power plant for driving water pump means, a variable area nozzle for receiving water under pressure from said pump means and for discharging said water rearwardly as a jet to drive said craft, nozzle actuating means for varying the area of said nozzle, craft reversing means shiftable into and out of receiving relationship with the jet discharged by said nozzle for determin ing the direction of movement of said craft, means for shifting said reversing means, and control apparatus including a single control lever having a connection with said means for shifting said reversing means and shiftable to a craft forward position or a craft rearward position in its initial movement from a neutral position, said lever also having a connection with said power plant for regulating the speed thereof and which increases engine speed immediately upon continued lever movement after said initial lever movement to said craft forward or craft reverse positions, said lever also having a programming operating connection with said nozzle actuating means for changing the area of said nozzle after said craft direction selection has been made by said lever and after said increase in engine speed has also been made by said single lever.
2. The combination set forth in claim 1 further characterized in that said operating connection includes a cam and link means, a rotary servo-valve including an input shaft and a feedback shaft, said cam link means being connected to said input shaft and said feedback shaft being connected with said nozzle whereby said servo-valve directs fluid pressure to said nozzle actuating means and movement of said nozzle is fed back into said servo-valve.
3. The combination set forth in claim 1 further characterized in that said means for shifting said reversing means includes hydraulic cylinder means, and a hydraulic valve connected with said cylinder means and having a control connection with said lever.
4. The combination set forth in claim 1 further characterized in that said control connection is also connected between said control lever and said nozzle actu ating means whereby said reversing means is actuated prior to said nozzle actuating means.