US 3798850 A
This invention relates to a roof structure spanning a pair of longitudinal joists and comprises a plurality of tranverse arches which span the joists. In between each arch on each joist is a foundation plate and rigid support members are provided spanning the distance between the center of each arch to the foundation plates on either side of the arch. A longitudinal diaphragm runs lengthwise of the structure between the joists, and hangs in measured catenery loops between the arches. A series of diagonal diaphragms overlie the longitudinal diaphragm and combine therewith so as to provide a rigid diaphragm and substantially 100 percent coverage of the spaces between the arches. Insulating material and a weatherproof protective coating are then applied to the structure.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Ensor Mar. 26, 1974 ROOF STRUCTURE  Inventor: Arthur John Ensor, 13 Kaymar Dr.,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  Filed: Dec. 21, 1972  Appl. No.: 317,404
'  U.S. Cl 52/80, 52/63, 52/86  Int. Cl E04b 1/347  Field of Search 52/80, 81, 86, 63
[ 56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,800,988 4/1931 Ewing 52/86 2,353,071 7/1944 Pitou'. U 52/86 2,827,002 3/1958 Weidlinger.. 52/80 2,828,756 4/1958 Worley 52/80 3,292,315 12/1966 Silberkahl 52/80 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 692,495 4/1940 Germany 52/80 1,052,660 3/1959 Germany 52/80 125,022 4/1957 U.S.S.R 52/80 Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant ExaminerH. E. Ruduazo Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Fetherstonhaugh & Co.
ABSTRACT This invention relates to a roof structure spanning a pair of longitudinal joists and comprises a plurality of tranverse arches which span the joists. In between each arch oneach joist is a foundation plate and rigid support members are provided spanning the distance between the center of each arch to the foundation plates on either side of the arch. A longitudinal diaphragm runs lengthwise of the structure between the joists, and hangs in measured catenery loops between the arches. A series of diagonal diaphrag'ms overlie the longitudinal diaphragm and combine therewith so as to provide a rigid diaphragm and substantially 100 percent coverage of the spaces between the arches. Insulating material and a weatherproof protective coating are then applied to the structure.
8 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures ROOF STRUCTURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a light weight insulated roof structure that can be produced either as a continuous roof shell or which can be formed from a plurality of independent panels.
The roof system of the invention depends .upon a combination of rigid structural elements and tensile sheet elements or diaphragms that are integrated into rigid complex curved planes which can be formed without the use of molds. The elements forming the framework of the roof system are of sufficient strength to carry a layer of insulation and an outer protective skin, and when assembled, the roof will meet the normal demands of storm and snow loadings. The roof structure of the invention is made of modern light weight, high performance materials and may readily be assembled from relatively compact, easily transported elements at any location. Alternatively, the roof structure may comprise large factory produced panels which are fully insulated and prefinished and which are at the same time light enough that they can be easily handled. In either case, a roof made in accordance with the invention provides a light weight structure which is quickly and easily erected, and which is of pleasing appearance.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, there is provided a roof structure which is designed to traverse a pair of longitudinal supporting joists which might, for example, constitute the walls of a building. A plurality of transverse arches are spaced between thejoists. In between each arch on each joist, there is located a foundation plate; and rigid support members which comprises a braced strut framework or which are formed of corrugated metal sheet or plastics material are provided spanning the distance between the center of each arch to the foundation plates on either side of the arch. Thus, the center of each arch of the roofs structure is supported by opposed inclined Vs made up of the four rigid support members associated with the arch. A longitudinal diaphragm is then provided running lengthwise of the structure midway between the longitudinal supporting joists. The diaphragm is designed to hang in measured catenery loops between each adjacent pair of arches. A series of diagonal diaphragms is then provided overlying the longitudinal diaphragm, each interconnecting the one end of one arch to the other end of an adjacent arch. The diagonal diaphragms and the longitudinal diaphragm are of sufficient width in order to allow substantially I00 percent coverage of the space between the arches and are used to support insulating material and/or a weatherproof coating which is superimposed over the insulating material.
In a second embodiment, the invention provides individual panels having essentially the same configuration and construction referred to above, but which are preformed and adapted to be secured together in both side by side and end to end relationship, the ends of the panels being designed to rest on the longitudinal supporting joists.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings which illustrate two preferred embodiments of the invention and in which like refer to like parts:
FIG. 1 is a view in perspective of a portion of a roof structure in accordance with the first embodiment partially under construction;
FIG. 2 isa view in perspective of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 but in a further advanced stage of construction;
FIG. 3 is a view in perspective of partially completed panel in accordance with the second embodiment of the invention; and
FIG. 4 illustrates two triangular corner frames having a diagonal looped diaphragm thereon which may be used in the construction of either the first or second embodiment.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS As best seen in FIG. 2, the roof structure of the present invention is designed to span an area between two longitudinal supporting joists. Supporting joists 1 could constitute the outside walls of a building. In the case of a wide building, several such joists 1 might be employed; the interior ones defining partitions within the building or being supported on pillars or on larger transverse structural arches or suspension cables if partitions are not required. I 7
Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 2, longitudinal supporting rails l are spanned by a series of transverse arches 2 between which are disposed a series of foundation plates 3 which are rigidly secured to the longitudinal supporting joists l. Ideally, the distance between each transverse arch 2 is about one-fifteenth the distance spanned by the arch 2, i.e., one-fifth the distance between adjacent longitudinal supporting joists 1.
Each transverse arch 2 is supported at its center by rigid support members 4. Each rigid support member 4 is secured at one end to the arch and at the other end to'an end plate 3a. In FIG. 1 or 2, rigid support members 4 are made of corrugated sheeting such as corrugated metal or corrugated plastics. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 3, support member 4 may consist of a braced strut framework or truss. The internal edge 5 of each rigid support member 4 runs fromabout the center line of its associated foundation plate 3 to about the center of its arch 2. The ends of rigid support members 4 which are secured to end plate 3a lie in a substantially horizontal plane. The other ends of rigid support members 4 are preferably twisted about 30 to the horizontal where they connect with their associated transverse arches 2 in order to provide additional arch supporting strength.
As best seen in FIG. 1, each arch 2 is thus supported at its center by a pair of opposed inclined Vs, each V being made up of a pair of rigid support members 4.
Once the rigid framework comprising longitudinal supporting joists l, transverse arches 2, foundation plates 3 and rigid support members 4 have been assembled, the next stage in the construction is to substantially cover the spaces between the transverse arches 2 with diaphragms having tensile strength. These diaphragms may, for example, be formed of fiberglass, woven fibers or wire cloth. It is not necessary that the diaphragms used to span the spaces between transverse arches 2 have any compressive strength.
numerals As best seen in FIG. 2, a longitudinal diaphragm 6 is provided overlying transverse arches 2 midway between longitudinal supporting joists l in such a manner that longitudinal diaphragm 6 hangs between adjacent transverse arches 2 in measured catenery loops. The next stage is to then criss cross" the space between adjacent transverse arches 2 with diagonal diaphragms 7 which overlies longitudinal diaphragm 6. Diagonal diaphragms 7 are firmly secured to the ends of transverse arches 2 and end plates 3a. In this manner, diagonal diaphragms 7 and longitudinal diaphragm 6 combine to provide a rigid diaphragm and substantially 100 percent coverage is obtained of the area bounded by transverse arches 2 and end plates 3a.
One method of securing diagonal diaphragms 7 within the roofs structure as aforesaid is to employ triangular corner frames 8 such as aremost clearly illustrated in FIG. 4. As will be seen in FIG. 4, two triangular corner frames 8 are provided having a loop of the tensile material which forms diagonal diaphragm 7 wound about them. End triangularcorner frame 8 may then be pivotally secured to a foundation plate 3 at corner point 9. By rotating opposed triangular corner frames 8 about pivotal connections 9 and securing them to their adjacent transverse arches 2 along sides 10 of the triangular corner frames 8, diagonal diaphragm 7 may be stretched between one end of one arch 2 and .the other end of adjacent arch 2.
It will thus be seen that by the interaction of transverse arches 2, the end plates 3a, the rigid support members 4 and pre-stressed tension diaphragms 7, a complex curved surface approximating a hyperbaloid may be produced. To this surface a matrix (not shown) of insulating material formed, for example, from a light aggregate concrete mix or foamed plastics material is applied to the structure and a final protective outer skin (not shown) may if necessary be superimposed thereover in order to make the structure weather proof. The protective outer skin may be sprayed or painted on or may be applied as a preformed skin during the application of the insulation.
If the matrix employed to cover the structure is nonburnable and if it is applied in such a manner as to completely envelop the framework to which it is applied, the need fora double ceiling to protect the framework in the event of fire may be avoided. Thus the overall weight and cost of the completed roof structure may be minimized.
ln the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, essentially the same structure as described above is illustrated, except that in this case, individual panels are pre-formed in sections for assembly on site, and the support members 4 comprise a braced strut framework or truss 4a, 4b, 4c. Since the strength of the roofs structure depends to a large degree upon the support provided by the inclined Vs made up of rigid supporting members 4 as described above, it is essential, where one employs the use of individual panels as illustrated in FIG. 3, that means be provided for rigidly locking the panels together in side by side relationship. This is especially true along those portions defined by sides 10 of corner frames 7 since the stresses generated through corresponding diaphragms 7 in adjacent panels can then be neutralised to some degree. One manner of doing this is to bolt the panels together through holes 14 or by the use of hook-nut on reverse thread bolts (not shown) that engage adjacent corner frames 8. In a similar manner, means can be provided for locking the panels together in end to end relationship. To assist in weatherproofing the joints, one can, in addition provide panels having interlocking edges, one edge of a panel having an upstanding flange 11 which is designed to fit within a grooved flanged l2 provided'on the other edge of an adjacent panel.
It should be noted that the compressive arched edge component of the panel frame can be either a single metal channel or metal angle (see 2 in FIG. 1) to which the supporting corrugated sheet or lattice frames are attached, or it can be a plurality of such arch components that perform the same function as the wedgeshaped stones of a masonry arch but which in this case are held in line by a corresponding number of struts stemming from the end plates.
It should also be noted that the end plates of 3a the panel (curved to conform to the trough configuration) have to be broad enough to absorb the opposing forces of thrust and tension generated by varying roof loads, but they may be perforated to save weight. Also the foundation plates 3 that need to be connected to the end-plates may be added after the incorporation of the insulation matrix should itbe more economical to utilize the otherwise uniform and uninterrupted profile of the panel for continuous assembly-line production through the insulation'applicator machine.
What is claimed as my invention is:
l. A roof structure comprising a pair of longitudinal i supporting joists; a plurality of foundation plates spaced at regular intervals along each of said joists;.a plurality of transverse arches spaced between said joists, each end of each arch being disposed between adjacent foundation plates; each said arch being connected at its midpoint to the foundation plates adjacent each end thereof by rigid support members; a longitudinal diaphragm overlying said arches midway between said longitudinal supports and hanging in catenery loops between each adjacent pair of arches; a series of diagonal diaphragms overlying said longitudinal diaphragm, each said diagonal diaphragm interconnecting one end of one arch to'the other end of an adjacent arch; and a matrix of insulating material applied to said roof structure and bonding with said rigid support members, said longitudinal diaphragm and said diagonal diaphragms.
2. A roof structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein the longitudinal and diagonal diaphragms and the rigid support members between adjacent transverse arches overlie one another so as to produce a substantially continuous surface upon which said matrix of insulating material is applied.
3. A roof structure as claimed in claim 2 wherein said rigid members are formed of corrugated sheet material, each of said members being twisted at about 3.0" to the horizontal at its point of connection with said arch.
4. A roof structure as claimed in claim 2 wherein said rigid support members comprise a braced strut framework, each of said members being twisted at about 30 to the horizontal at its point of connection with said arch.
5. For use in a roof structure spanning two or more longitudinal supporting joists: a plurality of transverse panels spaced between adjacent joists, each panel comprising a pair-of spaced transverse arches and a pair of foundation plates intermediate thereof and adapted to overlie said joists; each said arch connected at its midpoint to the end plates adjacent each end thereof by rigid support members; a diaphragm supported by said arches between said foundation plates, and hanging therefrom in a catenery loop; two diagonal diaphragms overlying said longitudinal diaphragm, each said diago bers between the transverse arches, overlie one another so as to produce a substantially continuous surface upon which said matrix of insulating material is applied.
7. For use in a roof structure, a plurality of transverse panels as claimed in claim 6 wherein said rigid support members are formed of corrugated sheet material, each said member being twisted at about 30 to the horizontal at its point of connection with said arch.
8. For use in a roof structure, a plurality of transverse panels as claimed in claim 6, wherein said rigid support members comprise a braced strut framework, each said member being twisted at about 30" to the horizontal at its point of connection to the arch.