US 3799226 A
A multiple blade tool in which a blade holder telescopes within a tubular handle. The blade holder includes two spaced longitudinal members in which a plurality of blades are pivoted at one end by a staked stud and screw pivot assembly. The blades are pivoted to lie between the spaced members when not in use and extend therefrom when being used. The tool further includes a ratchet drive at the other end of the handle to permit positive drive in both directions and one way ratchet drive in either direction. The construction of the ratchet drive is improved by utilizing a headed spindle which greatly simplifies assembly procedure, reduces the cost of the tool, and increases its strength and durability.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Lavietes [451 Mar. 26, 1974 1 MULTIPLE BLADE TOOL  Inventor: Raymond P. Lavietes, Wepawaug Rd., Woodbridge, Conn. 06525  Filed: June 12, 1972  Appl. N0.: 261,746
 US. Cl. 145/50 C, 145/62, 145/75  Int. Cl B2 5b 15/04  Field of Search 7/16; 81/632; 145/50 B,
Primary ExaminerJames L. Jones, Jr. Assistant Examiner-Mark S. Bicks Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wooster, Davis & Cifelli 5 7] ABSTRACT A multiple blade tool in which a blade holder telescopes within a tubular handle. The blade holder includes two spaced longitudinal members in which a I plurality of blades are pivoted at one end by a staked stud and screw pivot assembly. The blades are pivoted to lie between the spaced members when not in use and extend therefrom when being used. The tool further includes a ratchet drive at the other end of the handle to permit positive drive in both directions and one way ratchet drive in either direction. The construction of the ratchet drive is improved by utilizing a headed spindle which greatly simplifies assembly procedure, reduces the cost of the tool, and increases its strength and durability.
4 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures 5 W 'l 4/ 1 A E I til: (\w Ilhl 1:1 if I. om",
Pmmmmzsmm 3.1799226 SHEU 2 0F 2 2 2; 10. fagya iQj jz MULTIPLE BLADE TOOL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an improved multiple blade tool, and more particularly to a tool provided with several different sized or type screw driver blades conveniently contained within the tool, offering quick and easy selection of the desired blade and protection against detachment or loss of one or more blades.
In some known devices separate blades are stored in a hollow handle portion having a detachable closure cap, In these devices the hollow handle portion must be first opened by removing a screw cap'or other closure, the desired blade removed and attached to the handle in operating position, and the screw cap or other closure returned to close the hollow handle chamber. The blades are not permanently connected with the handle portion and may easily become lost. The cap or other closure means may likewise become easily lost or misplaced.
These problems with such known devices were solved to a great extent by applicants previous invention disclosed in his U. S. Pat. No. 2,662,568. That patent disclosed a multiple blade tool having a plurality of blades pivotally secured ina holder which telescopes into a handle for storage and may be extended so that the desired blade may be pivoted out from the holder for use. In these devices the blades have been pivoted on either a pivoting screw having an unthreaded shank and a reduced diameter threaded portion or a knife rivet.
Although applicants invention was a substantial improvement over the other known devices mentioned previously, it still suffered certain disadvantages, particularly with regard to the construction of the blade pivot. With a pivoting screw unintentional loosening of the screw may occur after repeated pivoting of the blades. Furthermore, the pivoting screw is unable to effectively handle variations in the total thickness of the blades due to the abutment of the shoulder formed by the reduced diameter portion against the holder. This requires stricter manufacturing tolerances, and hence, increases the cost of production. The blades are held either too loosely or too tightly, or different sized screws have to used.
With a knife rivet there is no means provided to adjust the tension on the blades. It is difficult to set the rivet with the proper tightness when constructing the tool, and repeated pivoting of the blades tends to loosen them permanently as the rivet cannot be tightened.
The applicant also provided a novel simplified ratchet drive for his multiple blade tool invention as disclosed in his British Patent 856,270 dated Dec. 14, 1960. In this invention the ratchet drive included a grooved block and an operating handle rotatably mounted on a spindle fixed in the block. The operating handle was retained on the spindle by a securing washer.
Although this ratchet drive was a substantial improvement to applicants previous invention increasing its versatility and ease of use it still suffered certain disadvantages. In using a securing washer to retain the operating handle on the spindle it was necessary to provide a screw-machined spindle having a circumferential groove, and the assembly procedure required the sepaagainst the handle end.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In the present invention all the parts are protected against detachment and loss, and offers a simple, quick and effective device to permit selection of the desired blade and almost instant positioning of the selected blade in operating position without danger of loss of any blades or closure members.
Improved means are also provided for operating the screw driver including a one-way ratchet drive in the handle. It is so constructed that the ratchet drive may be setto operate a screw driver blade with a one-way drive in either direction, or it may be set to provide a positive drive in both directions. Furthermore the construction of the ratchet drive has been improved to simplify the assembly procedure, reduce its cost and provide a stronger more reliable structure which will not fail when subjected to high stresses.
In the preferred embodiment this improved construction is provided by utilizing a spindle having an integrally formed head. This substantially simplifies the assembly procedure by eliminating the step of seating a securing washer in a groove in the spindle. Furthermore the headed spindle is less expensive than the screw machined spindle previously used and obviates the need for forming a groove therein. Finally the integrally formed head on the spindle increases the structural integrity of the tool by providing a stronger integral one-piece member rather than relying on a securing washer seated in a groove. The headed spindle can withstand higher stresses and is not subject to separation upon the impact of a hammer.
In addition an improved blade holding pivot assembly has been provided by which the tension on the blades may be selectively adjusted to suit the preference of the operator, and may be repeatedly tightened or loosened as required. Furthermore the improved blade holding assembly is particularly adapted to accommodate variations in the total thickness of the blades which eases manufacturing tolerances, and permits replacement of the blade after the original construction of the tool.
In the preferred embodiment this improved blade holding and pivoting assembly comprises a staked stud and screw extending transversely between two spaced and opposed longitudinal members of the blade holder. The staked stud includes a hollow internally threaded portion which extends through a hole in one of the longitudinal members and a flared head portion which rigidly engages the internal edge of that member formed by the hole to prevent its removal therefrom. The flared head portion may also preferably include a plurality of longitudinally extending anchor fins or ribs which further enhance the rigid engagement of the stud in the member and prevent any relative rotation therebetween. The screw extends through a hole in the other member and threadably engages the internal threads of the stud.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to minimize and obviate the disadvantages of previously known devices.
It is a more specific object of the present invention to provide a multiple blade tool having an improved blade pivoting assembly.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a multiple blade tool in which the tension on the pivoting tool blades may be selectively adjusted.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a multiple blade tool which can accommodate variations of the total thickness of the blades.
These objects and advantages are accomplished in accordance with the present invention by a multiple blade tool comprising a tubular handle member provided with a longitudinal chamber and a blade holder slidably fitted within the handle and including a plurality of tool blades mounted for rotation therewith, each blade being pivotally mounted within the blade holder on a staked stud and screw assembly so that its position may be reversed in the holder when the holder is extended from the handle member. The handle member is provided with a non-circular opening through one end leading to the chamber which opening is smaller than the chamber so as to provide a pair of opposed shoulders protruding into the'handle chamber. The blade holder includes stop means which may preferably comprise a spring including arms tending to move laterally to frictionally engage the walls of the chamber and arranged to coact with the shoulders to prevent complete withdrawal of the blade holder from the handle. The blade holder is noncircular and located in the opening so as to be held thereby against rotation within the handle. Furthermore, a ratchet drive may be mounted at one end of the tubular handle member and may include a hand grip mounted to turn about the longitudinal axis of the handle member to effect the selective rotation of the blades. The ratchet drive includes a one-piece headed spindle which secures the operating handle to the rest of the tool.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The above objects as well as other objects and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art to which the invention pertains from a perusal of the claims and the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the appended drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a side view of the device showing the blades in the closed and retracted position;
FIG. 2 is an end view of the device looking from the right of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal section taken substantially on line 33 of FIG. 4, but showing the blades and their carrier in elevation, and also showing a blade extended to position for use;
FIG. 4 is a transverse section substantially on line 44 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a side view showing the blade holder and blades drawn out from the supporting handle;
FIG. 6 is a side view of the blade carrier or holder looking toward the bottom of FIG. 5, with a portion of the handle in section and with the blades swung from their retracted position;
FIG. 7 is an end view of a portion of the operating means looking substantially on the plane of line 7-7 of FIG. 3 and on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 8 is a transverse section of the pivot means for the operating portion showing the channeled end of the ratchet block in elevation, the section being substantially on line 88 of FIG. 3 and on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 9 is a partial section and partial side elevation of the driving ratchet construction, the section being substantially on line 9-9 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 10 is a similar partial side elevation and partial section showing the ratchet in a different position;
FIG. 11 is a similar partial side elevation and partial section showing the ratchet in another position;
FIG. 12 is an exploded and enlarged perspective view of the staked stud and screw blade pivot assembly in conjunction with the spaced longitudinal members of the blade holder; and
FIG. 13 is an exploded perspective view of the ratchet drive illustrating its improved construction.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION In the embodiment illustrated, the device comprises a tubular handle 1 in one end of which is mounted a driving ratchet comprising a ratchet block 2 mounted in a recess 3 of the tubular handle 1, an operating handle 4 mounted to rotate on a fixed headed spindle 5 on which it is retained by a head 6 thereof, and a hand grip or knob 7 of any suitable material, such, for example, as a molded plastic. This grip or knob 7 is recessed from its inner end so that it is telescoped over the operating handle 4 and has a tight frictional fit thereon so that turning of the hand grip 7 will operate the operating handle 4. The outer end of the ratchet block 2 is provided with a series of radial channels or grooves 8, as shown in FIG. 8, providing right angle shoulders on the opposite sides thereof adapted to cooperate with a driving end 9 'of a ratchet pin 10 mounted for sliding longitudinal movement in the operating handle 4. This pin 10 forms a ratchet pawl cooperating with the shoulders formed by the grooves 8 in the ratchet block 2. For this purpose the driving end 9 projects from the inner end of the operating handle 4 so that it may slide over the separating blocks 11 between the grooves 8 and seat in these different grooves for the driving operation,
as will presentlybe described. There is a laterally projecting pin 12 secured to the ratchet pin 10 forming a finger grip which projects outwardly through an opening 13 in the side of the operating handle 4 and adapted to engage a shoulder 14 at the inner end of this opening 13 to limit longitudinal movement of the ratchet pin 10 which is engaged on one end by a coil spring 15. The driving end 9 of the ratchet pin 10 is provided on one side with a straight wall 16 and on the opposite side with an inclined wall 17. Operation of this ratchet for the driving operation will later be described. The headed spindle 5 is inserted in an opening in the ratchet block 2 and is rigidly secured therewith to the tubular handle 1 by a transverse pin or rivet 18 passing transversely therethrough. The ratchet drive is assembled (FIG. 13) by first mounting the ratchet block 2 in the recess 3 of the tubular handle 1 after a blade holder 22, as described more fully hereinafter, has been inserted thereinto. The headed spindle 5 is then inserted through the operating handle 4 and fixed in the ratchet block 2 by the transverse pin 18 which also secures the ratchet block 2 to the tubular handle I. The integrally formed head 6 on the headed spindle 5 secures the operating handle 4 to the rest of the tool without requiring a securing washer or the additional relatively delicate assembly step of seating the washer on a grooved spindle. N groove is required on the headed spindle 5, and the cost thereof is reduced relative to the cost of previously used grooved spindles. The integral one-piece construction of the headed spindle is stronger than the grooved spindle and seated securing washer and renders the tool more capable of withstanding heavy abuse.
The tubular handle 1 is provided at its opposite end from the hand grip 7 with an opening which is flat on its opposite sides 19 so as to provide a pair of shoulders 20 (FIG. 6) within the tubular handle 1. Thus the opening in the end of the tubular handle 1 is not entirely circular, but as shown in FIG. 2 is circular on opposite sides 21 between the flats 19. Thus this opening has two circular sides 21 extending between and joining two laterally spaced flat sides 19.
The blade holder generally designated 22 is mounted to slide longitudinally in the tubular handle I through the opening comprising the sides 19 and 21. This blade or holder 22 comprises a pair of spaced longitudinal side members 23 flat on their interior surfaces and transversely curved on their outer surfaces, as indicated in FIGS. 2 and 4, so as to slidably engage the sides 19 and 21. Spacing of these side members 23 at their inner ends is accomplished by a transverse screw 24 embraced by a spacing washer 25, and at their outer ends by a transverse staked stud and screw assembly 26 which establishes a pivotal mounting means for a plurality of tool blades 27, 28, and 29. The side members 23 are of sufficient length so that the blades 27, 28, and 29 may be turned between a retracted position, in which their operative or bit ends are within the side members 23, as shown in FIG. 5, with their opposite ends 27a, 28a and 29a forming finger grips for swinging the blades, and an extended position for operation, as shown for the blade 27 in FIG. 3, and for blade 28 in FIG. 6. These blades may be of various sizes and also of various types. Thus the blades 27 and 29 have flat bit ends 30 and 31 respectively adapted for operation in the ordinary slotted head screw, while the blade 28 has a bit end 32 adapted for operation in the socket type of screw. Although only screwdriver type blades are illustrated other tool implement blades may also be utilized in the present invention. The aggregate thickness of these blades is approximately that of the distance between the side members 23 of the blade holder 22.
At the inner end of the blade holder 22 a few turns of a coil spring 33 are coiled around the periphery of the spacing washer 25, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 6, with both free ends terminating in outwardly curved hooks 34, as shown in FIG. 6. These free ends tend to separate under action of the coil spring 33 so as to frictionally engage the inner side walls 35 of the tubular handle 1 to retain the blade holder 22 therein when not in use, as shown in FIG. 1, and also when a blade is extended for use, as shown in FIG. 3. However, when the blade holder 22 is drawn outwardly to expose the blades 27-29 and permit the turning of any individual blade from its retracted or inoperative position of FIG. 5, to its extended or operative position as indicated in FIGS. 3 and 6, these curved hooks 34 engage the shoulders 20 internally of the tubular handle 1, as shown in FIG. 6, to limit outward movement of the blade holder 22 and prevent it from being withdrawn or otherwise detached from the tubular handle 1. The blade holder 22 may be inserted in the tubular handle 1 through its inner end before the ratchet block 2 and associated parts are mounted therein. To provide a better grip on the tubular handle 1 it may be longitudinally fluted or provided with longitudinal grooves 36, and the hand grip or knob 7 may be similarly provided with longitudinal grooves or channels 36.
The staked stud and screw assembly 26 includes a screw 37 and a staked stud 38. The staked stud 38 has a hollow cylindrical portion 39 at one end having internal threads for receiving the screw 37 therein, and a substantially truncated conical head portion 40 flaring outwardly from the cylindrical portion 39. The conical head portion 40 includes a plurality of anchor fins or ribs 41 extending toward the cylindrical portion 39. These anchor fins 41 are mechanically imbedded in the interior walls of a hole 42 in one of the side members 23 when the staked stud 38 is force-fit thereinto so as to rigidly secure the stud 38 therein and prevent rotation thereof. The hole 42 may be countersunk into the curved surface of the side member 23 to facilitate insertion of the staked stud 38. The other side member 23 is provided with a hole 43 of sufflcient diameter to receive the screw 37 and the cylindrical portion 39 of the staked stud 38. The hole 43 may also be countersunk.
In assembling the blades 27, 28, and 29 in the blade holder 22, first the staked stud 38 is force-fit into the hole 42 of one of the side members 23. The blades 27, 28, and 29 are then mounted on the cylindrical portion 39 which serves as a pivotal mounting means therefor. The other side member 23 is then abutted to the outer blade 29 and secured to the staked stud 38 by inserting the screw 37 through the hole 43 in that side member 23 and threadably engaging the screw 37 with the internal threads in the cylindrical portion 39. The screw 37 is a countersink screw having a relatively long tapered head portion which allows the screw 37 to moveinwardly into the hole 43 a sufficient distance to insure a tight engagement of the blades 27, 28, and 29 in the blade holder 22. In addition the cylindrical portion may move into the hole43 if necessary to insure tight engagement. These features allow the tension on the blades pivoted on the cylindrical portion 39 of the staked stud 38 to be selectively adjusted. Furthermore, they allow the blade holder 22 to accommodate variations in total thickness of the blades.
When not in use the blades are confined within the tubular handle 1, as shown in FIG. 1, with only a portion of the outer end of the blade holder 22 projecting from the free end thereof, together with the finger grip ends of the blade 27a, 28a and 29a, as shown. When it is desired to use any blade the blade holder 22 is drawn out to the extended position of FIGS. 5 and 6, in which position any individual blade may be turned to the operative position, as indicated for blade 27 in FIG. 3 and for blade 28 in FIG. 6. Then the blade holder 22 with the remaining blades is slid back into the tubular handle 1 to the position of FIG. 3. In thisposition the opposite sides 19 and 21 of the opening in thetubular handle 1 retain the blade holder 22 against rotation relative thereto so that the operative blade is precluded from turning therein.
The blades 27-29 may be used in an offset position at right angles to the axis of the tubular handle 1. That is, after the blade holder 22 is drawn out to the position of FIGS. 5 and 6 a blade may be turned to a position at right angles thereto, and if the blade holder 22 is then slid back into the tubular handle 1 the blade will be held in this position to thereby permit use in locations where the device could not be used with the blade in the normal or straight position, and also permitting the use of the handle as a laterally extending crank for greater leverage. In this application the improved staked stud and screw assembly 26 is particularly desirable to insure relatively stiff tension on the blades.
The tubular handle 1 together with the bit ends 30-32 may be rotated through the hand grip 7 by means of the ratchet pin and its driving end 9 operating in the grooves 8 of the ratchet block 2. Thus if the finger grip pin 12 is turned to its intermediate position, as shown in FIGS. 1, 3, 7 and 9, the opposite straight or parallel sides 10a of ratchet pin 10 will engage against the right angle shoulders on opposite sides of the grooves 8 in the ratchet block 2 and be held therein by the spring 15. Then on turning of the hand grip 7 the ratchet pin 10 will cooperate with the right angle shoulders of the grooves 8 to provide a positive driving connection between the hand grip 7 and the ratchet block 2 through the operating handle 4 and thereby results in a positive drive through the tubular handle 1 for operation of the bit ends 3032 in either direction. However, if the finger grip pin 12 is shifted to the left, as shown in FIG. 10, the driving end 9 of the ratchet pin 10 is turned through an angle of 90 so that its straight wall 16 engages one side of the groove 8 and its inclined wall 17 engages the opposite side thereof. Thus turning the hand grip 7 clockwise or to the left as shown in FIG. 10 will provide a positive drive through straight wall 16 in that direction, while the inclined wall 17 by riding over the opposite side of the groove 8 will permit the hand grip 7 to be turned in the opposite direction without turning the tubular handle 1 or bit ends 30-32. This thus provides a one-way ratchet drive for the bit ends 30-32. If the finger grip pin 12 is turned ninety degrees in the opposite direction from the position of FIG. 9 to that of FIG. 11, the one-way ratchet drive is reversed from that of FIG. 10, permitting one-way ratchet drive for the bit ends 30-32 by the hand grip 7 in the opposite direction. In this turning of the ratchet pin 10 by the finger grip pin 12 to the various positions, the ratchet pin 10 may be slid longitudinally to withdraw its driving end 9 from the grooves 8 against action of the spring 15 and then be reseated in the grooves 8 by action of the spring 15 after turning of the ratchet pin 10 to any one of the three positions desired. Also, when the ratchet pin 10 is in either one of the driving positions of FIGS. 10 or 11, spring 15 allows the driving end 9 thereon to rise out of the grooves 8 by camming action of the inclined wall 17 and therefore, the ratchet pin 10 can pass from one channel 8 to another.
Thus it will be seen this device provides an improved multiple blade screwdriver, offering to the operator a choice of several different sizes or types of blades, any one of which may be easily and quickly selected and turned to and secured in its operating position. All of the component parts are interconnected, thus preventing misplacement or loss of any of the blades, and when any blade is in its operative position it may be operated in either direction the same as the standard screwdriver blade, or it may be operated in either direction by oneway drive of the ratchet by turning movements of the hand grip 7 alternately in opposite direction. The improved staked stud and screw pivot assembly permits the selected tension to be maintained on the blades. and allows the blade holder to accommodate variations in the total thickness of the blades which eases the tolerance requirements during manufacture and hence, is economically advantageous. The improved headed spindle in the ratchet assembly simplifies the assembly procedure, reduces the cost of the device and increases the strength and durability thereof.
What I claim is:
l. A multiple blade tool comprising:
a tubular handle with a longitudinal chamber, said tubular handle having a noncircular opening at one end, said noncircular opening being of less relative size than said longitudinal chamber so as to provide a shoulder internally within said tubular handle;
a blade holder slideably disposed within said longitudinal chamber between a retracted position and an extended position, said blade holder including a pair of spaced longitudinal side members and a plurality of tool blades disposed between said side members on a pivotal mounting means, said side members extending in a direction parallel to the axis of said longitudinal chamber, said pivotal mounting means extending transversely between said side members and comprising a staked stud and screw, said staked stud having a hollow internally threaded portion and anchor fins, said screw and said staked stud extending through holes in said side members and being threadedly engaged, said staked stud being forcibly fit through said side member with said anchor fins imbedded therein to preclude said pivotal mounting means from turning relative to said side members, said tool blades being pivotal to an operative position when said blade holder is in said extended position and said blade holder being precluded from turning in said tubular housing when in said retracted position;
stop means for retaining and limiting the movement of said blade holder within said tubular handle;
a ratchet drive disposed in said longitudinal chamber of said tubular handle at the opposite end from said blade holder, said ratchet drive including a ratchet block with a headed spindle fixedly extending therefrom and an operating handle rotatably affixed on said headed spindle, said ratchet block having grooves and said operating handle including a slideable ratchet pin, said ratchet pin being retractably engageable into said grooves to provide a positive driving connection between said operating handle and said tubular handle.
2. The multiple blade tool of claim 1 wherein said staked stud includes a truncated conical head portion and wherein said hole in said side member through which said staked stud extends is countersunk to receive said truncated conical head portion.
3. The multiple blade tool of claim 1 wherein said side member through which said screw extends is countersunk to receive said screw and the hole therethrough is of sufficient diameter to pass said staked stud, said screw and said staked stud being engageably adjustable to vary the tension on said tool blades in said blade holder.
4. The multiple blade tool of claim 1 wherein said headed spindle is disposed through said ratchet block and is affixed in said tubular handle by a transverse pin passing therethrough.
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