|Publication number||US3800132 A|
|Publication date||Mar 26, 1974|
|Filing date||Nov 1, 1972|
|Priority date||Nov 1, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3800132 A, US 3800132A, US-A-3800132, US3800132 A, US3800132A|
|Original Assignee||American Cyanamid Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (28), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Postal 1 NOVEL CHEMICAL LIGHTING DEVICE  Inventor: Robert H. Postal, Clifton, NJ.
 Assignee: American Cyanamid Company,
 Filed: Nov. 1, 1972  Appl. No.: 302,707
52 U.S.Cl. ..240/2.25 51 Im. Cl. ..F21r9/16 5s FieldofSearch ..240/2.25;252/1ss.3
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,720,823 3/1973 Black et a1 .I 240/225 [451 Mar. 26, 1974 3,350,553 10/1967 Cline 240/2.25 3,539,794 11/1970 Rauhut et a1. 240/225 3,638,258 2/1972 Black 240/225 Primary Examiner-Richard M. Sheen Attorney, Agent, or FirmCharles J. Fickey 57] ABSTRACT A fluid-pliable device having the capacity upon fluidation to accrete to a predetermined luminous corporeate. The device incorporates the use of chemiluminescent substances which are initially in a nonreactive state where upon activation, a luminous film is captured between diametrically interfacing surfaces.
13 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures AIENIEU 826 I974 SHEET 1 0F 2 MEMBER C rum-m ms m4 3.800.132
sum 2 n; 2
\IO N NOVEL CHEMICAL LIGHTING DEVICE A fluid-pliable member for providing chemiluminescent light from a chemical reaction of suitable compounds which are encapsulated in an array of frangible closed-pore matrices on the surface of the fluid-pliable member. The encapsulated reactants are released by the rupture of the matrices by interfacial pressure on a diametrically interfacing surface and/or extension of the matrices beyond their maximum elastic point in a system providing means for inflation into a voluminous body contiguous to that of another body of similar design.
This invention relates to systems and devices for providing chemiluminescent light incorporating chemical componentswhich react chemically to produce a captive luminous film by a fluid-pliable member adapted so as to assume a predetermined form. The invention particularly relates to systems and devices whereby the reactive components are maintained in a nonreactive condition until light is desired; the systems incorporating means to bring said components into a reactive condition and means to display the resultant light. Further, the invention encompasses the concept wherein voluminous corporeates are designed so as to enable one to vary the forms whereby chemiluminescent light may be expressed. The invention also relates more particularly to systems and devices whereby the chemically reactive components are activated at a point of maximum inflation of a fluid-pliable member wherein a luminous film is captured within the interstices of diametrically interfacing surfaces.
Under certain circumstances, it is desirable to have a source of visible light which is not electrically or battery activated. Light can be provided by chemical systems, wherein the liminosity is solely the result of chemical reaction without provision of any electrical energy. Such light is known as chemiluminescent light.
Luminescence has been defined as the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a physical system in excess of the thermal emission rate at a given temperature. Hot bodies that are self-luminous solely because of their high temperation are said to emit incadescence. All other forms of light emission are called luminescence. A system emitting luminescence is losing energy and, if the light emission is to continue indefinitely, some form of energy must be supplied from elsewhere. Most kinds of luminescence are classified according to the source from which this energy is derived. Thus the light from a gas discharge lamp or from a gallium arsenide laser is electroluminescent produced by the passage of an electric current through the ionised gas or the semiconductor p-n junction. The luminous dial of a clock emits radioluminescence excited by the high energy particles from the radioactive material incorporated in the phosphor coating. Energy from a chemical reaction may excite chemiluminescence, and chemiluminescent reactions that take place in living organisms give rise to bioluminescence, e.g., the light emitted by glow-worms, fireflies, and the so-called phosphorescence of the sea. Thermoluminescence is a special form of chemiluminescence arising from the chemical reaction between reactive species trapped in a rigid matrix and released by raising the temperature. Some other kinds of luminescence are triboluminescence, observed when certain crystals are crushed, and sonoluminescence, produced in liquids exposed to intensive sound waves. For photoluminescence, the energy is provided by the absorption of infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light. The classifications reflect different excitation techniques that are particularly suited to the excitation of different classes of material and to the relative enhancement of given types of luminescent effects. Luminescence is observed with all phases of matter: gases, liquids, and solids, both inorganic and organic.
The device by which this invention is characterized incorporates the classifications reflected by different excitation techniques that are particularly suited to the excitation of different classes of material and the relative enhancement of given types of luminescent effects in a utilitarian manner.
However, since numerous modifications will readily occur to those skilled in the art after a consideration of the foregoing specification and accompanying drawings, it is not intended to limit the invention to the precise embodiment of voluminous chemiluminescent light devices shown and described but all suitable modifications and improvements may be resorted to which fall within the scope of the appended claim.
Chemiluminescent light may be useful where there is no source of electricity or means to activate an incandescent lamp. lncandescent lamps as is well known are fragile and complex devices requiring protective coverage and interconnecting means so as to utilize electrical energy to produce light. Chemiluminescent light devices obviate these disadvantages requiring a few simple components and are infinitely transportable since it depends upon no extrinsic source of energy other than its own. In an electrical light device the energy source and the light means is a two component system wherein a chemiluminescent light device is inherently contained in a one component system incorporating both energy source and light means. As such, chemilumescent light devices have many inherent advantages. For example, in emergencies where sources of electrical power have failed or are not easily accessible a chemiluminescent system could provide instant light which is dependable. Since the system requires no externally generated source of energy, devices can be made compact and highly portable. What will be shown, infra, is a chemiluminescent device which is initially compact and lightweight but capable of assuming a considerably larger mass. Moreover, chemiluminescent light is cold light and can be used where the heat of conventional illumination is not desired. It is also useful where electrical means could cause a fire hazard, such as in the presence of flammable agents. Chemiluminescent light is also effective under water since there are no electrical connections to short out or umbilical cord to contend with. It may also be utilized most effectively in illuminating aerial balloons, toys, advertisement displays, rescue markers and life preservers. Thus it may be seen that chemiluminescent light can have many useful applications.
A principal object of the present invention is to provide systems and devices incorporating chemiluminescent components for providing chemiluminescent light.
A further object of this invention is to provide means for containing chemically reactive chemiluminescent components in a nonreactive condition and means to combine said components when desired to provide chemiluminescent light.
A further object is to provide a self-contained highly portable light weight chemiluminescent lighting device having all chemical components therein and in which the light is displayed.
A further object is to provide a chemiluminescent lighting device which is inexpensive to make, easy to activate, dependable, lightweight and highly effective.
These and other objects of the invention will become apparent as the description thereof proceeds.
This invention comprises a device for the storage and subsequent admixture and display of a simple multicomponent chemiluminescent system. The device consists essentially of a fluid-pliable substrate member with an array of frangible closed-pore matrices thereon containing potentially reactant chemiluminescent sub stances encapsulated within the frangible closed-pore matrices. The member is so adapted to means as to be inflatable. By a member that is fluid-pliable is meant, a member that is inflatable and/or extentable by gas or liquid. Upon its maximum inflation the frangible closed-pore matrices rupture simultaneously releasing the chemiluminescent compounds quantitatively to react with one another as a captive luminous film at the interstices of the fluid-pliable member frangible closedpore matrix surface and a diametrically interfacing surface contiguous thereto.
Rupture is achieved by interfacial pressure of one surface against another and/or maximum extension, at the point of the matrices expansion limit. The reactant holding matrices may be composed of materials such as polyurethane or polystryrene foam (which have poor mechanical properties in tension) or a frangible latex film. The substrate upon which the matrices are disposed may be composed of a synthetic resin or fiber that is inflatable and/or extendable which may be either translucent or opaque.
Such member may be multiplied so as to consist essentially of a fluid-pliable two-ply enclosed member with an array of frangible closed-pore matrices on diametrically interfacing surfaces of the two-ply member. Such member may be of a pneumatically inflatable design of varying size, shape and color.
The fluid-pliable two-ply member may be designed so as to assume a spherical form upon inflation. However, many varying forms are possible by well known methods by those skilled in the art. It is the illumination of voluminous forms by non-electrical and nonfluorescent means where the novelty of this invention rises above the prior art heretofore not achieved.
Inflation may be accomplished by blowing in air from the lungs or attaching a container of compressed air or other gas or liquid. The device may be air or water bouyant or subject to gravity.
The fluid-pliable two-ply enclosed member supra may be designed to inflate and assume a predetermined form or that of some other hollow form. It may be utilized to fill a light permeable rigid hollow structure so as to conform to its geometry and upon maximum inflation emit chemiluminescent light to embue the form with light.
A multi-component chemical lighting system may be accomplished by incorporating many of such fluidpliable two-ply enclosed members into one system one within another where each member is inflatable in series. In this manner, greater duration of chemiluminescent light may be achieved. Such means of inflation in series can be easily accomplished by one skilled in the art.
Additionally, a fluid-pliable three-ply enclosed member may be effectuated wherein a diffusion membrane may be used to separate the chemiluminescent components rather than matrices whereupon extension of said member causes the diffusion membrane to become permeable by the chemiluminescent components with interaction and emission of visible light.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be more fully set forth in the following specification and claims considered in connection with the attached drawings to which they relate.
In the drawings:
FIGS. 1 to 3 show cross-sections in part of inflatable devices.
FIGS. 4 and 7 show cross-sectional views of inflated baloon shaped devices.
FIG. 5 shows a device which may contain that of FIGS. 4 and 7.
FIG. 6 shows an inflatable device in the shape of a life-preserver.
FIGS. 8 and 9 show a device having a multiple chemiluminescent elements.
FIG. 1, member A, is a cross-sectional view ofa portion of the member. Identification of its construction consists essentially of a fluid-pliable member I and 2 when enclosed and formed to a specific design, such as, that illustrated by FIG. 4. Reference numbers 3 and 4 show the array of frangible closed-pore matrices on the diametrically interfacing surfaces of the fluid-pliable member--it is an inherent partof member A. The practical utilization of member A is illustrated and not limited to the voluminous design in FIG. 4. Graphical drawing symbol N represents any conventional element appropriate as an inflating neck and means for preventing escape of fluid therefrom. FIG. 4 also shows the use of a second member contained therein. Extending the concept, FIG. 8 illustrates many such members, one within another, connected to means N wherein each member may be inflated in series to prolong the luminous life of the device. An example of an element ap propriate as an inflating neck or nozzle and means for preventing escape of fluid therefrom is illustrated by FIG. 8 and more specifically with respect to construction by FIG. 9. X and Y elements when unwrapped illustrate symbol N and contain thereon apertures for the passage of fluid therethrough. X is an outer stationary element and Y an inner movable element. By twising nozzle 10 the Y element rotates clockwise within X whereby each member may be inflated in series or in combination. Aperture 8 has a valve to prevent the escape of fluid through the tube allowing fluid in and locking under the outward flow of internal pressure. Reference numeral 11, FIG. 8, illustrates the use of either member A, FIG. 1, or member C, FIG. 3 or both such members or combinations thereof. Said members are attached by fluid-tight means to the proper outer stationary position on element X.
FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-section of a portion of a pliable substrate member 1 with an array of frangible closed-pore matrices 3 thereon contiguous to diametrically interfacing translucent surface 5 which is not substantially fluid-pliable. 'Said surface is a part of a larger form e.g., a container.
FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a portion of a fluid pliable three-ply enclosed member wherein 6 is a diffusion membrane and the cavities between 1 and 6, 6 and 2, contain chemluminescent substances which upon mixture interact with the emission of luminous light.
FIG. 5 illustrates a hollow sphere with a plurality of ports within which the device such as in FIG. 4 or 7 may be inflated. The hollow sphere may or may not be subject to gravity or buoyant.
FIG. 6 illustrates a translucent life preserver within which a fluid-pliable member such as in FIG. 4 or 7 may be inflated in an emergency at sea, where it may be easily seen from afar in darkness.
While I have disclosed various specific embodiments of the invention, it will be apparent that the invention is not limited to these embodiments, but may include other variations of an inflatable chemiluminescent device.
1. A chemiluminescent light device for activating chemiluminescent substances to a useful luminescent body comprising, in combination:
a. an enclosed fluid-pliable substrate member having an inner and outer surface b. an array of frangible closed-pore matrices on the inner surface of said enclosed fluid-pliable substrate member,
0. potentially reactant chemiluminescent substances encapsulated within each of said frangible closedpore matrices,
d. an inflating neck, said inflating neck being sealed to the periphery of said enclosed fluid-pliable substrate member, and means for allowing a fluid to enter said enclosed fluid-pliable substrate member for inflating the same and for rupturing the closedpore matrices, said means further preventing escape of fluid from the enclosed fluid-pliable substrate member after inflation.
2. The device according to claim 1, wherein said member is a fluid-pliable two-ply enclosed member with an array of frangible closed-pore matrices on the diametrically interfacing inner surfaces of said two-ply member, said fluid-pliable two-ply enclosed member having its periphery sealed about the inflation neck thereby forming an outer and inner ply from said twoply enclosed member and wherein said inner ply is a fluid contiguous member.
3. The device according to claim 2, wherein said outer ply of said two-ply enclosed member is lighttransmittant.
4. The device according to claim 2, wherein said outer ply of said two-ply enclosed member consists of an expandable material of lesser surface area than said fluid contiguous member.
5. The device according to claim 2 wherein said outer ply of said two-ply enclosed member consists of an expandable material of lesser expansion coefficient than said fluid contiguous member.
6. The device according to claim 2, wherein more than one fluid-pliable two-ply enclosed member, one within another, is sealed to said inflating neck and means are provided within said inflating neck for inflating said members in series or in combination for prolonging the luminous life of the device or increasing the luminosity of the device.
7. The device according to claim 1 wherein said frangible closed-pore matrices rupture by interfacing pressure simultaneously releasing the chemiluminescent substances quantitatively to react with one another as a luminous film at the interstices of a diametrically interfacing surface of said frangible closed-pore matrices and said fluid-pliable member.
8. The device according to claim 1 wherein said frangible closed-pore matrices rupture at a point of maximum inflation by extension simultaneously releasing the chemiluminescent compounds quantitatively to react with one another as a luminous film at the interstices of a diametrically interfacing surface of said frangible closed-pore matrices and said fluid-pliable member.
9. The device according to claim 2, wherein said frangible closed-pore matrices rupture by interfacing pressure simultaneously releasing chemiluminescent substances quantitatively to react with one another as a luminous film captured at the interstices of the diametrically interfacing surfaces of said fluid-pliable twoply enclosed member.
10. The device according to claim 2, wherein said frangible closed-pore matrices rupture at a point of maximum inflation by extension simultaneously releasing the chemiluminescent compounds quantitatively to react with one another as a luminous film captured at the interstices of the diametrically interfacing surfaces of said fluid-pliable two-ply enclosed member.
11. The device according to claim 2, wherein both plies of said two-ply enclosed member are lighttransmittant.
12. A chemiluminescent light device for activating chemiluminescent substances to a useful luminescent body comprising, in combination: a fluid-pliable threeply enclosed member, each ply being spaced from the other ply to form a sealed cavity between each ply, said fluid-pliable three-ply enclosed member being ordered in series, greater than one, each even numbered translucent ply being of a diffusion-permeable membrane and each odd numbered translucent ply being of a nonpermeable membrane, potentially reactant chemiluminescent substances contained within each cavity, an inflating neck, said fluid-pliable three-ply enclosed member being sealed to said inflating neck, and means within said inflating neck for allowing a fluid to enter said fluid-pliable three-ply enclosed member for inflating the same and extending said diffusion-permeable membrane in series or in combination for prolonging the luminous life of the device or increasing the luminosity of the device, said means further preventing escape of fluid from said fluid-pliable three-ply enclosed member after inflation.
13. The device according to claim 12, wherein all plies of said fluid-pliable three-ply enclosed member are light-transmittant except for the inner most ply, said inner most ply being an opaque, fluid contiguous member.
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|U.S. Classification||362/34, 446/220, 473/570, 273/DIG.240|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S273/24, F21K2/06|