US 3802056 A
There is disclosed a method of forming a container comprising the steps of providing a strip of material, cutting the strip to a predetermined size, forming the cut strip into a hollow cylinder having two open ends, providing a plug of malleable material, pressing the plug into an elongated hollow body, connecting one end of the hollow body to one end of the cylinder to form an enclosure, and filling the enclosure with a product. In addition, further steps are disclosed comprising providing a second plug of malleable material, pressing the second plug into a second elongated hollow body capable of nesting within the first mentioned hollow body, the hollow body having two open ends, providing a closure for one open end, lock sealing the closure to the end of the hollow body, filling the hollow body in a high pressure environment with coolant providing a closure and valve assembly and sealing the closure and valve assembly to the other open end of the second hollow body.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 191 J aeger [45 1 Apr. 9, 1974 METHOD OF MAKING SELF-REFRIGERATING AND HEATING FOOD CONTAINERS Related U.S. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 1,239, Jan. 7, 1970, Pat. No. 3,726,106, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 737,121, June 14, 1968, abandoned.
 U.S. Cl 29/422, 53/36, 62/457,
, 113/120 H  Int. Cl... .j. B23p 17/00  Field of Search .l 29/422; 53/36; 126/263,
 References Cited v UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,185,799 l/l940 Blake et al 62/94 2,338,094 l/l944 Calleson et a1. ll3/l20 H 2,339,763 l/l944 Callesonet a]. 113/120 H 2,815,152 12/1957 Mills t 53/36 X 3,285,033 ll/l966 Warner 62/457 X 3,320,767 5/1967 Whalen 62/294 3,338,067 8/1967 Warner 62/371 X 3,417,573 12/1968 Warner 62/457 3,696,633 10/1972 Mills 62/294 Primary Examiner-Charles W. Lanham Assistant ExaminerVictor A. DiPalma Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Raymond L. Madsen; Richard M. Jennings 1  1 ABSTRACT There is disclosed a method of forming a container comprising the steps of providing a strip of material, cutting the strip to a predetermined size, forming the cut strip into a hollow cylinder having two open ends, providing a plug of malleable material, pressing the plug into an elongated hollow body, connecting one end of the hollow body to one end of the cylinder to form an enclosure, and filling the enclosure with a product. In addition, further steps are disclosed comprising providing a second plug of malleable material, pressing the second plug into a second elongated hollow body capable of nesting within the first mentioned hollow body, the hollow body having two open ends, providing a closure for one open end, lock sealing the closure to the end of the hollow body, filling the hollow body in a high pressure environment with coolant providing a closure and valve assembly and sealing the closure and valve assembly to the other open end of the second hollow body.
There is disclosed an alternate method for forming a container comprising the steps of providing a plug of material, pressing the plug into an elongated hollow body having a threaded section, providing a strip of material, pressing the strip into a threaded closure, engaging the threaded closure with the hollow body, providing a second strip of material, forming the second strip into a hollow cylinder, inserting the hollow body into the hollow cylinder, connecting the cylinder with the outer edge of the threaded closure, filling the interior of the hollow body with a coolant, providing a closure and valve assembly and sealing the open end of the hollow body with the closure and valve assembly. Additional steps are disclosed providing filling the enclosure between the hollow cylinder and the hollow body with a product and providing a closure to seal the product within the enclosure. 1
5 Claims, 43 Drawing Figures PATENTEUAPR 9 I974 SBEU 0111f 10 PATENTEDAPR 9 1914 saw U20F10 PAIENIEDAPR 91974 3.802.056
saw on HF- 10 MENTEUAPR 9mm 3.802.056
sum usnr 10 I 1 METnon or MAKING SELF-REFRIGERATING AND HEATING FOOD CONTAINERS CROSS REFERENCE continuation-impart arses Nol 737,12 l filed June 14, 1968 for SeIt Refrigerating and Heating Food Containers by Wilbert J. .laeger, now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION l. Field of the Invention This invention relates generally to self-refrigerating and heating containers and more particularly to containers having an independent heating or cooling portion and product portion and to the method of forming, assembling and using such containers.
2. Description of the Prior Art Although self-refrigerating and heating food containers have been long known and long desired, there has not been a commercial development because of various economic, health, and safety problems.
For example, the following United States Patents, Whalen 3,320,767, Warner 3,285,033, Palaith 2,460,765 and Blake et al, 2,185,799, have all shown devices comprising a single walled partitioned container for separating a heating or cooling substance from a food'product. The health hazard due to possible mingling of the food product and the chemical used for heating or cooling is too great, and the containers cannot be made cheaply enough for low cost mass produced items; both of these factors have contributed to the lack of commercialization of the containers disclosed in the abovementioned patents. I
In a later Warner Pat. bio 3,538,067 a double walle unit was disclosed with separate containers for the food product and for the cooling chemical. While this construction appears to abate the health problem, there is still the problem of economics in that the container described cannot conveniently be manufactured on equipment which is presently used to manufacture food cans. his to be understood that alarge investment exists in present can making and assembling equipment,
and it is highly desirable that any container developed has the ability to be manufactured on the existing equipment or at least not requireexpensive modification of the equipment. I
Additionally, any self-cooling or self-heating food container must also be of such construction as to allow processing of the food after it has been packed and sealed; one such further processing step is the pasteurization of beer, for example. Subjecting a container having a chemical-coolant to pasteurization temperatures would cause sufficiently high pressures'to make a safe container for the coolant prohibitively expensive.
Generally, while it obviousthat a self-heating or self-cooling container would be more expensive than conventional container, an analysis of the costs in- 655 of a process which is independent of the formation, fillfive days. It is noted that this cost does not include the cost that the consumer has in storing such cans in a home refrigerator. Complementing this cost is further expense of ice and other cooling devices when the cans are to be kept cool outdoors as on a picnic for example. Finally, there are certain regions where refrigeration is not even available and cooled drinks just do not exist.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention overcomes the disadvantages of the prior art mentioned above by providing a container having an enclosure adapted to include means for selectively changing the temperature of the content within another enclosure of the container comprising a first elongated hollow body having first and second ends; a first closure sealed to said first end; a second closure sealed to said second end of said first hollow body and extending into said first hollow body and having a surface at least a portion of which has a conical shape said first and second closures and said first elongated body forming said first mentioned enclosure; a second elongated hollow body having first and second ends and a surface having at leasta portion with a conical shape, said surface of said second elongated hollow body is closely disposed to said surface of said second closure and parallel thereto, said second body forming said other enclosure; and means communicating the other closure of said second hollow body with the environment about said first hollow body. In addition the present invention includes among several methods a method of forming the conta'iner comprising the steps of providing a strip of material; cutting said strip to a pre-determined size; forming said out strip into a hollow cylinder having two open ends; providing a first plug of material; pressing said first plug into a first elongated hollow body having two endsand having a por tion adjacent one end with a conical shape and a portion adjacent the ,other'end with a cylindrical shape; connecting said one end of said first hollow body and one end of said cylinder to form a first enclosure; providing a second plug'of material; pressing said second plug into a second elongated holl ow'body having two ends and having a portion of cylindrical shape and a portion of conical shape; providing a closure;. lock seaming said closure to an end of said second hollow body; filling said hollowbody in a high pressure environment with a coolant; sealing said other end of said filled second hollow body; andinserting said second hollow body into said first hollowbody so that said second hollow body is locked into position slightly space from said first hollow body. I i I An object of the present invention is to provide a selfcooling or heating container which is safe, convenient to use, and economical to manufacture because of its adaptation to existing manufacturing equipment.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a self-coolingor heating container having a construction which reduces the health hazard of mingling the product to be heated or cooled and the chemical which provides the heating or cooling. I I I Still another object of the present invention is to providea self-cooling or heating container which allows the product to be heated orcooled to be disposed within the container within a sealed enclosure as part ing and sealing of the cooling or heating section of the container. I
A further object of the present invention is to provide a self-cooling orheating container which has efficient heat transfer properties and when in the cooling mode has the ability to form ice within the product to be cooled.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view partially in phantom of an embodiment of a self-cooling or heating container oriented in an upright position.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view partially in phantom of the self-cooling or heating container of FIG. 1 oriented in an inverted position.
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the container of FIG. 2 showing a pop top.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view of the self-cooling or heating container after the pop top has been removed.
FIG. 6 is a partial enlarged sectional view taken along curved line 66 of FIG. 5.
FIG; 7 is a fragmentary plan view taken along line 7-7 of FIG. 5. I
FIG. 8 is a perspective view partially broken away of the inner and outer sections of the container of FIG. 1.
FIG. 9 is a partially broken away perspective view of theFIG. l embodiment shown in integral form.
FIG. 10 is a bottom view of the FIG. 9 container showing both the inner and outer sections.
FIG. 11 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view taken along line 11-11 of FIG. 10.
FIG. 12 is a partial enlarged sectional view taken along curved line 12-12 of FIG. 11.
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a container partially in phantom.
' FIG. 14 is a bottom view of the container of FIG. 13 showing a pull tab.
FIG. 15 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view taken along line 15-15 of FIG. 14.
FIG. 16 is an isometric bottom view of the pull tab of .FIG. 14.
FIG. 17 is a sectional view taken along line 17-17 of FIG. 14.
FIG. 18 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a container oriented in an upright position.
FIG. 19 is a perspective view partially in phantom of the container shown in FIG. 18, oriented in an upside down position. I
FIG. 20 is a partially exploded, partially broken away perspective view of the container oriented as in FIG.
FIG. 21 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view taken along line 21-21 of FIG. 19 illustrating the inner container in its first position.
FIG. 22 is a plan sectional ,view taken along line 22-22 of FIG. 21. 1
FIG. 23 is a fragmentary longitudinal view as shown in FIG. 21 rotated 90.
FIG. 24 is a partial enlarged sectional view taken along curved line'24-24 of FIG. 21.
FIG. 25 is a partial enlarged sectional view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 24 before the container bod and the closure have been connected.
FIG. 28 is a fragmentary enlarged partially sectional view taken along line 28-28 of FIG. 21.
FIG. 29 is a fragmentary enlarged partially sectional view taken along line 29-29 of FIG. 26.
FIG. 30 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view taken along line 30-30 of FIG. 28.
FIG. 31 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view taken along line 31-31 of FIG. 29.
FIG. 32 is a plan sectional view taken along line 32-32 of FIG. 31.
FIG. 33 is a perspective view of the plunger element of the valve assembly.
FIG. 34 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view of the container of FIG. 20 moditied to provide heating for the container.
FIG. 35 is an enlarged partially sectional view of the valve assembly taken along line 35-35 of FIG. 34.
FIG. 36 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 36-36 of FIG. 35.
FIG. 37 is a block diagram of a method of forming the embodiment shown in FIG. 20.
FIG. 38 is a longitudinal partially broken away, partially sectional view of another embodiment of a container.
FIG. 39 is a plan view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 38. I
FIG. 40 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view taken along the curved line 40-40 of FIG. 38.
FIG. 41 is a sectional view taken along line 41-41 of FIG. 38.
FIG. 42 is a sectional view of the valve assembly taken along line 42-42 of FIG. 38.
FIG. 43 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view similar to FIG. 24 illustrating the container in integral form.
DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS Referring first to FIGS. 18, 19 and 20 there is.illustrated a container 99 having an outer container section 100 and an inner container section 107. The outer container 100 comprises a hollow, elongated body 101 in the form of a conventional beverage can having a closure 102 with a conventional pop top 104 connected to the body 101 at one end and a uniquely shaped recessed or concave closure 106 connected to the other end; according to usual usage the closure 102 is at the top of the can and the recessed closure 106 is at the bottom. As seenin FIG. 20, the inner container 107 includes an elongated hollow body 108 having a shape very similar to that of the recessed closure and cooperates with the outer container 100 to fit within the recessed closure. The inner container forms an enclosure for a heating or cooling chemical which when activated will heat or cool the content within an enclosure .110 formed by the outer container 100. I
As mentioned, the hollow body 101 .is shaped as a conventional beverage container and,as such, has a cylindrical shape which is formed by having a strip of suitable material, usually a properly coated metal, cut to a pre-determined size dependent upon the size of the can desired; the strip is then rolled into the cylindrical shape and retained by a suitable connection such as spot welding to form a seam 114. The hollow body 101 is connected to the top closure 102 by a standard rolling operation to form a lock seam. The pop top 104 includes a ring portion 116 and a tear portion 118. The tear portion is formed by having the closure 102 partially cut in the shape of an opening desired, usually triangular or rectangular, while .the ring 116, which is attached by a spot weld designated 120, is pulled by a user when it is desired to have access to the content of the outer container.
The closure 106 is comprised of a large conical portion 122, FIG. 20, a small conical portion 124 (better seen in FIG. 24), a large diameter cylindrical portion 126, and a small diameter cylindrical portion 128. In addition the closure 106 has a first end portion 130, FIGS. 24 and 25, which forms with the hollow body 101 the lock seam 132, FIG. 24, and a second end portion 134, FIG. 20, which is integrally connected to the cylindrical portion 128 and forms a flat surface, generally transverse to the direction of the longitudinal axis of the container 99.
Referring now to FIG. 24, there is shown in more detail the two conical'portions 122 and 124 of the recessed closure 106. The conical portion 122 is sloped at an angle of about 14 from the vertical, while conical portion 124 is sloped at an angle of about only 4. The difference in angle is due primarily to the conventional machines used to form the lock seam 132 to connect the recessed closure to the cylindrical body 101. The lock seaming machine grips the cylindrical body 101 and the closure 106, thereby deforming the closures original 14 conical portion 122 and causes the two elementsto rotate while the locking seam 132 is formed by rolling the end 130 of the recessed closure and an end 136 of the cylindrical body 101. A different variation of the connection between the cylindrical body and the closureis shown in FIG. 43 wherein the cylindrical body 101' is made integral with the closure 106' so that no lock seam is necessary.
The conical portion 122 and the cylindrical portions 126 and 128 may be made by a process which is commonly called drawing. The drawing process begins by providing a plug of material, such as a malleable metahwhich is processed through a series of pressing operation to progressively form the desired shape as shown in FIG. 20, for example. Generally the first pressing operation would form the conical portion 122 byhaving a male die enter a female die which are dimensioned to allow the plug'of material to expand to form a tubular conical structure. After the conical portion 122 is formed, progressive punching with different sets of male and female dies creates the remaining cylindrical portions 126 and 128 and the end portion 134. It is to be understood that material other than metal maybe used to form the outer container so that other processes may be used dependentiupon the choice of materials. For example, a molding operation might be used to form the outer container if the materialis a synthetic resin. And it is to be understood that some other process may be used if desired when metal is the material.
Again referring to FIG. 20, the inner container 107 has a shape similar to the shape of the closure 106 and comprises a conical portion 140, a large diameter cylindrical portion 142, and a small diameter cylindrical portion 144. The conical portion 140 is located adjacent a first end 146, FIG. 24, and between the end 146 and the conical portion 140 there is still another cylindrical portion 148. A closure 150, FIG. 20, is connected to the hollow body 108 with a lock seam 152 in a fasion similar to that described for lock seam 132. However, once again referring to FIG. 43 the hollow body 108 may be made integral with the closure so as to obviate the need for a lock seam. Another closure 154 is positioned over the second end 156 of the body 108.
The hollow body 108 of the inner container 107 may be made in a manner analogous to that of the closure 106 of the outer container 101. That is, except for dimensional variation, the same drawing process which is used for closure 106 may be used for the hollow body 108. Since the closures 150 and 154 are of simpler design and substantially flatter than the body 108, they may be stamped from sheet metal in the conventional fashion.
Referring now to FIG. 23, there is illustrated in more detail the interior of the container near its top closure 102. As the cylindrical portion 144 approachesthe end 156, there is formed an angular recess 160, which cooperates with the closure 154 to form a means for retaining the inner container 107 within the outer container 101 as shown in FIG. 2]. Helping to retain the inner container 107 are four projections or indentations 16 2, 164, 166 and 168, FIG. 22. As seen in FIG. 22, the projections are evenly spaced around the inner circumference of the cylindrical portion 128 of the closure 106. However, as seen in FIGS. 21 and 23, which are views separated by 90, two of the projections 162 and 166 are spaced from the other two projections 164 and 168 in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the container 99. This may best be seen when comparing the recess and closure 154 in FIGS. 21 and 23. In FIG. 21 the projections 162v and 166 are shown abutting the closure 154 so as to prevent the movement of the inner container 107 toward the end portion 134 of the closure 106 However, when the vantage point is rotated 90, as is done when moving from FIG. 21 to FIG. 23, it is riotedthat the projections 164 and 168 fit within the recess 160. Thus, inthe position shown in FIGS. 21 and 23 the inner container 107 is locked within the outer container'lOl unable to be separated due to the combination of the projections 164, 168 and therecess 160 and unable to move further into the closure 106 because of the abutment of the projections 162, 16 6 and the closure 154. Thisposition isthe first or storage positionof the inner container 107 relative the outer container 101.
Referring now to FIG. 26, the second 'or activating position of the inner container 107 relative the outer container 101is illustrated. The inner container 107 has been pushed furtherinto the closure 106 so that the 168 may be formed in the closure 106 by a simple crimping operation if the material of the closure 106 is metal or may be molded integrally if the material is a synthetic resin.
In the storage position, the seam 152 of the inner container 107 is disposed inwardly of the seam 132 to prevent accidental activation of the container should a force be applied against the bottom of the container during transportation or handling. The slightly inward position of the inner container so as to leave the seam 132 in a protective position is shown clearly in FIGS. 19 and 32.
Referring to FIGS. 20 and 27, there is illustrated a portion of the valve assembly 170, which is connected to the closure 154 of the inner container 107. In FIG. 30, the valve assembly 170 is shown in more detail. The valve assembly comprises a generally tubular sleeve 172 having plurality of longitudinally extending ribs 174 spaced about the interior circumference of the sleeve, a frangible diaphragm 176, a tubular plunger 178, (also see FIG. 33), which includes a bottoming head 179 and a flanged head 180, a longitudinal opening 182, and a small control aperture 184, which is positioned perpendicular to the longitudinal opening 182 and proceeds through the body of the tubular plunger 178. Additionally, a seal such as an O-ring (not shown) or a resilient washer 186 is provided to sandwich the diaphragm 176 between itself and the sleeve 172. The washer 186 also seals an opening 196 about the plunger 178 to prevent leakage of the content of the inner container 107.
The valve assembly 170 is held together by the closure 154 by having one shoulder 190 of the closure 154 abut a slanted shoulder 192 of the valve sleeve 172 while a second shoulder 194 of the closure 154 abuts the washer 186; by press forming the closure 154 about the valve assembly opposing forces are created by the shoulders 190 and 194 to form a fluid tight, operable valve assembly. During manufacture the valve assembly 170 is positioned so that the plunger 178 fits through the opening 196 in the closure-154 and then the shoulders 190 and 194 may be crimped about the valve assembly.
In the views shown in FIGS. 28 and 30, the flanged head 180 is positioned adjacent the diaphragm 176, but has not yet broken the diaphragm so that the content within the container 107 fills the interior of the sleeve 172. As illustrated in FIG. 28 the .container 107 is in its first position relative the closure 106 and has the closure '154 abutting the projections 162 and 166. When pressure is applied to the inner container 107 as indicated by the arrow in FIG. 26, such as by a user pressing down with his thumbs on the closure 150, FIG. 20, with sufficient force to move the inner container further into the closure 106, the plunger 178 of the valve assembly will come into contact with the end portion 134 of the closure 106 as shown in FIGS. 29 and 31. It has been found that with a conventionally shape 180 and the ribs, 174 of the sleeve 172. As the flanged head moves into the sleeve, the content of the inner container begins to communicate with the longitudinal opening 182 by way of the control aperture 184 as can be seen by the arrow in FIG. 31 and by the plan view in FIG. 32. The flanged head is slightly spaced from the ribs and there are spaces, such as that designated 198, FIG. 32, which surround the plunger to allow movement of the container content around the flanged head, into the control aperture, through the longitudinal opening and past the bottoming head.
When the inner container 107 is pushed beyond the projections 162 and 166, the projections are somewhat distorted and the closure 154 is flexed sufficiently so that the projections retain a sufficient protrudence inwardly toward the inner container to move into the re- 1 cess 160, thereby retaining the inner container in its second or activating position. The flex of the closure 154 is attained by the inherent flexibility of the material used and by a seal 199 disposed between the closure and the end of the inner container.
As mentioned earlier, the content of the inner container may be any chemical compound which will create the desired heating or cooling effect. For cooling, a preferred compound is Freon 12, which is a gas at room temperature and becomes liquid at about 2lF. However, there is a pressure-temperature relationship, which will allow the boiling point temperature of Freon to be raised if the Freon is contained in a vessel where the pressure is greater than one atmosphere pressure (about psi). Thus, if Freon is placed within the inner container 107 with a pressure of 109.24 pounds per square inch the Freon will be aliquid up to a temperature of 100F. If the Freon in the inner container communicates with the ambient environment, which may be assumed to be at a pressure of about 15 psi then the boiling point temperature of the Freon drops to its normal -2lF. Since in almost all cases, the environment about the Freon will be at a temperature much greater than 2lF, the Freon will change from its liquid phase to its gaseous phase and boil off; during this time the Freon will increase in temperature as a liquid and then while at the same temperature change from a liquid to a gas. However, the Freon will be absorbing heat during the entire process with most of the heat being absorbed during the Freons change of phase, the quantity of heat per unit mass that must be supplied to a material at its boiling point to convert it completely to a gas at the same temperature, being called the heat of vaporization of the material. It is this process of absorbing heat from the surrounding to change the Freon from a liquid to a gas that provides the Freon with the quality of being able to lower the temperature of the immediate environment. Ideally, given enough Freon and a small enough environment to cool, the Freon will continue to absorb heat until an equilibrium has been reached at 2lF. However, for purposes of cooling a beverage'for example, if a certain amount of Freon can lower the temperature of the beverage environment to the range of about 32F to 38F that is all that is neces sary.
illustrated the way in which the Freon within the inner container 107 is selectively exposed to atmospheric pressure to cause the Freon to boil and absorb heat from the content within theenclosure 110. As shown in FIG. 31, once the plunger 178 breaks the diaphragm Referring now to FIGS. 21. 26, 29 and 31, there is 176 the Freon is able to communicate through the opening 184 to a spacing designated 200 between the inner container and'the closure 106. This spacing is about the plunger 178 as shown in FIG. 31, continues around to the side of the inner container as shown in FIG. 29, continues along the entire length of the inner container as shown in FIG. 26, and continues finally to the environment about the container 99 as shown in FIG. 24. It is noted that in addition to locating the inner container in its first and second positions the projections 162 164, 166 and 168 also position the inner container within the closure 106 to provide for the spacing 200. The only points of contact between the inner container and the closure 106 are those made by the projections. The spacing 200 is important as it affects the cooling efficiency of a given amount of Freon relative to a given amount of product within the outer container 101. In a similar manner the diameter of the control aperture 184 is also important in regard to the efficiency of the cooling process and is a function of the coolant used. For example, for Freon the control aperture has a diameter of 0.013 inches, while the'spacing 200 is 0.005 inches (distance between the inner container surface and'the surface of the closure 106) for a container having the size of a conventional 12 ounce beverage can. It is also noted that for Freon, the inner container should have a volume approximately one-third the volume of the outer container when the outer 'container contains a beverage and for best heat exchange efficiency the heat exchange surface should be s large as possible, however, taking manufacturing considerations and conventional styling considerations into account, the part conical, part cylindrical shape of the inner container and closure 106 with. the inner container extending almost the full longitudinal length of the outer container has been found most effective.
The embodiment shown in FIGS. 18 through 33 also "Freon will escape through the valve assembly 170'into the spacing 200. Initially the liquid Freon will immediately start absorbing heat and will boil while adjacent the closure 134 and cylindrical portion 128. As more liquid Freon is supplied the temperature of the beverage in the region about the closure 134 and the portion 128 will drop below 32F and iee'willbe formed. As the temperature drops in that region less heat exchange occurs so that the liquid level of the Freon slowly creeps upwardly in the spacing 200 progressively cooling the beverage throughout the enclosure 110. The reason that there isless heat exchange as the temperature is reduced is that a temperature differential between two objects is the driving force to cause a transfer of heat from the object at the higher temperature to the object at the lower tmeperature. The liquid level may reach the seam 152 in a cool environment while in a warm environment the liquid level may only proceed partly along the longitudinal length of the container. However, since liquid Freon will always be present adjacent the closure 134 and the portion 128 during the cooling process, the beverage in the region adjoining the closure and the portion 128 will be cold enough to form ice. After the cooling process has been accomplished, the user turns the can upright and pulls the pop top l04 so that he can drink the beverage; ice that has formed will be immediately under the pop top to insure that the user receives a very cool and refreshing drink.
If ice is not desired then activation of the inner container may be accomplished while holding the container in the position shown in FIG. 21, using the thumbs against the closure to push the inner container deeper into the closure 106, or activation may be accomplished while the container is in a position shown in FIG. 18. If the former method is used, and it appears to be the easier of the two mentioned methods, then as soon as the plunger 178 of the valve assembly 170 has broken the diaphragm 176, the container should be rotated to the position shown in FIG. 18. When this is done boiling of the liquid will occur within the inner container because of the clearance or head room provided between the liquid Freon and the valve assembly. The head room amounts to about 11 to 20 percent of the volume of the inner container and is provided as a safety precaution to prevent a dangerously high level of pressure existing within the inner container. Under these circumstances cooling is not concentrated at any one portion or region along the container. However, heat is transferred from the beverage to the Freon in a slower more evenly distributed manner so that the final temperature of the beverage using this second activation process is about the same as when using the first mentioned activation process thus when beer is the beverage within the enclosure. a temperature of 38F has been achieved using either of the activation processes.
The particular shapesof the inner container and the closure 106 provide unique advantages in that they are conveniently manufactured by the same type of machines presently used in the can industry and may be attached to conventional can bodies using presently available machines and yet provide a relatively large surface area through which heat exchange may be accomplished. Since the heat transfer occurs at a much faster rate. around the cylindrical portion 128 of the closure 106, there is less need for large heat exchange surface relative the amount of beverage in the vicinity. However, as the coolant proceeds along the closure 106 to the cylindrical portion 126 and to the conical portion 122 there is a lesser rate of heat exchange occurring so that a larger heat exchange surfacearea is necessary relative to the amount of the beverage. The
- advantageof the geometric structure illustrated is best seen in FIG. 24 where as the heat transfer surface area reaches a maximum the amount of beverage to be cooled reaches a minimum due to the conical portions 122 and 124.
It is also noted that in either method of operation of the cooling process there is little likelihood of Freon in the liquid state being spilled uponthe users hands. As mentioned, such events have occurred with prior art devices and is very undesirable from aproduct liability standpoint because of the frostbite occasioned by contact of liqUid Freon and skin. The use of a control aperture 184, 0.013 inch in the example mentioned, the specific coolant, Freon 12, the spacing 200, 0.005 inch in the example mentioned, and .the specific shape of the inner container to give the heat exchange surface all combine to provide the proper and necessary cooling without the usual disadvantages such as the frostbite just mentioned. Another advantageous feature of the embodiment shown in FIG. 20 is the double walled construction between the refrigerant and the beverage. In case either fluid should lead from its respective enclosure, it would be to the external environment rather than mingling with the other fluid. Thus, there is a deft nite health advantage and an avoidance of product liability disadvantages should a coolant and beverage mix and be consumed unknowingly.
A still further advantage is achieved when the present invention is used with a beverage whose flavor is a function of temperature. For example, beer is generally thought to have the best taste when it is at a temperature between 38F and 42F. Generally most refrigeration units in stores and at home cool beer to about 38F. I-Iowever, when the beer can is removed from the refrigeration unit, the excellent heat conducting properties of the metal can immediately transfers heat from the environment to the beer. Within 30 seconds after a beer can is opened the temperature of the beer is about 42F and continues to climb thereafter. One reason for the rapid temperature increase is that water vapor in the environment will condenseon the can and cause an even greater heat transfer than usual because water conducts heat much better than air. Hence, beer, for example, is rarely consumed at its most flavorful temperature.
The container of the present invention provides the cooling while the container is in the environment. Generally. all that is needed to cool 8 ounces of liquid is about l9 Btu; 4 ounces of Freon 12 will generate about 27 Btu so that extra cooling power is available to offset the immediate heating from the environment andto cool the inner container and outer container themselves. Once the cooling process is complete, the inner container and the outer container will continue to act to retard and to offset the heating effect of the environment and thereby keep the beer below the 42F level for a longer period of time. At 70 F, 45 percent relative humidity, beer will remain at or below 40 F for up to minutes. Of course, the same advantage is achieved when using the present invention for heating purposes. I 4
Referring again to FIG. 27 there is illustrated a variation of the inner container to adapt it for heating purposes. The modification includes simply adding a toroidal shape tablet 202 to an annular recess 204 formed in the closure 154 about the valve assembly 170. If the proper. chemical compound is provided within the inner container then upon release of the chemical within the inner container there will be an exothennic chemical reaction to provide heat for the content within the enclosure 110. For example, the tablet 202 may becomprised of sodium thiosulfate or potassium thiosulfate while the material within the inner container is a solution of Freon and hydrogen peroxide. TheFreon is used to eject the hydrogen peroxide from the inner container. Experiments have shown that with an eight percent hydrogen peroxide solution in the inner container a temperature of 120F can be reached in the beverage situated within the enclosure 110. If the solution is 10 percent the temperature reached is 140F; if the solution is-12 percent the temperature reached is 160F; and if the solution is- 14 percent the temperature reached is F, a temperature that is higher than necessary for most heated foodstuff.
Referring now to FIGS. 34, 35 and 36 there is shown another version of a container 210 which may be used to heat a product. The structure of the outer container 101 is identical to that shown in FIG. 18. Likewise the structure for the inner container 107 is identical to the structure of inner container 107 in the embodiment shown in FIG. 18, except for the valve assembly and the chemicals used. As illustrated in FIG. 36, the valve assembly 212 includes an elongated rod 214 moveable through a tubular sleeve 216 and a seal 218 which is to prevent leakage. Included within the inner container 107' are two separated chemicals, the chemicals being separated by a flexible bag 220, FIG. 34, made of a suitable material such as a synthetic resin which is attached to an end 156 of the inner container by being sandwiched between the inner container and a closure 154. The inner container has both storage and activation positions analogous to the inner container 107. In the storage position the rod 214 is completely contained within the bag 220. However, in the activating position the rod is moved a sufficient distance to pierce the bag 220 as is shown in FIG. 34, thereby allowing the chemical 222 within the bag to mix with the chemical 224 outside the bag. Since many chemicals give off heat when reacting without the need of exposure to atmospheric pressure, there is no need to have any communication with the environment about the container 210 in order to have a heating effect. An example of a suitable chemical for being within the bag is hydrogen peroxide while suitable chemicals to be placed within the inner container include sodium thiosulfate crystals.
Referring now to FIGS. 38 through 42, there is illustrated another embodiment of the present invention. The container 230 comprises an outer cylindrical body 232, a closure 234 with a pop top 236 located at one end of the cylindrical body and a second closure 238 located at the other end of the cylindrical body 232. The closure 238 has agenerally cylindrical portion 240 which is formed into a male threaded section. Integral with the cylindrical portion 240 is an annular ring portion 242 which is deposed generally perpendicular to the cylindrical portion 240 and connects at an end 244 to an end 246 of the cylindrical body 232 to form a lock seam 247 similar tothat described for the embodiment of FIG. 18.
The method of forming the cylindrical body 232 may be identical to that used to form outer container 101.
The same is true of the methods forming the closure 234 and the closure 102. The closure 238 may be pressed into a generally cup shape with one set of dies and then threads formed with another set of dies. The male die of the second set of dies is removed with a twisting motion thereby causing the cylindrical portion 240 to be threaded. A consumable beverage or other foodstuff may be located within the enclosure 248 formed by the cylindrical body and the closures 238 and 234.
A second inner container 250 is positioned within the container 230 and has a shape very similar to the inner container 107. For example, the container 250 is comprised of a first cylindrical portion 252 integrally connected to a larger cylindrical portion 254 which in turn is integrally connected to a conical portion 256. A closure 258 is sealed to the cylindrical portion 252. The
other end of the inner container is comprised of a generally cylindrical portion 260, FIG. 40, which is formed into a set of female threads to allow engagement with the male thread 240 of the closure 238. To insure a fluid type connection an O-ring seal 262 is provided besure platform 282 is the only different element, which is provided because the valve assembly is located in a different position and is activated by a user pressing upon the pressure platform to cause the plunger and therefore the flanged head to break through the diaphragm. The breaking of the diaphragm allows communication of the content within the enclosure 264 to communicate through the control aperture 280 and through the longitudinal opening 278 with the external environment. The inner container 250 may be formed by the same drawing process used for the inner container 107 with the additional step of forming the threads within the cylindrical portion 260.
Operation of the valve assembly 266 is desirable when the container 230 is situated in a position as shown in FIG. 38. If the container were turned upside down, there would be the possibility of leaking liquid coolant on the user. Because there is only a single wall separating the enclosure 248 from the enclosure 264 and because the inner container will be constructed of a good heat conducting metal, there is excellent heat transfer between the product within the enclosure 248 and the refrigerant in enclosure 264 once the valve assembly has been activated. To assemble the container 230, the inner container 250 is formed by drawing while the closure 238 is pressed. The closure 238 is then engaged to the inner container to form a fluid tight seal. The cylindrical body 232 is formed and lock seamed to the closure 238. A vacuum is created, Freon is inserted into the inner container and the closure 258 is sealed to enclose the Freon. The beverage is then added to enclosure 248 and the container is sealed with the closure 234. To conform to existing practices the containers are usually shipped from a can manufacturer to a bottler before the beverage is added to the container.
Current production of beer and soft drinks in metal cans occur in a two step manufacturing procedure. Generally, a can company will manufacture a portion of the finished can, while a bottling company fills the can and completes the can structure. Usually, a can company will receive a roll of metal, which is coated twice and cut to a pre-determined size to form the cylindrical can body. In a separate operation the pop top closures are formed and are mated to the can body by lock seaming. Generally, the cans will also be imprinted with appropriate labels. The cans are then. pelletized and forwarded to a bottling company, which then sends the partially completed can through further processes to insure cleanliness before they are filled and sealed.
In keeping with the traditional two step manufacturing process a method has been devised for forming a container, such as the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 18. The method comprises, providing a strip of material, which is then cut to a pre-determined size to allow the formation of a hollow cylinder, such as the cylindrical body of the outer container 101, FIG. 18. There is also provided a plug of material, which, as mentioned earlier, is pressed into an elongated hollow body by the above mentioned drawing process which includes a series of pressing operations. The elongated hollowbody may be formed with a configuration identical to the closure 106, FIG. 20, which includes two conical sections122 and 124 and two cylindrical portions 126 and 128. The formation of the container, the formation of the closure and their connection is graphically described in FIG. 37 in the rectangular figures designated 300, 302 and 304 respectively. It is, of course, understood that the projections 162, 164, 166 and 168 may also be crimped into the closure during its forming pro cess. The three rectangular figures, 300, 302 and 304, are surrounded by a larger rectangular figure drawn in phantom designated 306 to indicate that those steps may. be accomplished by one manufacturer while the remainder of the method to be described may be accomplished by others.
A second container, such as the inner container 107, may be formed, by a manufacturer totally divorced from the manufacturer forming the conventional container, or the inner container may be formed on another forming line by the same manufacturer of the conventional can. Forming a container having a unique shape, such as the inner container 107, may be accomplished by providing a plug of material and then drawing that material by the progressive pressing steps asalready described. A closure is then stamped out of sheet metal and connected to the coolant container body by a lock seaming process. These two steps are described graphically by the rectangular figures designated 308 and 310 respectively. Next the inner container is filled with a coolant under pressure if the coolant responds in a manner analogous to Freon. This step is designated 312. The coolant filling step may be accomplished by any standard aerosol filling machine. After filling the inner container, the container is then sealed as designated 314. The large rectangular figure drawn in phantom line and designated 316 is used to indicate the separate manufacturing operations necessary to form the coolant cartridge. The coolant container may then be inserted into the product container in a bottlers plant or prior to reaching the bottlers plant depending upon convenience. For example, if the manufacturer forms the outer product container and the inner coolant container, then economics would probably dictate that he insert the inner container into the outer container before shipment to the bottler. Regardless of the approach followed, the step is designated 318. The insertion of the inner container into the outer container may i be accomplished by a magnet attaching itself to a closure, such as closure 150, if the closure is made of tin plated steel so as to be magnetic. The remainder of the container may also be steel or could be aluminum if an all metal container is desirable.
Once within the bottlers plant the additional operation of filling the product container and sealing the container may be accomplished in the usual way. Rectangular Figures 320 and 322 designate respectively 15 these last two processinng steps. It is to be noted, however, that in bottling some products such as beer, it is undesirable to have the coolant container inserted within the product container until after the beer is sent to a pasteruization station subjecting the beer to a relatively high temperature which would usually be detrimental to a coolant such as Freon 12. Thus, an advantage of the embodiment shown in FIG. 18 is that the coolant container may be added to the product container after the product container has been filled, completely processed and sealed in a fashion which would not require any changes from present day processing.
The process above described for forming the various containers may be altered somewhat should material other than metal be used or if it is found desirable for other reasons not to follow the more traditional approach. For example, using the drawing process described, it is possible to press a hollow, elongated body that includes the outer cylindrical and the uniquely shaped closure as an integral element. The cylindrical portion, which eventually forms the outer body of the container, is then rolled under heat and pressure in a fashion similar to turning ones sock partially inside out. This is known as a outer wall reversed draw. In an analogous fashion an inner wall reversed draw may be used to stuff the portion representing the closure into the large cylindrical portion, which eventually forms the outer body. As mentioned earlier, should plastic be used the various parts may be molded or extruded and then fastened together.
Referring now to FIGS. 1 through 4 a container comprises an outer container 12 for depositing a product andd an inner container 14 for housing a cooling or heating compound. In the interest of clarity the selfrefrigerating or heating container will be described as a self-refrigerating device for a liquid food or beverage 19, FIG. 4. However, it will be readily apparent as the description proceeds, and as will be explained subsequently, that the container 10, may be utilized to regulate the temperature .of solid or liquid foods so as to either heat or cool the food. Further it will be understood that the inner container 14 may be charged with a heat producing substance or a refrigerant depending on the selected application of the container 10. It is to be understood, however, that the container described could also be used to store other than foodstuff and could be used to heat or cool any one of a number of items.
The outer container 12 has a top closure 15 sealed to a cylindrical side body 16 in a conventional manner such as by a rolled seal 17; and the top closure 15 may include a conventional pull pop top opening arrangement l8 scored into the outer surface thereof as already described. The outer container 12 is closed after the beverage 19 has been placed therein, by the attachment of the bottom closure 21, FIG. 4 to the lower end of the side body 16. As seen best in FIG. 6, the side body 16 may be attached to the closure 21 by a rolled seal 22, for example. The closure 21 has a generally conical configuration with a relatively large head portion 23, FIG. 8 and a tapering seam portion 24, with the seam portion 24 extending into the side body 16 the greater part of the length of the side body, and preferably substantially the entire length of the side body.
The coolant inner container 14 comprises a closure 27, FIG. 8 and a tank 26 which is adapted to contain a quantity of liquid coolant 28 under pressure, for example. The inner container 14 is designed to withstand more pressure than the outer container 12 and therefore the tank 26 and the closure 27 may be constructed from stronger or thicker material than the corresponding members of the outer container 12. Further to insure a pressure tight vessel the seal 29, FIG. 6 between the tank 26 and the closure 27 may be formed by double rolling these surfaces inwardly of the periphery of the closure; a gasket material or sealant (not shown) may be disposed between the surfaces of the folded portions of these just mentioned members. A plurality of ridges 30, FIGS. 2 and 3 are formed in the closure 27 to increase the rigidity thereof. It is important for best performance of thhe container 10 that the configuration of the tank 26 be similar to the configuration of the closure 21, but of slightly smaller dimensions so that close contact may be maintained between the closure 21 and the inner container. 1
Means for venting the interior of the inner container 14 to the atmosphere is attached to the closure 27, and for the selected embodiment the venting means is shown as a pull pop top arrangement 31, FIG. 8 scored into the closure. The pull-tab arrangement 31 may be of conventional type with the depth of the scoring slightly reduced so that the lid may withstand greater pressures and with the size of the resulting opening 32 being adapted for a selected cooling rate as will be expalined subsequently. Although the venting arrangement 31 has been selected herein as a one-shot type just as the valve assembly it will be understood that in accordance with the subject invention any suitable venting assembly may be incorporated into the closure, including those of the manually controllable valve type assembly that the inner container 14 may be more readily recharged if it should be desired that the unit be reusable.
As noted previously, one of the primary objects and advantages of the subject invention is that the container may be processed with the least possible modification of existing manufacturing equipment, in which equipment the industry presently has a large capital investment. It should be noted that in accordance with the subject invention that the outer container 12, before the closure 21 is attached thereto, may be filled by standard equipment without modification. However, it will be recognized that since the closure 21 will displace a given volume within the outer container 12 that the volume of the liquid filling each container should be reduced proportionally. For example, the filling machine should be set so as to place 12 ounces of beverage in a standard 16 ounce can. An important advantage of the conical configuration of the closure 21 is that it may be nested (stacked) in a modified closure feeder machine and then inserted into the outer container so that the seal 22 may be subsequently formed in the conventional manner at the normal high rate of production.
As with the FIG. 18 embodiment, since the outer container 12 and the inner container 14 are structurally independent, the filled outer container may be processed without concern as to the effects of such processing on the coolant.
The inner container 14 may be assembled by placing the required amount of coolant 28 into the tank 26 and then spinning the closure 27 onto the tank so as to form the double seal 29. Once again the structural independence of the beverage container 12 and the coolant container 14 is advantageous, as the coolant container may be assembled at a completely different facility under the most favorable environmental conditions.
The amount and type of coolant is determined by the requirements of the particular application and the beverage selected. In addition to Freon l2, propane, butane or a mixture thereof are satisfactory refrigerants. It will be understood, however, that the subject invention is not limited to the proportions or type of coolants stated by way of example and that any suitable coolant may be utilized in the inner container in accordance with the principles of the subject invention.
After the outer container 12 has been filled, sealed and processed, the inner container 14 may be adhered to the outer surface of the closure 21 by means of any conventional adhesive such as epoxy. However, since conventional epoxy is a poor heat conductor only small quantities should be utilized. Preferably, the inner container 14 may be bonded to the outer surface of the closure 21 by a thermal conductive adhesive 33, such as Thermo-mastic for example, disposed between the closure 21 and the tank 26. The use of the conductive adhesive 33 as a bonding agent has the advantage of increasing the thermal conductivity between the tank 26 and crown 21 as well as compensating for any minor irregularities in the surfaces that may otherwise prevent close contact therebetween.
In the embodiment of the container shown in FIGS. 9 through 12, the conically shaped bottom memher or conical section 21' of the outer container 12' is formed as an integral part of the side body 16'. In formation the same drawing processes may be employed as described for the FIG. 18 embodiment. One advantage of the'container 12 is that it may bee filled from the top end in exactly the manner now conventionally employed in the industry, and the closure 15 may be sealed to the side body 16' without any modification of existing equipment. For the embodiment shown in FIGS. 9 through 12 the inner container 14 (which is identical to unit 14) may be mounted within the opening formed by the outer surfaces of the closure structure 21' in an identical manner to that described previously.
, Shortly before the beverage 19 is to be consumed, the user may vent the inner container 14 by means of the pull-tab arrangement 31; and the pressure within the coolant container 14 is quickly reduced towards atmospheric pressure through the opening 32. The coolant such as Freon 12 will boil causing the structure. of the inner container 14, the closure 21 and therefore the beverage 19 to be cooled. It should be noted that the rate of cooling may be controlled by the relationship of the size of the head of the tank 26 and the size of the opening 32. These just mentioned parameters are selected so that the beverage is uniformly cooled as quickly as possible without degrading the flavor. As the beverage 19 is cooled it will settle towards the closure 15, the container being then inverted, and the resulting convection current of the beverage will helpprovide uniform cooling. Also, since the lower portion of the stem 24 will retain the coolant longest, the portion of the beverage near the closure 15, which will be consumed first will be cooled first. Further, the beverage adjacent to the expanded portion 23 of the closure 21 which will beconsumed last will tend to be maintained cooler longer due to this larger heat transfer area.
The container 10 may be utilized as a self heating device by the simple expedient of using a heat producing substance instead of a refrigerant in the tank 26 of the inner container 14. In the heating application a mixture of phosphorus and magnesium filings for example may be loaded and sealed into the unit 14 in such a manner as to form an inert environment. Shortly before the food is to be served the user may vent the unit 14 by means of the pull-tab arrangement 31 allowing air to oxidize the phosphorus which in turn ignites the mag nesium. The heat produced by the burning of this mixture is transferred through the tank 26, the conductive adhesive 33 and the closure 21 in a manner similar to that described previously for the cooling application. The amount of heat generating compound which is loaded into the unit 14 is selected so as to heat the food contained in the unit 12 to a desired temperature.
Referring to FIGS. 13 through 17, another embodiment of the self-refrigerating and heating container of this invention is illustrated. Again, container 10" comprises beverage outer container 12" and coolant inner container 14".
Referring principally to FIG. 15, which is a longitudinal section through container 10'', the beverage unit comprises can body 34 which is a conventional, commercially available lock seam can body. At the bottom of FIG. 15, which is the top of container 10'', closure 36 is sealed to the end of the body. Closure 36 is provided with a conventional pop -top opener 38. Bottom closure 40 is secured to body 34 by means of lock seam 42. In view of the fact that the bottom closure 40 is of a special configuration, it may be preferable that the bottom closure be first sealed onto the can body, followed by the can being filled and sealed by adding the closure 36. In either event, one of the closures is secured to the body, the can is filled with its food material and the other end is sealed.
Bottom closure 40 has a conical portion 44 which providesa beverage space 46 between the bottom closure and the can body. Beyond the conical portion 44 is a cylindrical portion 48 which is integral through transition portion 50' to a cylindrical portion 52. The entire bottom closure 40 may be drawn so that it has an integral closure head 54 thereon. Thus, with the two closures sealed in place upon can body 34, theouter container 12" is Created.
Inner container 14" is formed of a body 56, closure 58 and closure 60..Body 56 has a tapered or conical portion 62 which is of such angle and such diameter as to closely fit'against the outside of conical portion 44. Additionally, body 56' has cylindrical portion 64 which extends through transition portion 66 into cylindrical portion 68, which respectively fit closely adjacent the corresponding portions 48, 50 and 52 of the closure 40. These respective parts lie closely together as is practical, consistent with convenient and economical manufacturing processes, such as tolerances and the like. The end of cylindrical portion 68 is finished off in a rolled edge 70 which is of such dimensions as to accept closure 60. Furthermore, the diameter of cylindrical portion 68 and the size of closure issuch that unit 14" can be filled in a-standard under-the-cap pressure can filling machine.
Such machines engage around the neck of a vessel adjacent the open end through which the pressurized contents are to be inserted. The: pressurized fluid is placed in the vessel, and while the seal is maintained