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Publication numberUS3802102 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 9, 1974
Filing dateDec 2, 1971
Priority dateDec 2, 1971
Publication numberUS 3802102 A, US 3802102A, US-A-3802102, US3802102 A, US3802102A
InventorsR Licciardi
Original AssigneeR Licciardi
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Special effects box
US 3802102 A
Abstract
A special effects box that combines the functions of several individual units, such as those of a title layout box, a contact printer, a movie titler, an animation layout box and animation table. The special effects box includes a box having an open top, a light source mounted therein, a clear filter and several color filters, and a mask. The wall of the box is provided with means for supporting said filters and the mask. The filters and the mask are substantially the same size so that they can be interchangeably used in said box.
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United States Patent 11 1111 3,802,102 Licciardi Apr. 9, 1974 [5 SPECIAL EFFECTS BOX 2,674,933 4/1954 Wigglesworth 355/113 4 2,294,444 9/1942 Borou hs 240/2 AT UX [76] Inventor: Dalsa 2,362,434 11/1944 Fitch 51 al. 40/158 B ux T k p p 7, M01110, 2,238,106 4/1941 Fleischer 40/106.l ux Sug1nam -k y0, Japan 2,623,314 12/1952 Lombard 40 1522 x [22] Filed: Dec. 1971 l,759,544 /1930 .Croes /130 R UX [21] Appl. No.1 203, Primary Examiner-Robert W. Michell Assistant Examiner-John F. Pitrelli 52 us. c1. 40/132 R, 40/l06.l, 240/2 D, Attorney wegne' 240/2 AT, 355/113 [51] Int. Cl. G09f 13/10 [57] ABSTRACT [58] Field of Search 40/132 9 A special effects box that combines the functions of 40/1061; 355/1 39 24O/2 several individual units, such as those of a title layout 2 2 248/466 box, a contact printer, a movie titler, an animation layout box and animation table. The special effects [56] References C'ted box includes a box having an open top, a light source UNITED ST T S PATENTS mounted therein, a clear filter and several color filters, 1,546,784 7/1925 116nman.....1 355/ x and a mask. The wall of the box is provided with 1,232,104 7/1917 Allen 355/125 means for supporting said filters and the mask. The 243.370 6/ 1881 G tekuns 355/125 filters and the mask are substantially the same size so 21554149 4/1939 Rutherford 355/125 X that they can be interchangeably used in said box. 2,948,975 8/l90 Fowle 40/106.l 3,160,975 -l2/l964 Malina..; 40/1 32 F 7 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures PAIENIEUAPR QIBM 3302.102 sum 30F 6 Lr W WWI I HIM. F/G. 8

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SPECIAL EFFECTS BOX BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a special effects box vthat combines the functions of several individual units,.such as those of a title, layout box, a contact printer, a movie titler, an animation layout box and an animation table.

Actually there are not many titlers on the market for the amateur andthere are only a few varieties available to the semiprofessional. The simplest is of plastic or wooden three dirnentional letters with a special adhesive backing which allows the letters to be attached to a glass, wallpaper, plastic, leather, wood or metal surface for filming. This type is usually called a Title Kit paper backgrounds along be mounted'andthen slowly turned while filming. Most of these titlers use frontal lighting equipment which means that thecamera is filming light that is reflected off the title card. These lights must be carefully adjusted to eliminate any undesirable glare or reflections that occur'especially when shooting animation on acetate cells. Any unnoticed glare or reflection will show up on the processed'filrn and spoil the title.

SUMMARY OF THE rNvENTIoN The object of the present invention is to provide a special effects box used as a title layout box, a contact printer, a movie titler, an animation table and the like,

comprising a box having an open top, a light source mounted in said box and adapted to illuminate towards said open top of the box, one-clear filter and at least one color filter, and a mask having a central cut out, the'walls of said box being provided with supporting means for supporting said filters andsaid mask, said filters and said mask being substantially the same size so that the filters and the mask can be interchangeably inserted in said box and supported by said supporting means. I v

Other and additional objects and advantages will be apparent after reading'the following description which refers to the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the special effects box of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of filters to be usedin the present invention; I

FIG.'3 is a perspective view of the special effects box with a white filter inserted in the box to be used for a title layout box;

FIG. 4 is a perspective-view similar to FIG. 3 with a graph paper placed on the white filter to be used for a title layout box; 7

FIG. is a perspective view similar to FIG. 4 with a blank title card placed on the graph paper to be used for a title layout box;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the special effects box used as a contact printer;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the special effects box used as-a contact printer with the completed title card and film in place on the white filter;

FIG. 8 is a perspective view showing the manner of placing the transparent plate to hold the film and title card on the white filter;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing the present invention for use as a movie titler;

FIG. 10 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a part of the mask taken along the line X-X of FIG. 9;

FIG. 11 is a perspective view showing one example of mounting the movie titler;

FIG. 12 is a perspective view of the box that is setting vertically and horizontally;

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of the box mounted on the wall;

FIG. 14 is a perspective view of the box fitted onto the glass window panel or mirrors by the suction cup legs;

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of the present invention used as an animation box;

FIG. 16 is a perspective view of animation box with second paper cell placed over the first paper cell;

FIG. 17 is a pictorial view of a number of paper cells having a series of characters, and

' FIG. 18 is a perspective view of the animation box with an acetate cell placed over the roughly sketched papercell.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT As shown in FIG. 1, box 1 has a bottom wall 2, side walls 3, 4-and end walls 5, 6. The top of the box 1 is left open. The material of the box 1 may be suitably selected from metal, wood, plastic or the like. On the bottorn wall 2, there is mounted one or more fluorescent lamps 7 by means of a pair of connectors 8, 9 and connected to an electric power source (not shown). On the inner surface'of the side walls 3, '4 and one end wall 5, there is a top groove 10 and a bottom groove 11 provided one above the other, these grooves 10, 11 being adapted to receive filters 12 and/or a mask 13 which will be described later. The other end wall 6 is provided with a slot 14 which is in alignment with the top grooves 10 so that the filter 12 or the mask 13 may be slidably inserted into and drawn out of the box 1. On the same end wall 6, another slot 15 is provided, which is in alignment with the bottom groove' 11 to receive the filter 12.

As accessories to the box 1 there are filters 12 (see FIG. 2) and a black mask 13 (see FIG. 9 and 10). The filters 12 consists of a white filter 12a, a blue filter 12b and a clear plastic filter 12c. Other colored filters may be used in addition to these three filters 12a, 12b and when needed. The material of the filters is not limited to plastic and other materialsuch as glass or the like may be used. As seen in FIGS. 9 and 10, the'mask 13 is made of metal or plastic material and has a central cutout portion 16 having a dimension suitable for receiving the title transparency 24.-A transparent plate 17 made of acrylic resin is fitted into the central cut out portion 16. Said cut out portion 16 is surrounded along three edges thereof by frames 18 having recesses 18' to hold the edges of the transparency 24.

lines to erase.

On the bottom wall 2 and the side wall 4, there is conventionally provided,.a transformer 19 and a starter 20 respectively for the fluorescent lamp 7-.

The special effects box constructed as above has several functions, and'the operations of the box will be described below:

TITLE LAYOUT Box To use the special effects box of the present invention todesign and lay out the titles, first remove all I graph paper 22, tape the card 23 to the graph paper 22,

as shown in FIG. 5. Turn on the fluorescent lamp 7 and the lines of the graph paper 22 should be visible through the blank title card 23.

The layout of the title can now convenientlyproceed.

I The titles can be painted on the card 23 with black poster paint or the alphabet and symbol'sheet available underthe commercial name of Prestype Dry Transfer Lettering can be used. The title design is limited only by the imagination of the user and any material, paint, crayon, etc., may be used to design the title on the card 23 as long as it leaves a strong black design. The special effects box of the p'resent invention allowsthe userto quickly and easily set upthe titles accurately on the title card 23. Becausethe lines of the graph paper 22 are visible through the titlecard 23', theletters can be easily lined up and centered; There isno'chance of smudging the title because there are no pencil guide When the first title card is finished, it is removed and the remaining title-cards are processed in the same manner until all the titlesftobe included .in the desired movie have been completed. To use the time most efficiently all the title cards 23 should be completed before proceeding to the next process asthe special effect box of the present invention will be transformed into a new piece of equipment thatwill allow'the user to photographically print film'transparencies 24 from the finished .title cards 23. t I i CONTACT PRINTER vWhen the necessary title cards 23' have been made, the special effects box of the .present inv'ention can now be prepared to print title transparencies 24;

Contact Film ASA-2 or the'like, is placed glossy side down over the title card 23 being careful to line up the edges of the card 23 with the edges of the film 24a, as

shown in FIG. 7.

A thick clear plastic plate 25 is placed over the film 24a to hold it firmly against the title card 23, as seen in FIG. 8. The fluorescent lamp 7 is turned on. After the light flickers on count out 'or 46 seconds and then turn the light off. Hereafter, thefilm 24a may be treated in a conventional manner, such as developing,

fixing, washing and drying the film, to obtain the title transparencies 24.

' MOVIE TITLER 12a and the blue filter 1212 are removed from the box a glass window panel orthe mirror by attaching the present invention is now a movie titler. A desiredtitle transparency 24 to be filmed is selected andplaced into the recesses 18' of the mask '13, a selected-color filter is placed into the second groove to color the transparency, thenthe fluorescent lamp 7 is turned on. The box 1 can be'mounted directly onto the camera tripod as shown in FIG. 11, or set horizontally or vertically on the table as shown in FIG. 12. The box 1 may be placed on the jwall as shown in FIG. 13 or can be mounted n suction cup legs 30 as shown in FIGQ14.

Mount your camera on a'tripod. Adjust-the camera distance to the title by either moving the titler box or the camera tripod. If the camera has a zoom, the size of the title can be adjusted simply by zooming in and out. A close-up lens maybe needed depending upon the distance of the camera to'the transparency 24.

Also, note that the camera field of vision is not limited to within the area of the box 1 for filming. Because the actual filming of the title is .done in a darkened room 'with the room lights off, the only existing light will be ally an advantage in eliminating framing errors and With reference to FIG. 6, to print the title transpar- I encies 24, remove the graph paper 22 from the white filter 12a. Make sure the white filter 12a is clean as any dirt or marks willshow up on the transparencies 24 after printing. Leave the white filter 12a in the top groove 10 of the box 1. Insert'the blue filter'l2b into the bottom groove 11 of the box 1. This blue filter 12b acts-as a light reducer and will cut downfthe-brilliance of the light for the purpose of contact printing the title onto the film 24a. Thespecial effects box'of the present invention hasnow become a contact printer.

, When the special effects box is prepared as described above, the fluorescent lamp 7 is turned off, and the prepared title card 23 is placed face-up onto the white filter 12a. A sheet of film 24a, such'as Sakura Konilitho under or over sized titles can be compensated for by zooming in and out or by moving the camera tripod. I After the camera distance has been adjustedto' the transparency 24 and the lens is focussed, thetitleis ready tobe filmed. Make sure the camera exposureis onautornatic then turn the room lights off and film.

Title transparencies 24 are easily changed without tuming'theroom lights back on. Simply leave the fluo-' rescent lamp-7 on and change the transparencies 24 in between shots.

For cameras without automatic exposure system or if it is desired to use the manual setting on theautomatic camera, take the light'reading in the following way.

After selecting the color filter 12 desired, remove the black mask 13 temporarily from the box 1. Either with a light meter or with the automatic systemin the camera, take a light reading with the mask 13 off. Set the camera f-stop at this reading, insert the black mask 13 with title transparency 24 intact, back into the box and begin filming. a

Depending upon the type of camera, an unlimited number of special effects are possible with the special effects'box of the present invention.

ANIMATION LAYOUT BOX .Along with being a complete titling unit, the compact special effects box of the present invention can be used for animation. As shown in FIG. 15 by inserting the clear filter 120 into the top groove and the white filter 12a into the bottom groove 11 the special effects box of the presentinvention becomes an animation layoutbox.

Like laying out titles, the special effects box can be used to layout animation. A standard 16mm paper cell 26 is placed on the clear filter 120 of the box I with the lamp 7 turned on, and the desired characters 29 are drawn thereon. When placing the paper cell 26 on the clear filter 12c, holes formed on the upper part of the paper cell 26 may be registered over pins 28 formed on the clear filter 12c. After the first paper cell is completed, the second paper cell can be placed thereon, as shown inFlG. 16, and the second characters can be drawn. i

With the fluorescent lamp 7 turned on several sheets of paper cells 26 can be seen through. This will guide encies, cutting down the brilliance of light for contact printing transparencies, and supplying rich colors for title backgrounds to be filmed, so that this box that combines the functions of several individual units, such as a title layout box, a contact printer, a movie titler, an animation layout box and an animation table into one compact unit. In the present invention, stationary, internal, enclosed light is the only light used for all the light process so that only a small amount of light is emitted for'the title and, there is no reflection to worry about while filming titles or animation, because the light is filtered though all transparencies instead of being front lit. This is a particular advantage when filming acetate cells, since the acetate cells are made from a flexible plastic which has a high degree of reflectability. If filming with external lighting, these acetate cells create glare and reflections and much adjusting of the external light is needed to eliminate this condition.

As explained heretofore, the new concept is the combination of these separate pieces of equipment into one compact unit that performs a series of different tasks that are related to the overall process of which the end result is a title, animation or special effect thatthe user wants to achieve.

Other and additional advantages of the present invention are as follows:

1. More versatile and economicaltitles can be made at less expense as compared with other methods as the cost for the film is low and film transparencies can be used over and over in different movies by just changing colorfilters. As more title transparencies are made,

the user in plotting the movement of the characters 29 on the paper cells 26. This can be easily done by drawing the characters 29 on the first papercell 26 and then registeringanother paper cell 26 over the first, using the previous characters29 as a guide in drawing the next one. Several paper cells 26 can be registered overon another as shown in FIG. 17 before the light becomes'too dim, thus allowing the characters 29 to be drawn speedily and accurately, pausing'periodically to FILMING THEANIMATION Without changing any filters 12 the filming of the animation can be done by simply placing the acetate cells 27, one by. one in their proper sequence on the registration pins 28 and pressing the camera shutter each time. For animation work, it ,is better to have a camera equipped with single exposure, however, it is still possible to film animation with other cameras that do not have this feature. This can be done by carefully and quickly pressing the shutter button sothat only two or three frames are exposed. This is sufficient to produce animation. I

As described heretofore, the heart of the present invention lies in the interchangeable filters which are used for illuminating transparencies, coloring transparcost of titling declines since certain transparenciescan be used over again in new movies, thus cutting down the cost of printing and'the time involved in printing; Titles are easily labeled and stored in envelopes and are practically indestructable and can be used over and over for years.

2. You do not need to be an artist to produce beautiful titles. If you merely write your titles on the title card with a black crayon your titleswill look professional because when using 'color filters to color the transparencies, the color becomes uniform and brilliant.

3. The cost of the special effects box is very low when comparing the price to other titlers on the market. More specifically, the special effects box can be manufactur'ed at a cost of one tenth that of the conventional titlers, because the special effects box is compact in size and simple in construction.

What is claimed is:

l. A special effects box used as a title layout box, a

contact printer, a movie titler, an animation layout box,

an animation table, an animation stand or the like, comprising a box having an open top, a light source mounted in said box'and-adapted to illuminate towards said open top of the box, one clear filter and at least one color filter, and a mask having a central cut out, walls of said box being provided with supporting means for removably supporting said filters and said mask,

equipment by changing movable filters and masks.

6. A special effects box defined in-claim l in which said mask is a black mask for the purpose of blocking out undesired light and for the purpose of inserting film transparencies to create brilliant fluorescent color titlers.

7. A special effects box defined in claim 1 inwhich said filters are different filters adapted to be inserted into the box so as to change the colors of the titles.

' I UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,80 ,10 Dated April 09, 1974 Inventor) Robert P. Licciardi It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Claim 6, last line, change "titlers" to -'-tit1es--.

Signed and sealed this 5th day of November 1974.

(SEAL) Attest:

McCOY M. GIBSON JR. c. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM po'wso (1M9) uscoMM-oc wan-Pee 9 U.S. GOVIINHINT PRINTING OFIICI lll 0-3ll-J34,

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,80 ,102 Dated April 09, 1974 Inventor(s) rt P- Licciardi It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent andthat said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Claim 6, 13st line, change "titlers" to --title.s-.

Signed and sealed this 5th day of November 1974.

(SEAL) Attest:

McCOY M. GIBSON JR. c. MARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer Commissioner of Patents FOR" Podoso (0-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 9: us. covnmuur manna omcl nu 0-1005. I I

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4046474 *Nov 17, 1975Sep 6, 1977Rockwell International CorporationBlack-body wafer support fixture for exposure of photoresist
US4161767 *Oct 3, 1977Jul 17, 1979Conwed CorporationTask lighting system with angularly-displaced fluorescent tubes
US4254449 *Oct 10, 1978Mar 3, 1981Conwed CorporationTask lighting system
US4385462 *Aug 6, 1979May 31, 1983Knox Manufacturing Co.Illuminated transparency viewing system with overlay device and film clips
US4568148 *Nov 3, 1983Feb 4, 1986Onanian Richard AHand-held collapsible microscope system
US4631643 *Oct 4, 1985Dec 23, 1986Koester DetlefDemountable multi-purpose light table
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Classifications
U.S. Classification40/564, 312/7.1, 362/97.4, 40/367, 312/242, 355/113, 312/7.2
International ClassificationG03B15/08, G03B27/02, G03D15/00
Cooperative ClassificationG03B15/08, G03B27/02, G03D15/006
European ClassificationG03B27/02, G03D15/00R, G03B15/08