US 3803882 A
A drum apparatus for maintaining a liquid bath in which sheet material of a porous and absorbent nature is processed includes a processing chamber adjacent an open end and a drainage chamber adjacent its other end which is closed. The drum is mounted for rotational movement about its longitudinal axis and for pivotal movement in a vertical plane. The drum is pivoted to a loading position and the sheet material is fed through the open end into the processing chamber. Fins in the processing chamber are adapted to work the sheet material in a liquid bath supplied to the drum during rotation of the drum in either direction. After the sheet material is processed the drum is pivoted to a discharge position for removal of the sheet material out through the open end.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 Brennan [111 3,803,82 [451 Apr. 16, 1974  Inventor: George A. Brennan, Fullerton, Calif.
 Assignee: Challenge-Cook Bros., Incorporated,
. Industry, Calif.
 Filed: Aug. 17, 1971  Appl. No.: 172,519
.Related U.S. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 64,989, Aug. 19,
1970, Pat. No. 3,665,735.
10/1952 Belaieff 68/208 X Primary Examiner-William 1. Price Q Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Lyon & Lyon [5 7] ABSTRACT A drum apparatus for maintaining a liquid bath in which sheet material of a porous and absorbent nature is processed includes a processing chamber adjacent an open end and a drainage chamber adjacent its other end which is closed. The drum is mounted for rotational movement about its longitudinal axis and for pivotal movement in a vertical plane. The drum is pivoted to a loading position and the sheet material is fed through the open end into the processing chamber. Fins in the processing chamber are adapted to work the sheet material in a liquid bath supplied to the drum during rotation of the drum in either direction.
After the sheet material is processed the drum is pivoted to a discharge position for removal of the sheet material out through the open end.
1 Claim, 10 Drawing Figures PATENTEBAPR 16 m4 3.803882 saw 2 BF 2 INVENTOR. 650265 A? Zea/MAM 1' APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING POROUS AND ABSORBENT SHEET MATERIAL IN BULK This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending U. S. Patent application Ser. No. 64,989, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE BULK PROCESS OF HIDES OR THE LIKE, filed Aug. 19, 1970 issued May 30, 1972, as United States Letters Patent No. 3,665,735, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein.
This invention relates to an apparatus for processing porous and absorbent sheet materials in bulk, such as the washing or dyeing of textiles or the tanning of hides, and more particularly, relates to a drum apparatus adapted to be filled with a liquid bath for processing the sheet materials therein.
In large capacity commercial washing and dyeing machines for textiles and in other large, commercial drum machinery forthe processing of similar sheet materials, a major concern is the efficient loading and unloading of the material into and out of the machinery. Because these sheet materials are processed in a liquid bath, it has been the practice in the more conventional cylindrical drum machinery previously used to load the material through a door in the drum which can thereafter be sealed to prevent loss of the liquid during a rotational movement of the drum about a horizontalaxis.
' drum apparatus for the washing and dyeing or other processing of porous and absorbent sheet materials in a liquid bath which can be drained from the drum without interference from the sheet material being processed therein.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a drum apparatus for the processing of sheet material which includes novel internal working elements for However, the required opening and closing of the door rial by a conveyor or similar equipment. Therefore, in
machinery of this type having a cylindrical drum it is generallypreferable to rotate the drum about an axis inclined with respect -to the horizontal whereby the upper end of thedrum is capable. of remaining open during the process of the material without any loss of liquid contained within the drum. This type of machine is easily loaded through the upper open end by automated means. In addition, the sheet material to be processed and the liquid bath can be added to the drum simultaneously in one operation. Moreover, 'various chemical ingredients can be subsequently added through the open end during the processing of the material while the drum is turning to maintain control or change the'nature ofthe bath. q
However, the machines of this 'type heretofore use have not been entirely satisfactory for the efficient unloading of the sheet material from the drum. In certain of these machines, a do oris provided at the normally closed lower end of the inclined drum for the unloading of the materialfThe provision of such a door at the lower end results in a relatively complex arrangement requiring various sealing elements to prevent leakage around the doorduring rotation of the drum. In addition,'such an arrangement further complicates certain other operations, such as the draining of the liquid from the drum. In other incline drum machines such as the machine shown in my above mentioned U.S. Patent application, Ser. No. 64,989, internal spiral fins have been employeiThese fins work the sheet material duringrotation of the drum in one direction and move the sheet material within the drum axially toward and out the open end when the drum is rotated in the other direction. The use of such spiralfins has proved to be generally successful, but in certain instances these spiral fins limit the full use of the machinery during processing of the sheet materials. For example, since the drum can only be turned in one direction during proproducing a desired working action.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for the bulk processing of sheet material in an open inclined drum which includes novel hopper means to effect further improvements in the loading and discharge of the drum.
In accordance with these and other objects of this invention, the processing of textiles or other similar sheet materials of a porous and absorbent nature is performed in a substantially cylindrical drum apparatus mounted for rotation about a longitudinal axis and for pivotal movement in a substantially vertical plane. The drum apparatus includes a drainage chamber proximate a closed end of the drum from which liquids in the drum can be extracted and a processing chamber adjacent an upper open end in which the material is maintained during processing. A drain pipe extending into the drainage chamber along the longitudinal axis of the drum at the closed end is adapted to discharge a relatively high volume of liquid from the drum when desired without interference from the materials being processed which are maintained apart from the drainage chamber. Fins within the processing chamber affixed to the inner wall of the drum and extending radially outward therefrom include working elements which are adapte'd to work the material in the processing chamber in a desired manner for improved results.
The drum may be rotated in'either direction or oscillated back and forth during processing of the material for full utilization of the working elements. The open end of the drum may be moved to a first position to accomplish efficient loading of the material and subsequently moved to a second position to accomplish efficient unloading of the material. In addition, hoppers mounted on the drum adjacent the open end assist in the loading and unloading of the drum.
- These and other objects and'advantages of this invention will be made readily apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 5 is a side sectional view of modified form of the invention illustrating the internal straight fins with auxiliary spiral fins positioned therebetween.
FIG. 6 is a front sectional view of the drum taken substantially on the lines 6-6 of FIG. 5 and further illustrating the arrangement of the straight and spiral fins.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view of a modified form of the fin working element.
FIG. 8 is a'fragmentary view of another modified form of the fin working element.
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary view of still another modified form of the fin working element.
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary view of a still further modified form of the fin working element.
Referring now in detail to the drawings, the apparatus includes a generally cylindrical elongated drum, generally designated 10, which is mounted for rotation about its longitudinal axis on a frame 11. Preferably, the drum is a large capacity drum having a total volume of about 700 cubic feet, with the processing chamber occupying substantially all of this volume. It is desirable that the drum be constructed of non-corrosive stainless steel in order to preclude a reaction of the drum material with the chemicals used in the liquid processing bath. The drum includes a rear cylindrical wall section 12, a front conical wall section 12a a rear closed end 13, and a front open end 14. While this combination cylindrical and conical shape of the drum sidewall is generally preferable, it should be noted that the sidewall can be totally cylindrical or totally conical without appreciably affecting the results of the invention. Rollers 15 secured to each side of the frame 11 support the forward portion of the drum l0 and the rear end of the drum 10 includes a rear tubular axle or shaft member 16 which is supported on bearing members (not shown) mounted in an upwardly extending support member 17 of the frame 11.
The frame 11 and the drum l0 rotatably mounted thereon are supported by a support 18 which is positioned between the ends 13 and 14 of the drum l0 and rigidly affixed to a generally stationary frame 19. The frame 11 is pivotally attached to the support 18 along a horizontal axis 20. A hoist cylinder 21 pivotally attached at one end 22 to the stationary frame 19 and pivotally attached at the other end 23 to the frame 11 proximate the rear end of the drum 10 is adapted to move the frame 11 and the drum 10 mounted thereon in a substantially vertical plane about the axis 20. The hoist cylinder when extended changes the incline of the longitudinal axis of the drum 10 with respect to the horizontal from an upward incline towards the open end 14, as shown in FIG. 1, to a downward incline towards the open end 14, as shown in FIG. 4.
A drive motor 24 secured to the frame 11 coincides with the axis and is pivotal thereabouts. The motor 24 is operably connected to a pair of drive belts 25 which encircle the drum, but a chain or other similar drive means could also be used. The drive motor may be an electric or hydraulic motor adapted to drive the drum in either direction of rotation or drive the drum alternately in both directions in quick succession to produce an oscillatory motion. In addition, reduction gears or other means can be employed for a variable speed drive of the drum. A power unit 26 is shown mounted on the frame 19, but it could also be remotely located. The power unit 26 can be adapted to supply hydraulic, electric or a combination of hydraulic and electric power. The power unit 26 is adapted to supply power to both the drive motor 24 and the hoist cylinder 21.
As seen in FIG. 1, the drum 10 includes an internal processing chamber 30 and an internal drainage chamber 31, with a baffle member 32 separating the two chambers. The drainage chamber is defined by the closed end 13, the sidewall section 12, and the baffle member 32 and the processing chamber 30 is defined by the sidewall section 12, the sidewall section 12a and the baffle member 32, with the open end 14 of the drum adjacent the forward portion of the processing chamber 30 and providing communication thereto. The portion of the drum below the level of the open end 14 when the longitudinal axis of the drum is inclined upwardly toward the open end 14 forms a liquid bath zone 33 wherein substantially all of the liquid used during the various processing operations is maintained.
Within the processing chamber 30 of the preferred embodiment of the invention are working means in the form of a plurality of straight fins 34 which are affixed along one edge 35 to the inner surface 36 of the side wall 12 and extend radially inward therefrom. It should be noted, however, that various other forms of working means might be used, as for example pegs or paddles, which will provide for a general agitation of the processing liquid and the materials contained therein during rotation of the drum. As illustrated, the fins 34 are circumferentially spaced apart at equal distances and four fins are provided. However, this spacing and the number of fins may vary without deviating from the scope of the invention. Each fin 34 begins at the open end 14 of the drum, runs longitudinally the length of the processing chamber 30 and terminates at the baffle member 32. Each fin 34 includes a working element, generally designated 37, which in the embodiment shown in FIG. 2 comprises the continuous inner edge or blade 38 on the fin. FIGS. 7 through 10 represent modified forms of fins having various different working elements. In FIG. 7, a fin 39 is corrugated with the corrugations running laterally from the inner edge 40 of the fin to the other edge 41. The working element thus includes triangularly shaped blades 42 alternately extending from each side of the fin 39. In FIG. 8, a fin is providing having a working element which comprises a continuous blade 44 at the inner edge of the fin and a pair of blades 44 extending from each side of the fin 43 in a direction normal thereto and being spaced from the blade 44. FIG. 9 illustrates still another form of fin, with the fin 46 including a working element which comprises a pair of blades 47 extending outwardly from each side of the fin 46 in a direction normal thereto and located at the inner edge of the blade. FIG. 10 discloses a fin 48 which tapers inwardly from its base on the inner surface 36 of the processing chamber to its inner edge 49 thereby providing still another form of working element. Each type working element is adapted to produce a particular working action on the sheet material during processing thereof.
FIGS. 5 and 6 disclose a modified form of the working means. In this embodiment of the invention a plurality of three straight fins 50 are provided in-the processing chamber 30 with one edge 51 affixed to the inner surface 36 of the side wall 12 and with the fins extending radially inward therefrom. The fins 50 are circumferentially spaced from one another, with each fin beginning at the open end 14 of the drum, running continuously the length of the processing chamber and terminating at the baffle member 32. Interposed between each pair of straight fins is a spiral fin 52 which also has one edge 53 affixed to the inner surface 36 of the drum and extends radially inward therefrom. Each'spiral fin 52 begins at the junction 54 of the cylindrical portion 12 of the drum with the conical portion 12a, which tapers inwardly toward the open end 14. The spiral fins each run continuously from this junction 54 along side one of the straight fins 50 to the baffle member 32 alongside the next adjacent straight fin 50. During a processing operation and rotation of the drum, the spiral fins 52 move through the liquid bath zone 23 with components of axial and transverse motion. These components of motion effect a certain mechanical'action on the sheet material contained within the bath. It should be noted that other combinations of the spiral and straight fins could also be used to effect other similar mechanical action.
The bafi'le member 32 positioned at the end of the fins and separating the drainage chamber 31 and processing chamber 30 comprises a circular plate which is peripherally mounted'to the inner surface 36 of the sidewall 12. The baffle member 32 preferably includes a plurality of parallel and spaced corrugations with a plurality of spaced apertures 61 therebetween which permit liquid to pass therethro'ugh.
' The drainage chamber 31 located proximate the lower closed end 13 is adapted to be substantially filled with the liquid during operating conditions, but is maintained free of the sheet material in the processing chamber 30 by the baffle member 32. A pipe 62 extends. from the. lowermost portion of the drainage chamber .31 perpendicularly to the center axis of the drum. 10 and then out from the drum axially through the hollow shaft 16, as best seen in FIG. 1. While the pipe 62 is generally referred to as a drain pipe, it should be noted that liquid can also be added to the drum through this pipe 62. The drain pipe 62 is supported in the shaft on bearing members (not shown) to permit rotation of the drum 10 about the drain pipe 62 and a seal (not shown) surrounds the drain pipe 62 and prevents leakage the'rebetween. i
The drain pipe 62 is connected to a pump 63 and the pump in turn is connected-to a discharge line 64 and a recirculating line 65. Valves 66 control the passage of fluid from the pump into one of the lines 64 or 65. By means of this liquid discharge and recirculating system, liquid in the drum 10 can be pumped out of the drum at any time without interference from the sheet material into line 64, for passage to the sewer or to holding tanks (not shown), or into the recirculating line which extends to the open end 14 of the drum for recirculation of the liquid back into the drum. Fresh water is supplied to the drum 10 through the open end 14 by v a supply line 67.
The liquid discharge and recirculating system also includes couplings 68 for control of the liquid bath temperature whereby steam can be'added to the bath through the pipe 62 to maintain or increase the bath temperature. Other control elements 69 which might be provided in the system include controls for maintaining or changing the chemical concentrations of the bath andcontrols for maintaining a particular liquid level in the drum.
Hopper means, generally designated 70, adjacent the loading and discharge of the materialbeing processed. The hopper means 70 includes a loading hopper 71 having a chute 71a and a discharge hopper 72 having a trough 72a. The discharge hopper 72 is rigidly affixed at 73 to an extension of the frame 11 in a stationary position adjacent the side wall 12a and around the lower portion of the open end 14 with the trough 72a inclined downwardly from the open end 14 and downwardly with respect to the longitudinal axis of the drum.
A pair of stub shafts 76 and 77 extend outwardly from each side of the chute and through upwardly extending mounting flanges 78 and 79, respectively, on each side of the trough 72a for pivotal movement thereon. The endsof the stub shafts 76 and 77 are rigidly affixed ,to link members 80 and 81, respectively, which are positioned outside the trough 72a. The link members 80 and 81 are in turn pivotally connected to the ends of rods 82 and 83, respectively, which are pivotally attached at their other ends to the stationary frame 19. This mechanical linkage effects a pivotal movement of the chute 710 on the stub shafts during movement of the drum in the vertical plane about the axis 20.
When the drum 10 is in the loading position shown in FIG. 1 the loading hopper is operative with the chute positioned concentrically within the trough and with the discharge end 74 of the chute 71a extending through the opening 14 and into the processing chamber 30. When the longitudinal axis of the drum 10 is shifted to a downward incline towards the open end 14,
open end 14 of the drum are provided for the improved I as shown in FIG. 4, the chute 71a is automatically pivoted by the rods 82 and 83 and link members 80 and 81 out of the trough and away from the-lower end of the opening 14. In this position of the drum 10 the discharge hopper 72 is operative.
The loading or feed hopper and the discharge hopper facilitate loading and discharge of the sheet materials by automated means such as conveyors or monorails carrying a sling load. It should be noted that by this hopper arrangement a loading hopper is provided which extends into the processing chamber to funnel material thereto and which is removable from the processing chamber to prevent interference with the exiting material during discharge. Moreover; the discharge hopper can be provided with a cover plate 84, as seen in FIGS. 1, 2 and 4, which will not interfere with the loading of the ,materials, but which is capable of directing the exiting material in a more downwardly direction to further facilitate discharge to a conveyor or similar equipment.
This invention provides an improved apparatus for a batch processing of textiles or other porous and absorbent sheet materials. The apparatus of this invention incorporates the advantageous open inclined drum and provides for improved loading and unloading along with full utilization of the working elements within the drum. I
Having fully described my invention, it is to be understood that I do not wish to be limited to the details herein set forth, but my invention is of the full scope of the appended claims.
1. An apparatus for the processing of'porous and absorbent sheet material in batch, comprising a substantially cylindrical drum having an open end 7 and a closed end and mounted for rotational movement about a longitudinal axis extending between said ends;
a processing chamber within said drum adjacent said open end for receiving and processing the sheet material;
a drainage chamber within said drum adjacent said closed end;
separating means between said chambers for preventing the movement of the sheet material into said drainage chamber from said processing chamber, said separating means comprising a baffle member peripherially mounted on the inner surface of said drum substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of said drum and having means for communication of liquid therethrough, said bafi'le member being corrugated and including a plurality of perforations for liquid flow therethrough;
drainage means for removing substantially all of the v said drum mounted for pivotal movement in a vertical plane to change the incline of said longitudinal axis with respect to the horizontal whereby said longitudinal axis is inclined upwardly toward said open end during processing of the sheet material and may be tipped toward said open end during discharge of the sheet material.
4' i l I.