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Publication numberUS3804235 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 16, 1974
Filing dateAug 19, 1971
Priority dateJul 29, 1969
Publication numberUS 3804235 A, US 3804235A, US-A-3804235, US3804235 A, US3804235A
InventorsAnderson A
Original AssigneeAnderson A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wrapper sheet with openings and method of production
US 3804235 A
Abstract
A package comprising an article having a sheet of heat shrinkable material wrapped therearound and a method for producing same. The sheet of heat shrinkable material has at least one opening. A thickened ridge has been formed by uniformly heating the material along the periphery of each of the openings. The thickened ridge or ribbed edge defines a reinforcement which prevents tearing of the material used in the wrapping process due to handling or subsequent heat shrinking of the heat shrinkable material about the article. In a specific embodiment of this invention, the reinforced hole is formed in a web of heat shrinkable material by cutting a shaped punching in the web and completely removing the shaped punching from the web of material.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Anderson [451 Apr. 16, 1974 WRAPPER SHEET WITH OPENINGS AND METHOD OF PRODUCTION [76] Inventor: Andrew W. Anderson, 18 Sunset Rd., West Caldwell, NJ. 07006 22 Filed: Aug. 19, 1971 21 Appl. No.: 173,094

Related US. Application Data [63] Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 845,841, July 29,

1969, Pat. No. 3,654,829.

[52] US. Cl. 206/65 S, 53/26, 53/30, 206/45.33, 206/65 R, 229/DIG. 12 [51,] Int. Cl... B65d 65/20, B65d 71/00, B65d 85/62 [58] Field of Search 206/65 S, 65 R, 45.33, 206/45.3l, 48.5; 53/26, 30; 229/D1G. 12, 53, 52 B [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,092,439 6/1963 Harrison 229/D1G. 12 3,387,702 6/1968 Reynolds et al. 206/65 S 3,388,788 6/1968 Hellem 206/65 S 3,557,947 l/l971 Greenwell 206/65 S 2,129,701 9/1938 Malocsay 206/48.5 3,249,285 5/1966 Dollheimer et al. 229/53 3,353,326 11/1967 Becker 206/65 S 3,392,823 7/1968 Green et al..... 206/45.33 3,111,223 11/1963 Jacobi 206/65 R Primary Examiner--William T. Dixson, Jr. Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Markva & Smith [5 7] ABSTRACT A package comprising an article having a sheet of heat shrinkable material wrapped therearound and a method for producing same. The sheet of heat shrinkable material has at least one opening. A thickened ridge has been formed by uniformly heating the material along the periphery of each of the openings. The thickened ridge or ribbed edge defines a reinforcement which prevents tearing of the material used in the wrapping process due to handling or subsequent heat shrinking of the heat shrinkable material about the article. In a specific embodiment of this invention, the reinforced hole is formed in a web of heat shrinkable material by cutting a shaped punching in the web and completely removing the shaped punching from the web of material.

In another embodiment of the invention, the method provides a heated punch member having a cutting edge and a flexible base portion with an opening disposed therein. The web of material is fed between the flexible base portion and the heated punch member. The punch member is thrust against the flexible base portion to cut through the web thereby removing a punching to form a hole therein and to substantially simultaneously provide a uniform heating along the periphery of the hole. The heat shrinkable material may be selected from the group consisting of oriented polypropylene and non-oriented polypropylene.

12 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures PATENTED APR 16 I974 SHEET 1 [If 4 l L T INVENTOR ANDRE W A/wmso/v ATTORNEYS PATENTED APR 1 8 i974 SHEET 2 0F 4 INVIENTOR A NDAE W W ANDEPS 0N ATTORNEYS PATENTEDAPR 16 1914 saw an! 4 l W I a/lu ing WRAPPER SHEET WITH OPENINGS AND METHOD OF PRODUCTION RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 845,841 filed July 29, I969 U.S. Pat. No. 3,654,829 by the same inventor.

- BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the specific characteristics of a package and a method for forming same. In particular, it is important to form packages of an article or articles so that the overwrap portion thereof is transparent. It is a common occurrence for individual articles to be pilfered or taken out of boxes or overwrap that is opaque. Single packages may be taken out of a multiple pack without detection until they are opened by the retailer or otherwise obtained from the distributor.

In some instances, it is necessary to place revenue stamps on the articles being overwrapped. This is necessary in the packaging of cigarettes, alcoholic beverages and the like wherever there is a tax stamp necessary for the sale of the product.

It is known in the prior art to heat shrink thermoplastic material around an'article or plurality of articles as shown in US. Pat. Nos. 3,092,439 and 3,503,097. In addition, these patents show it to be known to form holes in such heat shrinkable material. The process of US. Pat. No. 3,092,439 requires the formation of a hole having a thinned out or feathered edge disposed therearound. Heat is subsequently applied in a localized area about the preformed aperture to cause the material to shrink back and form the aperture of a desired size. Since the hole forming operation is accomplished at two different times through the process of first punching and subsequently heating, there is difficulty in maintaining the appropriate size and shape relationships desired. It is noted that it is possible to take the film of the patentee, completely wrap an article, seal the package and then apply heat'to the wrapped package to shrink the film tightly around the package. The formation of a rib structure is simultaneously effected within the thinned out or feathered edge portion around the periphery of the aperture during the heat shrinking operation. It is obvious that there are many different types of forces which will be at work on such a prior art heat shrinkable material during the heat shrinking operation. Not only will there be forces associated with the heat shrinkable material as it shrinks around the package. but the ribbed edge will also be forming at the same time. In other words, there will be no uniform heating of the material around the periphery of the edge. Furthermore, additional forces will be at work on the material along the edge of each hole as the bulk of the sheet will be stretched during the total shrinking operation. The non-uniform effects acting on the material around the holes in the web of material will obviously result in an irregular package condition which is clearly undesirable in this type of packaging.

In the US. Pat. No. 3,503,097, the formation of an opening having a reinforced edge portion is accomplished on a material which has already been shrunk about a plurality of articles. In this particular instance, there is the disadvantage of having the contents of the package misaligned and being acted upon by the mechanism due to any misalignment. The disadvantages associated with the punching or cutting of a package after the sheet of material has been placed around the articles being wrapped is obvious.

The overwrapping of articles not only is functional from the standpoint of the multiple packaging concept but also to maintain the freshness of the product enclosed in the packages. In those instances where articles need to retain their freshness, such as tobacco, the use of present prior art wrapping procedures is unsatisfactory. Where the prior art webs are perforated before placement on the package, the holes are placed in a random orientation which is unsatisfactory for maintaining a uniform soundly compact package arrangement of multiple articles. The reinforced openings of the prior art are used to effect ventilation or a breathing within the package itself. This, of course, is completely unsatisfactory where it is desired to prevent air circulation for maintaining the freshness of the wrapped product such as tobacco.

PURPOSE OF THE INVENTION It is the primary object of this invention to produce a pilfer-proof package having rib reinforced holes herein which are uniformly formed in the heat shrinkable material before shrinking thereof.

Another object of the invention is to produce a package of articles wrapped in a web of material having reinforced holes located therein whereby the size and shape of the holes allow the printing upon the contents after having been overwrapped.

Another object of this invention is to provide a compact package ofa multiple of articles or containers having material requiring air tightness to preserve freshness while having openings located in the overwrap and to additionally provide printing therethrough onto said articles.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide a pilfer-proof package having holes therein which have ribbed reinforcements therearound that are tightly held against and contiguous to the packages to prevent air circulation to adversely affect the contents of the package.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a method for forming reinforced holes in a web of heat shrinkable material wherein the holes are formed in a regularly spaced configuration and located with respect to each other to accomplish a particular function.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION These objects and other objects are accomplished through the structure of the package described herein and the method used to form the package. The package of this invention comprises an article having a regular shape which is wrapped in a sheet of heat shrinkable material. The sheet of heat shrinkable material has an opening from which a punching has been completely removed and a thickened ridge has been uniformly formed along the entire periphery of the opening. The opening is registered with one side of the article.

In the method of forming such a reinforced hole, a shaped punching is cut in the web of heat shrinkable material and completely removed therefrom. The heat shrinkable material is uniformly heated along the periphery of the hole substantially simultaneously with the cutting step to form a thickened ridge therearound.

The reinforced ridges thus formed around the holes are located in the web of material before it has been heat shrunk about any single article or combination of a multiple of articles.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of an apparatus used to effect the method of this invention,

FIG. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in FIG.

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 33 of FIG. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows,

FIG. 4 is a plan view of the punched heat shrinkable sheet made in accordance with this invention,

FIG. 4A is a partial sectional view taken along line 4A4A of FIG. 4,

FIG. 5 is a perspective view ofa package having holes punched therethrough in accordance with this invention,

FIG. 5A is a perspective view ofa plurality of articles wrapped by a sheet having reinforced holes made in accordance with this invention.

FIG. 6 is a plan view taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 3, looking in the direction of the arrows.

FIG. 7 is a sectional elevational view taken along line 7-7 of FIG. 6, looking in the direction of the arrows,

FIG. 8 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 88 of FIG. 2, looking in the direction of the arrows, wherein one of the punch units is in punching position,

FIG. 9 is a similar view to FIG. 8 showing the punch unit in an elevated position,

FIG. 10 is a perspective view showing another use of the holes as finger holes for carrying a package, and

FIG. 11 is a perspective view showing a hole made in accordance with this invention used for carrying a package.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS More specifically, a method of this invention comprises the cutting of at least one shaped punching in a sheet of heat shrinkable material to form a hole therein. The heat shrinkable material is uniformly heated around the periphery of the holes substantially simultaneously with the cutting step to form a reinforced hole having a thickened ridge therearound. This method provides a sheet of heat shrinkable material which may be used in a novel manner to wrap articles in a closed, substantially air tight package.

In a more specific method of punching holes in a web of material, a heated punch is provided with a cutting edge and a flexible base portion is provided with an opening disposed therein. The web of material is fed between the flexible base portion and the heated punch member. The heated punch member is thrust against the flexible base portion to cut through the web thereby removing a punching piece to form a hole therein and substantially simultaneously provide a uniform heating along the periphery of the hole. In those instances where a heat shrinkable material is used in conjunction with this method, a reinforced rib is formed along the edge of the hole.

In the specific embodiment where a heat shrinkable material is employed, the perforated web W is used in sheets and wrapped around articles. The heat shrinkable material may be selected from the group consisting of oriented polypropylene and non-oriented polypropylene. It has been found that non-coated polypropylene works to an advantage in this particular invention. The specific articles which have been wrapped in accordance with the method of this invention are shown in FIGS. 5 and 5A. These packages including a perforated overwrap are deemed novel and constitute a surprising result with respect to maintaining the freshness of material inside the plurality of packages grouped together or in a separate wrapper. The article as shown wrapped in FIG. SA has a regular shape. A sheet of heat shrinkable material has been wrapped around the article. The sheet includes an opening from which a punching P has been completely removed and a thickened ridge has been formed along the entire periphery of the opening. The opening is registered with one side of the article. Once the heat shrinkable material has been heat shrunk, the reinforcing ridges are tightly held against the side of the article due to the shrinking of the wrapping material. The packages as shown in FIGS. 5 and 5A are representative of the heat shrinkable material before and after heat shrinking.

It has been found that even though the openings are formed in the web W, that the contents such as tobacco in the individual package or packages is maintained. This is due to the regular shape of the reinforced ridge which has been formed by uniform heating of the material around the periphery of the hole. The packaging of a plurality of individual articles such as shown in FIG. 5 requires a very precise placement of the holes in the web of material. All the reinforced openings are on a common side of the wrapped package. In this specific embodiment, the plurality of articles is disposed in a juxtaposed arrangement and a ridge reinforced opening is contiguous and registered with one side of each of the articles. Where the articles are packages of cigarettes, the openings provide a place for a tax stamp. The heat shrinking of the material provides a stable package which may be subjected to any normal shipping and handling procedures. In addition, the advantages of using a transparent material provide a pilferproof package.

The advantages of the package made in accordance with this invention are that the holes are regularly disposed in the web of material and are formed through the use of a uniform heating at the same time that a punching is completely removed therefrom. Another feature of this invention is that the perforating of the material is accomplished before the wrapping material is heat shrunk around the articles being wrapped. The advantages of this process have been discussed hereinabove. The method of this invention enables the formation of such packages as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11. The package of FIG. 10 comprises a plurality of at least six cylindrically shaped articles which are disposed in juxtaposed cylindrically shaped articles which are disposed in juxtaposed relationship. The sheet of heat shrinkable material made in accordance with this invention has been wrapped around a plurality of articles. As is evident from the drawings, the single layer of heat shrinkable material has two openings 53'which have formed from the heat shrinkable material.

An apparatus used to effect a method of the invention is shown in the drawings. The apparatus includes a punch member 34 which is slidable vertically on rods 35. Punch members 36 are mounted on plate 37 and are raised and lowered in a manner hereinafter described to punch holes through a web W which is fed between the punch members 36 and base support 38. The punch unit or frame 34 and the movements thereof are shown particularly in FIG. 1 and FIG. 3. The base support 38 and its movements are shown in FIGS. 1, 3, 6 and 7.

Referring to FIG. 3, the operating means for raising and lowering connections for the punch unit 34 include maindrive shaft 40 which is driven by a chain 41 and a sprocket 42. Sprocket 43 is mounted on shaft 40 and is laterally displaced with respect to sprocket 42. Chain 44 located on the sprocket 43 carries the sprocket 45 mounted on a shaft 46. A cam 47 is mounted on the shaft 46 and engages the cam follower 48 that is mounted on the plate 49. The plate 49 is connected to the punch unit 34 which is slidably mounted on rod 35- as discussed hereinabove. As the cam 47 turns, the punch unit is raised and lowered through the action of the cam follower 48 mounted on the plate 49. The plate 37 which carries the punch members 36 is fixedly attached in any desired manner to the punch unit 34. Therefore. as the punch unit 34 is raised and lowered,

,the punch members 36 are also raised and lowered.

The punching mechanism is shown in FIGS. 8 and 9. The punch members 36 include a hollow passage 50 extending through the punch post (not numbered) and the punch base 51. In this specific embodiment. the punch base 51 is cylindrical and therefore provides a cylindrical hole thrust through the web W of material. The punch member 36 also includes a V-shaped cutting edge 52 that cutsthe openings 53 in the web W which is disposed between the base support 38 and the punch configuration with respect to the cutting edge 52 to completely remove a punching P from the web W. A resilient sheet 54 of a material such as rubber is stretched over the top plate 38a located on the base support 38. Both the flexible sheet 54 and base support 38 have openings 55 and 56, respectively. located below the lower ends of the punch members 36. As

'shown in the drawings. the construction of the sheet 54 and base support 38 constitutes a flexible base portion that is contiguous to a rigid base portion. The openings 55 located in' the flexible sheet 54 are registered with the openings 56 located in the rigid base portion. As shown, the flexible base openings 55 are smaller than the rigid base openings 56 thereby forming a flexible overhanging portion 55a along the edge of the rigid base openings 56.

In this specific embodiment. a vacuum is pulled underneath the plate once the film has been placed across the base support 38. The overhanging portion 55a deforms downwardly when the vacuum is applied while member 36. That is. the punch base 51 has a closed the film is on top of the holes. In practice, the vacuum will pull the overhanging flexible portion a downwardly along one contour and the film of the web W will form another contour so that there is a space between the film and the overhanging portion 55a during and/or just before the punching is cut therefrom.

The punch members 36 are heated by a heating coil 57 that is surrounded by insulation 58 which may be any desired insulation material available to the skilled artisan. The heated punch is thrust downwardly and cuts through the web W. An advantage associated with the structure of the overhanging portion 55a is that it provides the necessary backing for cutting but at the same time helps to eliminate buildup of material which would possibly form if the holes in the rubber support were the same size as the plate support holes.

In this specific embodiment, the punch member 36 is heated to a contact temperature of about 400 F. The temperature used to cut the punchings P from the web W is a function, inter alia, of the stroke of the punch unit downwardly as it comes in contact with the web W. Temperature of from about 400 F to about 550 F have been used in the processing of polypropylene.

When a heated punch member 36 perforates the web W and punches a hole therein, a rib 59 as shown in FIG. 4A is formed at the periphery of the hole 53. That is, when the heated punch member 36 is thrust against the flexible base portion 55a, a punching P is removed. In addition, a substantially uniform heating is provided substantially simultaneously along the periphery of the hole defined by the missing punching P. The thickened ridge or rib 59 strengthens the material of the web W and prevents tearing at the holes 53 formed therein.

The heating means and the punch members 36 are integrally constructed in this specific embodiment.

As shown in FIGS. 1 and 6, the base support 38 includes pins 60 and springs 61 located at each corner thereof to hold the top plate 38a to the base support 38. The top plate 38a is tightly held to the base support 38 except when it is raised by cams 62 which are mounted on shafts 63. The chain and sprocket connections 64 drive the shafts 63 from the drive shaft 46.

The transverse feed for the web W is shown particularly in FIGS. 1 and 2. The web Wis led around an idler roller 65 and around a roller 66 mounted in a slide roller unit 67. From the roller 66, the web W passes over the top of the base support 38 and below the punch unit 34. The web W is subsequently led around a roller 68 which is mounted in the other end of the roller bar unit 67. The other ends of the roller 68 are mounted in a bar 69. A crank arm 70 is connected to the bar 69 and driven by a crank 71 mounted on the drive shaft 40. In

this manner. the sliding frame unit and rollers 66 and 68 are actuated to move the web W beneath the punch frame unit 34. The punch members 36 are operated from the position shown in FIG. 9 to the position shown in FIG. 8 to punch holes 53 in the web W.

The carriage frame motion by crank is neutralized by the motion of the web W around the rollers and provides a momentary dwell during which the punch members 36 operate to punch the holes 53.

The vacuum forming means discussed hereinabove is located below the base support 38 to remove punchings P from the apparatus. The vacuum forming means includes a vacuum chamber 75 mounted on the bottom of the base support 38. The punchings P are sucked into the vacuum chamber 75 through the holes 55 and 56 and are subsequently discharged from the apparatus. The vacuum formed within the chamber 75 is broken when the cams 62 raise the top plate 38a of the base support 38. It will be noted that in FIGS. 8 and 9, the punch members 36 are encircled by springs 3611 located at the upper ends of the punch members 36 above the plate 37. Springs 36a are held between nuts 36b and the top of the plate 37. Punch members 36 may expand due to the heat from the heating coils 57. Expansion is permitted by the action of the springs 36a located above the plate 37.

While the wrapper sheet with openings and method of production has been shown and described in detail, it is obvious that this invention is not to be considered as being limited to the exact form disclosed, and that changes in detail and construction may be made therein within the scope of the invention, without departing from the spirit thereof.

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:

l. A method of packaging comprising the sequential steps of:

a. cutting at least one shaped punching from a sheet of heat shrinkable material to form a hole therein.

b. completely removing the shaped punching from the sheet of material after it has been out therefrom,

c. uniformly heating the heat shrinkable material along the periphery of the hose substantially simultaneously with the cutting step to form a reinforced hole having a thickened edge therearound,

d. wrapping an article with the heat shrinkable material having at least one reinforced hole so that the thickened ridge of each hole is contiguous to said article. and then e. heating the wrapped article to shrink the material therearound.

2. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the heat shrinkable material is selected from the group consisting of oriented polypropylene and non-oriented polypropylene.

3. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the heat shrinkable material is non-coated polypropylene.

4. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein a plurality of articles is disposed in juxtaposted relationship and the heat shrinkable material has at least one reinforced hole for registered placement against each one of the articles,

said wrapping step includes placing the thickened ridge of each hole contiguously to and registered with each one of the articles.

5. A method of forming reinforced holes in a web of heat shrinkable material comprising:

a. cutting a shaped punching in the web of heat shrinkable material to form a hole therein,

b. completely removing the shaped punching from the web of material and c. uniformly heating the heat shrinkable material along the periphery of the hole substantially simultaneously with the cutting step to form a thickened ridge therearound.

6. A method of punching a hole in a web of material comprising the steps of:

a. providing a web of material,

b. providing a heated punch member having a cutting edge and a flexible base portion with an opening disposed therein,

c. feeding the web of material between the flexible base portion and the heated punch member, and d. thrusting the heated punch member against the flexible base portion to cut through the web thereby producing a separated punching to form a hole therein and substantially simultaneously providing a uniform heating along the periphery of the hole.

7. A method as defined in claim 6 wherein a vacuum is provided for removing the separated punching.

8. In a method of packaging with a heat shrinkable material, the steps of:

a. providing a web of heat shrinkable material,

b. providing a flexible base member with an opening disposed therein and a heated punch member having a cutting edge,

c. feeding the web of material between the base member and the heated punch member,

d. thrusting the heated punch member against the flexible base portion to cut through the web of material thereby removing a punching to form a hole therein and substantially simultaneously providing uniform heating along the periphery of the hole to form a thickened ridge therearound. I

e. wrapping the web of material having at least one reinforced opening therein around an article, and then f. heating the wrappedarticle to shrink the material therearound 9. In a method of packaging defined in claim 8 wherein a plurality of articles is disposed in a juxtaposed relationship,

a. said web of heat shrinkable material having a plurality of ridge reinforced openings is wrapped around the plurality of articles so that a reinforced opening is placed against each of the articles,

10. A package comprising:

a. a plurality of articles each having a regular shape including a flat side and being disposed in juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other,

b. a sheet of heat shrinkable material wrapped around a plurality of articles,

c. said sheet of heat shrinkable material having a plurality of openings from which punchings have been completely removed with athickened ridge being located around the entire periphery of each of the holes before the plurality of articles has been wrapped and the wrapping material heat shrunk,

d. each said ridge reinforced opening being contiguous to and registered with said flat side of each said article with all the openings being on a common side of the package,

e. said heat shrinkable material wrapped around the plurality of articles having been heat shrunk whereby the reinforcing ridge is tightly held against the side of each article.

11. A package is defined in claim 10 wherein each said shaped article is a rectangular polygon.

12. A package is defined in claim 10 wherein there is a corresponding number of openings for the number of articles disposed in the package.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4079566 *Sep 23, 1975Mar 21, 1978The Procter & Gamble CompanyMethod of forming unitized modular loads
US4289237 *Nov 20, 1979Sep 15, 1981Anthony CutraraFirewood package
US4815603 *Aug 16, 1988Mar 28, 1989Harris Charles CShrink wrap package with venting openings
US5002782 *Aug 25, 1989Mar 26, 1991W. R. Grace & Co.-Conn.Perforated cook-in shrink bag
US5048687 *Apr 23, 1990Sep 17, 1991Weyerhaeuser CompanyHeat-shrunk protective packaging for multiple units
US5086924 *Jul 25, 1990Feb 11, 1992W. R. Grace & Co. - Conn.Heat shrinkable meat products cooked
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US5992630 *May 21, 1997Nov 30, 1999Lever Brothers CompanyShrink wrap package
US6783005Dec 28, 2000Aug 31, 2004Unilever Home & Personal Care Usa, Division Of Conopco, Inc.Liner
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US7172065Sep 13, 2002Feb 6, 2007S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc.Shrink wrap with sample holes
US7775349Aug 7, 2006Aug 17, 2010Millercoors LlcShrink-wrap packaging incorporating reinforced integral handle
US8266868May 29, 2008Sep 18, 2012Phillip Morris Usa Inc.Opening device for outer wrapping and method for forming
US8561378Aug 15, 2012Oct 22, 2013Philip Morris Usa Inc.Opening device for outer wrapping and method for forming
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Classifications
U.S. Classification206/497, 206/161, 53/413, 53/441, 53/443
International ClassificationB26D7/10, B26F1/02, B26D7/08
Cooperative ClassificationB26F1/02, B26D7/10
European ClassificationB26D7/10, B26F1/02