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Publication numberUS3805523 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 23, 1974
Filing dateMay 12, 1972
Priority dateSep 14, 1971
Publication numberUS 3805523 A, US 3805523A, US-A-3805523, US3805523 A, US3805523A
InventorsTanasawa Y
Original AssigneeToyoto Chuo Kunkyusho Kk
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Vortex combustor type manifold reactor for exhaust gas purification
US 3805523 A
Abstract
A vortex combustor type manifold comprising a hollow cylindrical member divided into a main combustion chamber and a sub-combustion chamber by an annular throttle plate having a central connecting hole and disposed in the cylindrical member in coaxial relation therewith, an exhaust gas inlet connected with the exhaust of an engine for directing the exhaust gas tangentially into the sub-combustion chamber, an exhaust outlet tangentially associated with the main combustion chamber for discharging purified exhaust gas to the atmosphere, and an air supplying means for adding air from a compressed air source to the exhaust gas being treated in the reactor.
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United States Patent [111 3,805,523 Tanasawa Apr. 23, 1974 [5 VORTEX COMBUSTOR TYPE MANIFOLD 3,656,303 4/1972 La Force 60/298 f ggf igg EXHAUST GAS FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLIcATIoNs UR 554,916 2/1957 Belgium 23/277 C [75] Inventor: Yasusi Tanasawa, Nagoya, Japan 580,807 7/1933 Germany 1,004,785 9196 B O [73] Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoto Chuo l 5 Great mam 6 H03 g g g Nagoya-Sm Alchl-ken Primary ExaminerDouglas Hart p Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Oblon, Fisher, Spivak, Mc- [22] Filed: May 12, 1972 Clelland & Maier 21 Appl. No.2 252,925

[57] ABSTRACT 30 Foreign Application Priority Data vortfix 9 ypz mg gq comprising 3 4 9 4 ow cymdnca mem er e mm a mam com us- May 1 l 71 Japan 6 32746 tion chamber and a sub-combustion chamber by an 52 0.8. CI 60/298, 23/277 c, 60/306, thmttle Plate a central f P 60,307 and disposed m the cylindrical member In coaxial relation therewith, an exhaust gas inlet connected with the [51] Int. Cl. F0ln 3/10 h f f h h [58] Field Of Search 60/298, 282, 323, 303, 3"? engme or i e auslgas gentlally Into vthe subcombustion chamber, an exhaust 60/307, 23/277 C outlet tangentially associated with the main combus- [561 Cited 3112112 1 Z f l1 ifiifii 536; UNITED STATES PATENTS air from a compressed air source to the exhaust gas MaCKlnl'lon treated in the reactor 3,577,728 5/197] Von Brimer..... 3,456,603 7/1969 Studler 23/277 C 23 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures ll K 3 0 l 17 o O o 9 [3 b b I 7 PATENTEU APR 23 m4 SHEET 2 [IF 4 REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE 0F ENGINE (RPM) REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE OF ENGINE (RPM) PATENTED APR 23 I974 w w w w. 0 an; 520m mzGzm PATENTEDAPR 23 1974 SHEET k BF 4 RE VOLUTIONS PER MINUTE OF ENGINE RS mmkom mzGzm (RPM) 0 Im W m m w E T I U N w m m r N m m U L m m m m R c I H 0 w w w m 0 as $2: @255 (RPM) FIG. 11

BAQKGROUND OF THE INVENTION '1. Field Of The Invention The present invention relates generally to exhaust gas purifiersand more particularly to such purifiers :of the after burner type in which exhaust gasdischarged from internal combustion engines is reburned so that .the unburned hydrocarbons (HC?) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gas are substantially removed or eliminated.

2. Description Of The Prior Art The pollution of the airhas become a serious problem throughout the world, and especially, such air pollution caused by the unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gas being emitted from automobiles has become regarded as the most serious social problem in the great cities with the inted by internal combustion engines, such as exhaust gas purifiers generally known as manifold reactors Basically, there are two types of the conventional manifold reactor. In the one type of manifold reactor, secondary air is supplied to the after-flow side of the exhaust valve in the combustion chamber of the engine, and the exhaust gas is burned again in the exhaust manifold. In the other type, the reactor comprises an inner cylinder and an outercylinder provided at the downstream flow side of the exhaust valve-The inner cylinder, in this case, connecting with the exhaust valve is provided .with a diffusion plate and a bypass hole, and the other cylinder surrounding the inner cylinder connects with the exhaust pipe. Thus, the exhaust gas and the secondary air are conducted into the innercylinder, where they are mixed and diffused by means of the diffusion plate and the bypass hole, and are recirculated in the reactor, so that the exhaust gas is burned again and the volume of hydrocarbons andcarbon monoxide in the exhaust can thereby be decreased.

With the use of such conventional manifold reactors, however, the volume of the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide 'in-exhaust gas cannot be decreased .to the desired level, .and besides, there are manyweak points yet to be resolved in the conventional reactors. For example, the combustion temperature must be maintained at least as high as 850C so that carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons can be burned. Thus, ,it is necessary to Also, there is a large difference between the ability of the reactor to decrease harmful gas emission in the hot cycle and in the cold cycle of theengine. In the cold cycle, for example, the reduction of the warming up period of the reactor and the promotion of the combustion, or reaction, in the reactor cannot be ,sufficiently obtained. Finally, because of the provision of the manifold reactor, the temperature :in the engine room becomes extremely high, and thereby is a factor in causing various other troubles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to aide in the prevention of the pollution of the atmosphere by carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons being emitted into the atmosphere in substantial proportions from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, and principally such engines of the type powering automotive vehicles.

Another object of the present invention iss to provide an improved manifold reactor for exhaust gas purification.

The foregoing and other objects are achieved according to this invention through the provision of a vortex com'bustor type manifold reactor which comprises a main body of a cylindrical combustor composed of a main combustion chamber and a sub-combustion chamber separated by an annular type throttle part, an exhaust passage through which exhaust gas is conducted tangentially from the combustion chamber of the engine into the sub-combustion chamber, ,an air supplying :means by which air is added to the exhaust gas, and an exhaust means by which the purified exhaust gas in the main combustion chamber is discharged into the atmosphere.

A swirling flow is generated in the main body of the combustor by conducting tangentially compressed air from the air supplying means and the exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure from the engine into the sub-combustion chamber, wherein the exhaust gas and the air are burned, and the combustion flame enters into the region of the forced vortex so that a ro :tating columnar combustion can be stably carried out. The rotating columnar flame is jetted into the main combustion chamber through the throttle part, and im- .mediately thereafter, is made to widen into the region of the natural vortex in the main combustion chamber by the centrifugal force effect of the vortex flow. Thus, it is converted automatically and rapidly to circumferential vortex combustion, and a high intensity combustion can .be carried out by diffusing and mixing the exhaust gas and air effectively, so that hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which are included in the exhaust gas in the wide driving intensity range of the engine, can be almost entirely removed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Various other objects, features and attendant advantages of the present invention will be more fully apprec'iated as the same becomes better understood from the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate like .or corresponding parts throughout the several figures, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a vortex combustor type manifold reactor constructed according .to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a partially cut-away side view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a second embodiment of a vortex combustor type manifold reactor constructed according to the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a third embodiment of the vortex combustor type manifold reactor consttructed according to the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a fourth embodiment of a vortex combustor type manifold reactor constructed according to the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of a fifth embodiment of a vortex combustor type manifold areactor constructed according to the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of a sixth embodiment of a vortex combustor type manifold reactor constructed according to the present invention;

FIGS. 8 and 9 respectively, show the distribution of the volume of the unburned carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas of a conventional engine; and

FIGS. 10 and 11, respectively, are graphs showing the distribution of the volume of unburned carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas of an engine provided with a vortex combustor type manifold reactor of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2 thereof, wherein the apparatus of the present invention is used for purifying the exhaust gas of a single cylinder engine, the high temperature and high pressure exhaust gas is conducted into the main body of the combustor from the exhaust hole of the exhaust pipe of the engine, and it is ignited as the air is conducted into the main body of the combustor via another passage, to form a swirling combustion in the main body of the combustor.

The main body of the combustor is generally designated by the reference character A and is shown having cover members 2, 2 being fixed to both ends of a cylinder 1, as by welding or the like, to close both ends thereof. An annular plate 3 is disposed in the cylinder 1 with the central opening 4 thereof being coaxial with the axis of the cylinder 1, and the other peripheral part of the plate 3 is fixed to the inner peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 by welding or the like to form an annular throttle plate. The main body of the combustor A is thus divided into a main combustion chamber 5 and a sub-combustion chamber 6. by the annular throttle plate 3, with the volume of the sub-combustion chamber 6 being made smaller than that of the main combustion chamber 5. An exhaust opening 7 pentrates the peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber 5 of the main body A near the cover member 2, being made to open toward the main combustion chamber 5 along a tangential direction of the peripheral wall of the cylinder 1. Also, an exhaust gas inlet hole 8 and an air inlet hole 9 penetrate the peripheral wall of the subcombustion chamber 6 along tangential directions of the peripheral wall of the cylinder 1. In this embodiment, the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 is made to open toward the sub-combustion chamber 6 near the central part of the peripheral side wall thereof, or intermediate. the axial ends thereof, and the air inlet hole 9 is made to open toward the sub-combustion chamber 6 adjacent the axial end cover member 2'.

The exhaust gas inlet hole 8 is connected with the end part of a first exhaust pipe 13 which conducts thhe exhaust gas of the engine 10 through the exhaust hole 12 of the cylinder 1 l. The air inlet hole 9 connects with one end of an air inlet pipe 15, the other end thereof being connected with a compressed air supply source 14 of the air compressor, which is rotated simultaneously with the engine. A control valve 18 is disposed in the air inlet pipe 15 for controlling the volume of the compressed air being supplied to the sub-combustion chamber 6. The exhaust gas outlet hole 7 is connected with one end of a second exhaust pipe 16, the other end of which connects with the atmosphere through a silencer, not shown, so that the purified exhaust gas in the main combustion chamber 5 may be conducted outward therethrough. The main body A, of the combustor is fixed to the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder block of the engine 10 by supporting member 17, 17' one end of the supporting members being fixed to the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 and the other ends thereof being fixed to the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder block. In the apparatus of the first embodiment, shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, when the engine 10 is driven, the exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure which is exhausted from the exhaust hole 12 of the cylinder 11, containing harmful unburned components, such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, is conducted from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 into the sub-combustion chamber 6 of the main body A, of the combustor through the first exhaust pipe 13. The exhaust gas thus flows tangentially into the subcombustion chamber 6 from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 and forms a swirling flow, or vortex, in the subcombustion chamber 6, tracing a spiraling path, the central axis of which is coaxial with the axis of the cylinder 1.

As previously mentioned, since the sub-combustion chamber 6 is separated from the main combustion chamber 5 in the cylinder 1 by the throttle plate 3 having a connecting hole 4 coaxial with the axis of the cylinder l, the swirling or vortex flow formed in the subcombustion chamber 6 forms a forced vortex a extending in the axial direction near the axial center of the cylinder 1, and a natural vortex b is formed in the axial direction extending radially from the peripheral edge of the forced vortex a to the inner peripheral wall part of the cylinder 1. The outer diameter of the forced vortex a, as shown in FIG. 1, is slightly smaller than the diameter of the connecting hole 4.

Next, the swirling or vortex flow formed in the subcombustion chamber 6 is caused by its kinetic energy to flow spirally along an axial line into the main combustion chamber 5 through the connecting hole 4, and in the main combustion chamber 5, a forced vortex a is formed extending in the axial direction continuously from the forced vortex a in the sub-combustion chamber 6. The central axis of the forced vortex a is correspondent with the axial center of the cylinder 1 and its outer diameter is somewhat larger" than that of the forced vortex a. Also, a natural vortex b is formed in the main combustion chamber 5 extending over the entire axial length thereof and extending radially from the peripheral edge of the forced vortex a to the inner peripheral wall of the cylinder 1.

Since the exhaust gas outlet hole 7 opens from the main combustion chamber 5 along a tangential line from the peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber, the swirling or vortex flow in the main combustion chamber 5 is discharged smoothly to the outer atmosphere from the main body A, of the combustor through the exhaust gas outlet hole 7 and the second exhaust pipe 16.

In the case of the apparatus of the first embodiment, the air inlet hole 9 connected with the compressedair source 14 is disposed in axial symmetrical relation with the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 and is made to open tangentially toward the sub-combustion chamber 6, so that the compressed air flows tangentially and continuously into the sub-combustion chamber 6 from the air inlet hole 9 to promote the forming of the swirling flow by the exhaust gas. Thus, swirling flow in the main body A, of the combustor is formed in the process by the exhaust gas from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 and air from the air inlet hole 9 turning in the same direction to become one body.

The important effect of the apparatus of the first embodiment is that the unburned component in the exhaust gas can be substantially entirely burned, and exhaust gas without harmful components, such as carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons, can be discharged to the atmosphere. This effect is carried out as follows. j

Namely, in the case of the apparatus of this embodiment, when the engine 10 is driven, exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure is tangentially passed into the sub-combustion chamber 6 of the main body A, of the combustor from the exhaust hole 12 of the cylinder through the first exhaust pipe 13 and the exhaust gas inlet hole 8. Then, the exhaust gas contacts the high pressure air which is tangentially and continuously flowing into the sub-combustion chamber 6 from the compressed air-supplying source 14 through the air inlet pipe 15 and the air inlet hole 9. At this time, a chemical reaction occurs between oxygen in the air and the unburned components in the exhaustgas causing them to be ignited. The combustion flame rapidly enters into the region of the forced vortex a, in which the tangential velocity-along theradiu's thereof varies linearly in proportion to the variation of the radius, and pressure along the radius is higher at the part nearer to the outer peripheryfand lower at the part nearer to the center because of the effect of centrifugal force. Accordingly, there is no relative movement between the unburned components in the exhaust gas and the oxygen in the air, and the gas and air are not stirred or mixed, but go on burning stably as a rotating columnar flame.

After that, the rotating columnar flame in the subcombustion chamber 6 is jetted into the natural vortex zone b in the main combustion chamber 5 through the connecting hole 4 of the throttle plate 3, whereupon the natural vortex b widens because of the kinetic energy of the swirling flow.

In the natural vortex b, the tangential velocity along 7 the radius increases inversely as the radius decreases according to the law of the natural vortex: ur=constant, where u is the tangential velocity and r is the radius of the vortex.

Also, the pressure along the radius becomes higher as the radius becomes larger, and lower as the radius becomes smaller.

Then, between the unburned components in the exhaust gas and air, there occurs a slipping phenomenon caused by the difference of the rotating angular velocity between adjacent places along the radius of the natural vortex b, and because of the disorder due to this slipping phenomenon, the perfect mixing of the unburned components in the exhaust gas and oxygen in the air is promoted. The combustion of the rotating columnar flame jetted into thee natural vortex b is also promoted, and it is automatically and rapidly converted to a peripheral swirling combustion in the natural vortex zone b rotating along the peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber 5.

High efficiency and high intensity combustion at the highest temperature can thus be carried out and unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the ex haust gas of an engine can be almost entirely eliminated. Finally, the purified exhaust gas flows into the second exhaust pipe 16 through the exhaust gas outlet hole 7 opening tangentially into the main combustion chamber 5 to be discharged to the atmosphere.

Now, in the apparatus of the first embodiment, stable rotating columnar combustion is carried out at a high temperature in the forced vortex a in the subcombustion chamber 6, and in the forced vortex a in the main combustion chamber 5, and swirling combustion of high efficiency and high intensity is continuously and stably carried out at the highest temperature in the natural vortex b along the peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber 5. Therefore, a good purifying effect of the exhaust gas can be obtained over the entire driving range of the engine.

Moreover, the apparatus of this embodiment has other strong points, such as set forth below:

I. Since in the swirling flow formed in the subcombustion chamber 6 and in the main combustion chamber 5, the exhaust gas turns round and round, the residence time of the exhaust gas in the combustion chamber is made long. Therefore, the combustion time is long and the combustion temperature is kept high compared with the conventional manifold reactor, and thus, the combustion efficiency can be improved. As described above, the reaction temperature, or combustion temperature, which is one of the important factors determing the ability of conventional manifold reactors, can be made higher to increase thee reaction velocity or combustion velocity. Also, the reaction time, or combustion time, which is another factor, can be made sufficiently longer, and therefore combustion of very high efficiency can be carried out, and unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas can be almost entirely eliminated.

2. In the regions a, a of the respective forced vortices of the sub-combustion chamber 6 and the main combustion chamber 5, the gas is recycled by the occurrence of negative pressure and is caused to be burned again so that the combustion at high temperature can be carried out, so that almost all the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide may be completely burned.

3.- As combustion is carried out in the forced vortex a near the central axis of the sub-combustion chamber 6, the combustion flame does not directly contact the inner peripheral wall of the sub-combustion chamber 6. Thus, it is not necessary to select special heat resistant material as the wall material, and since the combustion flame is turned round in the main combustion chamber by the swirling flow, the inside of the main combustion chamber 5 is not caused to be overheated and the combustion temperature accordingly becomes uniform and high.

4. In the sub-combustion chamber 6, combustion is carried out in the region of the forced vortex a, and the peripheral part of the forced vortex a is surrounded by the natural vortex b, so that very still and stable combustion without an explosive noise can be carried out, such as through the forced vortex a were surrounded by a solid wall.

5. The construction of the apparatus of this embodiment is very simple. As the combustion flame turns round in the combustion chamber, the inside of the combustion chamber is employed to the maximum for combustion, and the reaction time is made long. Combustion is thus carried out at a high temperature, as described before, and the reaction velocity is improved. Therefore, according to the present invention, a good purifying effect of the exhaust gas can be obtained in spite of the combustor of simple and compact construction, when compared with conventional apparatus.

6. In the case of the vortex combustor type manifold reactor of the first embodiment, air is supplied continuously, tangentially and directly into the sub-combustion chamber, so that the formation of the swirling flow in the sub-combustion chamber 6 and in the main combustion chamber 5 is promoted, and at the same time, stable and effective combustion is carried out in the respective regions described above. Therefore, especially in the hot cycle of the engine, the volume of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas can be decreased effectively.

The important features of the apparatus of the first embodiment, described in the preceding paragraphs (1) though (5), are also common to the various other embodiments of this invention which will be described hereinafter.

In the second embodiment, shown in FIG. 3 the apparatus of the present invention is applied to a four cylinder engine.

In this embodiment, a converged open end 135 of the exhaust pipe 130 ofa conventional four cylinder engine is connected fixedly at a flange part thereof with the open end of the exhaust gasi'nlet hole 8 of the main body A, of the combustor, as shown in the first embodiment, and thus the apparatus can be easily constructed. In this case, one end of the exhaust pipe 130 is formed into multi-branch pipes connecting with four exhaust holes 121, 122, 123 and 124 of respective cylinders 111, 112, 113 and 114, and the other end is converged to a single open hole at exhaust pipe 135. The exhaust gas, respectively supplied through each of the exhaust holes 121, 122, 123 and 124 of the four cylinder engine, finally converges to the open end 135 through the exhaust pipe 130, where, the exhaust gas is mixed by a collision and diffusion phenomenon, and is continuously and tangentially conducted into the subcombustion chamber 6 at a high speed, so that a strong and stable swirling flow can be formed in the main body A, of the combustor. The mixing operation with the compressed air is thus promoted, and stable combustion of high efficiency can be obtained. Besides these, the same advantageous effects as those of the first embodiment can be obtained.

A third embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 4. In this embodiment, the apparatus of the present invention is applied to purify the exhaust gas of a single cylinder engine the same as in the case of the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1, but in this case the exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure is exhausted from the exhaust hole of the engine cylinder and is mixed with air flowing from the exhaust hole of the engine before it is conducted into the main body A of the combustor, and then is ignited whereupon the ignited exhaust gas is burned in the main body A of the combustor in its spiralling condition.

The apparatus of the third embodiment is similar to that of the first embodiment in many parts of its construction. Only the main distinguishing features between the apparatus of the third embodiment and that of the first embodiment will therefore be explained.

In this embodiment, only one inlet hole, being exhaust gas inlet hole 8 is made to open into the subcombustion chamber 6 along the tangential direction of the peripheral wall of the cylinder 1. The one side of the air inlet pipe 15 is connected with the first exhaust pipe 13 on the way thereto, so that air is mixed with the exhaust gas on the back flow side of the exhaust hole 12 on its way to the sub-combustion chamber 6. Other parts of the apparatus of this embodiment are the same as those of the apparatus of the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1. When the engine of this embodiment is driven, the compressed air being supplied from the compressed air source 14 through the pressure valve 18 and the air inlet pipe 15 is jetted out of the open end of the air inlet pipe 15 into the first exhaust pipe 13, and the compressed air is there mixed with the exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure being exhausted from the exhaust hole 12 of the cylinder 11, and at the same time, the mixture of the compressed air and exhaust gas is ignited to cause combustion reaction between the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas, and oxygen in the compressed air.

The combustion flame is tangentially conducted into the subcombustion chamber 6 through the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 together with the exhaust gas which is effectively mixed with the compressed air.

Consequently the swirling flow is formed in the main body A of the combustor, and at the same time, the combustion is transferred to the stable combustion near the boundary between the forced vortex and the natural vortex in the sub-combustion chamber. Then the combustion flame spreads into the natural vortex region of the main combustion chamber 5, through the throttle plate 3 by the kinetic energy for the swirling flow, so that the combustion is converted to the peripheral swirling combustion of high efficiency and of high intensity. Thus, the same effects as in the case of the first embodiment can be obtained. Besides, in the case of this third embodiment, the compressed air is jetted into the exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure with little lowering of the temperature on the back flow side in the exhaust pipe 13 near the exhaust hole 12, so the gas is easily ignited, and stable combustion in the main body A of the combustor can be carried out. With this embodiment, especially in the case of the cold cycle of the engine, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide can be readily excluded from the exhaust gas.

Besides, in the case of the apparatus of the third embodiment, as the exhaust gas mixed with air is conducted into the sub-combustion chamber 6 intermittently during each exhausting processoftheengine, the pressure energy of the swirling flow in the main body A of the combustor varies. So, the rotating velocity of the swirling flow varies as the pressure energy varies, but the size of the swirling flow in the main body A of the combustor does not vary. Thus, a stable combustion can be maintained. Thus, even in engines, such as, for example, a reciprocating engine and a rotary engine, having cycles of plural processes, where the exhaust gas is intermittently supplied into the main body of the combustor, by employing the apparatus of the third embodiment of the present invention, very stable combustion can be carried out without blowing out the flame.

Next, with reference being made to FIG. '5, a fourth embodiment of the present invention, which combines the apparatus of the firstembodiment and that of the third embodiment in one body for application to a four cylinder engine, is explained.

The main difference with respect to the construction between the apparatus of the fourth embodiment and those of both the first and the thirdembodiment is as follows.

The sub-combustion chamber 6' is made long in its longitudinal direction and also its volume is made larger than that of the main combustion chamber '5 so that exhaust gas, from respective exhaust holes 121, 122, 123 and 124 of respective exhaust pipes 111, 112, 113 and 114 of the four cylinder engine, is conducted into the sub-combustion chamber 6 of the main body A of the combustor through the respectively correspondent first exhaust pipes 131, 132, 133 and 134. Four exhaust gas inlet holes 81, 82, 83 and 84 penetrate the peripheral wall of the cylindergl' to open tangentially into the sub-combustion chamber 6 being disposed at nearly equal axial intervals, and respectively connected with the first exhaust pipes. Also, in the apparatus of the fourth embodiment, an air inlet hole 9, which is made to open tangentially into the subcombustionchamber 6', is provided near the throttle plate '3. This apparatus was designed especially in view of the driving condition of the engine at high intensity, and it is not otherwise fundamentally different from the apparatus of' the first embodiment.

Moreover, on the flow side of the respective exhaust holes 121, 122, 123 and 124 leading to the subcombustion chamber 6, ends 151, 152,153 and 154 of the air inlet pipe 15, connect respectively with the connecting holes 141, 142, 143 and 144 of the cylinder head parts. The compressed air is supplied from the compressed air source into the exhaust gas through pipe 15.

In the apparatus of the fourth embodiment shown in FIG. 5, the main body A of the combustor is formed of two coaxially arranged cylinders 1, 1' each having different diameters, so that the volume of the subcombustion chamber 6' can be minimized in relation to the main combustion chamber 5, and the work efficiency in the engine room can be improved.

The apparatus of the fourth embodiment has such a construction as described above and shown in FIG. 5, so that it is more effective than the apparatus of the first embodiment and that of the third embodiment in excluding unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide from the exhaust gas. If, in the four cylinder four cycle engine, as shown in FIG. 5, during two rotations of the crank, the exhaust process is repeated in the 10 order as follows; the first cylinder 111, and the thrid cylinder 113, the fourth cylinder 114 and the second cylinder 1 12, at each exhaust process, exhaustgas is exhausted from the respective exhaust holes "121, 123, 124 and 122 of each cylinder, and compressed air is jetted from the respective branch ends 151, 153, 154 and 152 of the air inlet pipe 15 which are made to open into the respective connecing'holes 141, 143, 144 and 142 of the cylinderhead parts. Then the exhaust gas and air are ignited and mixed together, to cause the unburned components in the exhaust gas to react with oxygen in the air. By supplying the compressed air continuously and tangentially into the sub-combustion chamber 6' from the air inlet -hole 9, the swirling flow consisting of the forced vortex near the central axis and the natural vortex around the forced vortex, is initially formed, and

'then the combustion flame is conducted tangentially from the exhaust holes 81, 83, 84 and 82, together with the mixture of air and exhaust gas, into the subcombustion chamber 6 to form a stronger. swirling flow than the swirling air flow occuring beforehand. At the same time, the combustion flame is converted to a stable rotating columnar combustion in the forced vortex,

continuously supplied from the air inlet hole 9 provided near the throttle plate 3 of the sub-combustion chamber 6T,the molecular mixing of the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas and oxygen in the air is more effectively carried out, and also the combustion is carried out more speedily in the natural vortex of the main combustion chamber 5, compared with the first and thrid embodiments. Therefore, the peripheral swirling combustion of a higher efficiency and higher intensity can be realized to obtain improved purifying of the exhaust gas.

Thus, the apparatus of the fourth embodiment has the same strong points as the apparatus of the first embodiment and that of the third embodiment, namely that a good purifying effect on the exhaust gas can be obtained over the whole driving condition ranging from the cold cycle to the hot cycle of the engine.

Next, the apparatus of the fifth embodiment of the present invention will be explained with reference being made to FIG.'6.

In the case of the apparatus for the fifth embodiment, the sub-combustion chamber of the main body of the combustor is divided into a first sub-combustion chamber and a second sub-combustion chamber in order to improve the combustion efficiency of the apparatus of the first embodiment. Air in this embodiment is tangentially supplied from a compressed air source to the second sub-combustion chamber.

Thus, a first throttle plate 31 is provided in the cylinder 1 to divide the main combustion chamber 5 and the sub-combustion chamber 6, and a second throttle plate 32 is further provided in the sub-combustion chamber 6 to divide the sub-combustion chamber into first and second sub-combustion chambers 61 and 62. A connecting hole 42 of the second throttle plate 32 has a diameter smaller than that of the connecting hole 41 of the first throttle plate 31 and coaxial therewith. The air inlet hole 9, opens into the first sub-combustion chamber 61 along the tangential direction of the peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 near a cover member 2 therefor.

An air inlet pipe 161 is connected with inlet hole 9 by means of the flange part. Another air inlet hole 19 is provided to open toward the second sub-combustion chamber 62 along the tangential direction of the peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 at nearly the central part axially thereof, and connects with the compressed air source, not shown, through an air inlet pipe, not shown.

The other parts of the apparatus of the fifth embodiment are the same as those of the apparatus of the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1. In the apparatus of the fifth embodiment, the cylinder 1 of the main body A, of the combustor is surrounded by a case made of adiabatic material 20, and an annular air passage 21 for colling the cylindrical wall is formed between the inner side of the case made of adiabatic material 20 and the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder 1.

An air inlet hole 22 and an air outlet hole 23 for achieving this cooling operation are made to open tangentially into the cooling air passage 21, penetrating the wall part of the case made of adiabatic material 20 at both axial ends of the main body A, of the combustor. The air inlet hole 22 connects with a compressed air source, not shown, and the air outlet hole 23 connects with the air inlet hole 9 of the first subcombustion chamber 61 through the air inlet pipe 161. Thus, the air heated by the main body A, of the combustor during its cooling operation in the cooling air passage 21 is tangentially conducted into the first subcombustion chamber 61 through air inlet pipe 161 and inlet hole 9.

The exhaust gas being exhausted from the exhaust hole 12 is conducted tangentially into the first subcombustion chamber 61 through a first exhaust pipe 13 and an exhaust gas inlet hole 8. Compressed air of high temperature is supplied continuously and tangentially into the first sub-combustion chamber 61, and a swirling flow is formed therein. A reaction between the unburned components in the exhaust gas and oxygen in the air occurs causing ignition and the production of the combustion flame, and this combustion flame rapidly goes into the forced vortex of the first subcombustion chamber, and grows to the rotating columnar flame. A strong swirling flow is previously formed in the second sub-combustion chamber 62 by supplying a large amount of compressed air tangentially from the air inlet hole 19 to the second sub-combustion chamber 62, so the rotating columnar flame formed in the first sub-combustion chamber 61 does not reach the region of the natural vortex, even if the flame goes into the second sub-combustion chamber 62 through the second throttle plate 32, but only grows to the stable rotating columnar flame in the forced vortex in the second sub combustion chamber. When the flame goes into the main combustion chamber through the first throttle plate 31, it is made to widen into the natural vortex by the centrifugal force effect, and is converted to a peripheral swirling combustion of high efficiency and of high intensity.

Accordingly, in the apparatus of the fifth embodiment, a large amount of compressed air is supplied to the second sub-combustion chamber 62, so that the unburned components in the exhaust gas and the oxygen in the air are mixed together, and molecular mixing is further promoted by means of the slipping phenomenon caused by the different rotating angular velocities in the natural vortex of the main combustion chamber 5, so that peripheral swirling combustion of high efficiency and of high intensity can thus be carried out in the entire main combustion chamber 5, whereby the unburned components in the exhaust gas are substantially completely burned.

Moreover, the cylinder 1 of the main body A, of the combustor is surrounded by the case 20 made of adiabatic material, and cool air is supplied from the air inlet hole 22 into the air passage 21 formed between the circular periphery of the case 20 and the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder 1, so that heat radiation from the main body A, of the combustor is cooled by the air in passage 21 and shut out by means of the case 20 made of the adiabatic material. Thus various troubles usually caused by the rise of temperature in the engine room can be excluded, and as the air heated during its cooling operation in the air passage 21 is supplied to the first sub-combustion chamber 61 through the air inlet pipe 161, the temperature within the first subcombustion chamber 61 is not decreased, such as usually occurs through providing a normal temperature air into the high temperature exhaust gas. Ignition can therefore be easily carried out and reaction or combustion can be effectively promoted, whereby a stable combustion of high efficiency can be realized and the purifying effect of the exhaust gas can be markedly improved.

Next, the apparatus of a sixth embodiment of the present invention illustrated in FIG. 7 will be explained. Air from a compressed air source in this case is tangentially supplied in order that the peripheral vortex combustion flame is initiated in the main combustion chamber at a suitable distance from the inner peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber, and moreover, an exhaust gas cooling device is provided near the exhaust gas outlet hole of the main combustion chamber in order to lower the temperature of the purified exhaust gas.

A is the main body of the combustor, and the cover members 2, 2' are fixed to the ends of the cylinder 1 by welding or the like to close both ends thereof. Two annular plates 31 and 32 are disposed in parallel axially spaced relation in the cylinder 1 so that their central holes 41 and 42, respectively, are made to be nearly coaxial with the axial center of the cylinder 1, and the outer peripheral edge thereof are fixed to the inner peripheral wall of the cylinder 1, by means of welding or the like, such that a first throttle plate 31 and a second throttle plate 32 are formed. Thus the main body A of the combustor is divided into a main combustion chamber 5 and two sub-combustion chamgers 61 and 62, each of which has a volume smaller than that of the main combustion chamber.

The diameter of the connecting hole 42 connecting the first sub-combustion chamber 61 with the second sub-combustion chamber 62 is formed to be smaller than that of the connecting hole 41 connecting the second sub-combustion chamber 62 with the main combustion chamber 5. The exhaust gas outlet hole 7 penetrates the peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 of the main body A, to open tangentially into the main combustion chamber 5 near the end cover member 2, and the air inlet hole 39 penetrates the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 to open tangentially into the main combustion chamber 5 near the first throttle plate 31 having connecting hole 41 therein. The exhaust gas inlet hole 8 penetrates the outer peripheral wall of the cylinder 1 to open into the first sub-combustion chamber 61 near the opposite end cover member 2 and the first air inlet hole 29 penetrates the peripheral wall part of the first open tangentially into the second sub-combustion chamber 62 at the same angle as the first air inlet hole 29 at a position near the second throttle plate 32. Thus, air from the first air inlet hole 29 and air from the air inlet hole 19 are given swirling movement in the same direction.

Besides, connecting pipes 13, 13a, 13b, 13c and 13d are respectively fixed by means of welding or the like to flange parts of the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 the first air inlet hole 29, the second air inlet hole 19, the third air inlet hole 39 and the exhaust hole 7 formed at the outer peripheral wall of the main body A of the combustor. The flange part formed at the converging open end 135 of a common exhaust pipe 130 is fixed to the flange part of the connecting pipe 13 at the exhaust gas inlet hole 8. The other end of the exhaust pipe 130 branches into a plurality of pipes, and the open ends of the branch pipes are respectively fixed to the cylinder head by the setting flanges for being respectively connected to the exhaust holes 121, 122, 123 and 124 of the four combustion chambers of a four cylinder engine. The first air inlet hole 29, the second air inlet hole 19 and a third air inlet hole 39 are respectively made to open into the first sub-combustion chamber 61, the second sub-combustion chamber 62 and the main combustion chamber 5, being connected respectively with connecting pipes 13a, 13b and 13c. The air inlet pipes 15b, 15c and 15d have throttle valves 18b, 18c and 18d, respectively, which connect with the connecting pipes 13a, 13b and 130, respectively,-through mutual bolted flange parts provided onthe ends thereof, and besides the other ends of the'air inlet pipes 15b, 15 c and 15d respectively converge to form one pipe 15 which connectswith the compressed air source 14 driven by the engine.

Air supplying holes 91, 92, 93 and 94 which penetrate the cylinder head have one end open at the back flow side of and positioned close by the exhaust holes 121, 122, 123 and 124, and their other ends open into the side wall of the cylinder head. The air supplying holes 91, 92, 93 and 94 connect, in air tight condition, with the open part at the side wall of the cylinder head by means of spiral fixing, and thus they connect with the compressed air source 14 by means of air inlet pipe 15a through a throttle valve 180.

Also, the openend of the connecting pipe 13d, which connects with the exhaust hole 7 opening into the main combustion chamber 5 of the main body A of the combustor, is inserted into an exhaust gas cooling device 70 having an air inlet hole in order to lower the temperature of the exhaust gas being conducted from the main combustion chamber 5.

The connecting pipe 13d and the cooling device 70 are fixed to each other at respective flange parts by means of bolts, and the discharging hole of the exhaust gas cooling device connects with the exhaust pipe and a silencer or muffler, not shown.

The one end of the supporting member 17 is made to be a wide fixing part 171 having the same curvature as that-of the outer peripheral wall of the main body A, of the combustor, and the other end thereof is made to be an attaching part 172. The outer peripheral wall of the main body A of the combustor is fixed to the fixing part 171 of the supporting member 17 by means of spot welding, at a position near the cover member, and attaching part 172 is fixed to the cylinder block by means of bolts, and thus the main body A, of the combustor is fixed to the engine to become a unitary body.

It is apparent from the above description that the apparatus of the sixth embodiment includes all of the important components of the previous embodiments described herein. Therefore, this remarkable effect can be obtained by the combustion of the respective components thereof. In the operation of the apparatus of this embodiment, when the engine is driven, during each cycle of exhaust process of the four cylinders the exhaust gas is exhausted from the respective exhaust holes 121, 123 and 124 and 122, and compressed air is jetted from the air supplying holes 91, 93, 94 and 92, into the exhaust gas to ignite the gas and mix therewith. The compressed air is supplied from the compressed air source 14 through the air inlet pipe 15a, the throttle valve 18a and the respective connecting pipes. Thus, the combustion or reaction between the exhaust gas and the air supply can be carried out in the first exhaust pipe. The combustion flame from the multiple branch pipes, the exhaust gas and air mutually collide at the converged part so that the combustion is further promoted asis the mixing operation between the exhaust gas and the air, and the mixture is tangentially introduced into the first sub-combustion chamber 61 from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 through the connecting pipe 13.

Compressed air is continuously and tangentially supplied beforehand into the first sub-combustion chamber 61 from the compressed air source 14 through the air inlet pipe 15, the air inlet pipe 15b, the throttle valve 18b, the connecting pipe 13a and the first air inlet hole 29, and it is given swirling movement to form the swirling flow, consisting of the forced vortex formed near the central axis of the first sub-combustion chamber 61 and the natural vortex formed between the surrounding surface of the forced vortex and the inner peripheral wall of the first sub-combustion chamber 61.

The combustion flame is rapidly conducted into the forced vortex from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8, and then grows to be a stable rotating columnar flame, and also, exhaust gas mixed effectively with air which is conducted continuously and tangentially from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 is given swirling movement to form a strong and stable vortex flow which is combined with the swirling formed beforehand by the air supplied from the air inlet hole 29.

In the second sub-combustion chamber 62, a large amount of air is continuously and tangentially supplied beforehand into the second sub-combustion chamber 62 from the compressed air source 14 through the air inlet pipe 15, the air inlet pipe 15c, the throttle valve 18c, the connecting pipe 13b and the second air inlet hole 19. The rotating columnar flame in the said first sub-combustion chamber 61 is conducted into the second sub-combustion chamber 62 through the second throttle plate 32, but it is not converted to combustion in the natural vortex, and it is further expanded only as a stable rotating columnar flame in the forced vortex until it reaches the first throttle plate 31.

The mixing operation of a large amount of exhaust gas which is supplied to the second sub-combustion chamber 62 from the exhaust gas inlet hole 8 and the air supplied thereto is promoted by the shearing force caused by the slipping phenomenon clue to the difference of rotating angular velocities in the natural vortex of the main combustion chamber 5, to create a condition of substantially complete molecular mixing. The rotating columnar flame in the second sub-combustion chamber 62 is introduced into the main combustion chamber through the first throttle plate 31, and then the flame is transferred into the natural vortex in which the unburned components of the exhaust gas and oxygen in the air is in the condition where the molecules thereof are entirely mixed by the centrifugal force effect of the swirling flow, and therefore, complete combustion is more and more promoted.

Thus, it is converted to the peripheral swirling combustion of high efficiency and high intensity and the harmful unburned components are almost entirely burned by means of the oxygen in a large amount of air which is supplied into the second sub-combustion chamber 62. Since in this case, a small amount of compressed air is continuously and tangentially supplied from the compressed air source 14, through the air inlet pipe 15, the air inlet pipe d, the throttle valve 18d, the connecting pipe 130 and the third air inlet hole 39, the peripheral swirling combustion flame does not reach the inner peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber 5. Thus, a temperature rise along the peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber 5 can be prevented. Therefore, it is not necessary to provide an adiabatic material to reduce heat radiation and the cooling means, as described in the fifth embodiment, and yet various troubles caused by temperature rise in the engine room can be entirely resolved.

Also, in the apparatus of the sixth embodiment, the purified exhaust gas discharged from the main combustion chamber 5 is mixed with the air by means of the cooling device 70 to lower the temperature of the gas and then is exhausted into the atmosphere through the muffler and the exhaust pipe.

As described in the above embodiments the following process is carried out according to thisl invention. Namely, exhaust gas of high temperature and high pressure exhausted from an internal combustion engine or the like and compressed air supplied from an air supplying means are tangentially conducted into a subcombustion chamber to form a swirling flow consisting of a forced vortex and a natural vortex in the main body of the combustor, such that stable combustion is carried out in the forced vortex in which the mixture of exhaust gas and air rapidly rotates in the form of a slender cylindrical column, and moreover, in the main combustion chamber, the combustion in the forced vortex is transferred to that in the natural vortex to carry out a peripheral vortex combustion of high temperature and high intensity. Thus, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas can be almost entirely excluded in a wide range of driving intensity of the internal combustion engine or the like, and a remarkable effect of purifying the exhaust gas can be obtained,

with the volume of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas being markedly decreased.

Now, one example of the purifying effect of the exhaust gas will be explained in accordance with the apparatus of the fourth embodiment.

The distribution of harmful components in the exhaust gas emitted from a conventional engine is shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 in which-the ordinate shows the engine power (PS) and the abscissa shows the revolutions per minute (rpm) of the engine. In FIG. 8, the volume of unburned carbon monoxide in the total volume of the exhaust gas is shown in relation to revolutions per minute (R.P.M.) of the engine and the engine power (PS), and in FIG. 9, the volume of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas (ppm) is shown in relation to revolutions per minute (R.P.M.) of the engine and the engine power (PS).

As shown in FIG. 8, carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas becomes larger as the engine is driven at higher intensity. When the revolutions thereof are from about 2,500 to 4,000rpm, a large amount of carbon monoxide (5 percent) is exhausted. As shown in FIG. 9, the hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas becomes larger as the engine is driven at the lower intensity. When the number of revolutions of the engine is from 1,000 to 2,000, hydrocarbons of 300 ppm are exhausted.

The volume distribution of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas in the apparatus of the fourth embodiment as provided in a conventional engine is shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, the ordinate and abscissa of which are the same as those of FIGS. 8 and 9.

As shown in FIG. 10, the volume of carbon monoxide exhausted from an engine provided with the apparatus of the fourth embodiment is very small over the whole driving range of the engine, such that the highest distribution in this case is only 1 percent in the range of 3,000 revolutions per minute. Also as shown in FIG. 11, the volume of hydrocarbons exhausted from the engine provided with the apparatus of the fourth embodiment is very small over the whole driving range of the engine, such that it is 0 ppm when it is driven at high revolutions and high intensity, and it is ppm in the condition of about l,000 rpm even when the highest distribution is shown. But the volume of unburned hydrocarbons of 70 ppm at about 1,000 revolutions can be made to be zero by decreasing the air-fuel ratio only at the engine starting time.

It is apparent from the description above, by employing the vortex combustor type manifold reactor of the present invention, the volume of harmful components such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in exhaust gas can be remarkably decreased compared with the case where the apparatus of the present invention is not employed. Therefore the requirement of preventing air pollution can be adequately met.

In the embodiment described above, the compressed air is supplied from a compressed air source driven by the engine in proportion to the engine revolutions, but the compressed air source is not limited to this type. For example, the compressed air source can be driven by a driving source independent of the engine, to supply a constant volume of compressed air, and an even more remarkable effect can be obtained by the combination of these means. 7

In these embodiments, the air inlet hole is provided at the peripheral wall of the sub-combustion chamber to conduct the compressed air tangentially therethrough, it is possible .to provide the air inlet hole at a side end of the sub-combustion chamber in the tangential direction or in the axial direction to conduct air into the sub-combustion chamber. Any construction can be taken if the swirling flow of exhaust gas which is taken tangentially is not disturbed.

Moreover, in the case of the embodiments described above, exhaust gas from the main combustion chamber is exhausted from the exhaust hole which is provided tangentially in the peripheral wall of the main combustion chamber, but it is also able to exhaust the gas in the main combustion chamber in the axial direction by providing an exhaust hole at a side end of the main combustion chamber.

Further, when the apparatus of the present invention is applied, as shown in six embodiments, the subcombustion chamber and the main combustion chamber are disposed coaxially in series, but any disposition can be employed if it is possible that stable and silent combustion of exhaust gas and air in the forced vortex zone and combustion of high efficiency and high intensity in the natural vortex are carried out continuously and therefore, it is possible to dispose the subcombustion chamber in the vertical direction with respect to the axial direction of the main combustion chamber. Besides this, as long as the effect is equal to that of the present invention, any variation of design can be permitted about the disposition and formation of the various components of the vortex combustor type manifold reactor of the present invention according to its object and its purposes.

While the apparatus of the present invention is described with reference to use in an engine of an automobile, the present invention can also be applied to various combustion apparatus utilizing heat energy for home use or industrial use or to various engines utilizing mechanical energy converted from heat energy. In any case, unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in exhaust gas can be almost entirely excluded Q a Obviously, many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of these teachings. It is tobe understood therefore that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor for exhaust gaspurification comprising:

a first combustion unit having a cylindrical wall and an end wall on one end thereof;

a second combustion unit having a cylindrical wall and an end wall on one end thereof being coaxially aligned with said first combustion unit so that said end walls on said one ends of each are oppositely disposed;

a first connecting part having a first throttled opening therein for integrally connecting the other ends of said two combustion units for forming a first combustion chamber in said first-combustion unit and a second combustion chamber in said second combustion unit;

at least one gas inlet means for introducing the exhaust gas from the exhaust hole of the engine tangentially into said first combustion chamber;

a gas outlet means for discharging purified exhaust gas to the atmosphere tangentially from said second combustion chamber; and

an air supplying means for supplying air from a compressed air source through air inlet means in the first combustion chamber for introducing the compressed air from said compressed air source tangentially into said first combustion chamber.

2. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, wherein said air supplying means further comprises:

anair inlet means provided in an exhaust passage means connecting said inlet means and said exhaust hole of said engine for introducing the compressed air from said compressed air source into the exhaust gas being conducted from the engine into said inlet means.

3. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, wherein said air supplying means further comprises:

an air inlet means provided in said second combustion unit for introducing the compressed air from said compressed air source tangentially into said second combustion chamber.

4. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 2, wherein said air supplying means further comprises: I

an air inlet means provided in said second combustion unit for introducing the compressed air from said compressed air source tangentially into said second combustion chamber.

5. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, further comprising:

a third combustion unit having a cylindrical side wall and two open ends interposed between said first combustion unit and said, second combustion unit, one open end of said third combustion unit being integrally connected to the other end of said first combustion unit by said first connecting part having said first throttled opening; second connection part having a second throttled opening for-integrally connecting the other open end of said third combustion unit and the other end of said second combustion unit, for thereby forming a third combustion chamber between said first and second combustion chambers, and said first connecting part having a throttled opening thereby connecting said first combustion unit and second combustion unit through said third combustion unit and said second connecting part; and

an air inlet means provided in said third combustion unit for introducing the compressed air from said compressed air source tangentially into said third combustion chamber.

6. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, further comprising:

an outer casing having a cylindrical side wall and two closed end walls surrounding said first and second combustion units in spaced relation therewith, wherein:

said gas inlet means is provided in said first combustion unit, penetrating said side wall of said outer casing; and

said gas outlet means is provided in said second combustion unit, penetrating said side wall of said outer casing.

7. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, further comprising:

an outer casing having a cylindrical side wall and two closed end walls surrounding said first and second combustion units in spaced relation therewith, wherein:

said gas inlet means is provided in said first combustion unit, penetrating said side wall of said outer casing;

said gas outlet means is provided in said second combustion unit, penetrating said side wall of said outer casing; and

said air inlet means penetrates said side wall of said outer casing.

8. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 2, further comprising:

an outer casing having a cylindrical side wall and two closed end walls surrounding said first and second combustion units in spaced relation therewith, wherein:

said gas inlet means is provided in said first combustion unit, penetrating said side wall of said outer casing; and

said gas outlet means is provided in said second combustion unit, penetrating said side wall of said outer casing.

9. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, wherein said air supplying means further comprises:

an air inlet means provided near the closed end of said first combustion unit in such a manner that the one open end of said air inlet means opens toward the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the other end of said air inlet means is connected with said compressed air source;

said gas inlet means is provided in said first combustion unit, integrally such that the one open end of said gas inlet means opens toward the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the other end of said gas inlet means is connected with the exhaust hole of the engine through said exhaust passage means;

said gas outlet means is provided in said second combustion unit integrally such that the one open end of said gas outlet means opens toward the second combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof and the other end of said gas outlet means is connected with the atmosphere; and i said first throttled opening of said first connecting part and said units are coaxially disposed.

10. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 9, wherein:

said gas inlet means is four inlet means provided in said first combustion unit at nearly equal axial intervals; 7

said first combustion chamber is relatively long in its longitudinal direction and the inner diameter of said first combustion unit is smaller than that of said second combustion unit; and

said air inlet means opens into said first combustion chamber near said first connecting part.

11. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 9, wherein:

said gas inlet means is only one inlet means provided such that one open end of said gas inlet means opens toward the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the other open end of said gas inlet means is connected integrally with a converged open end of the four exhaust passage means of a four cylinder engine.

12. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 9, further comprising:

a third combustion unit having a cylindrical side wall and two open ends interposed between said first combustion unit and said second combustion unit, one open end of said third combustion unit being integrally connected to said other end of said first combustion unit by said first connecting part having said first throttled opening;

a second connecting part having a second throttled opening for integrally connecting the open end of said third combustion unit and the other end of said second combustion unit;

said first and second throttled openings being coaxially provided; and

an air inlet means provided near said first connecting part of said third combustion unit such that one open end thereof opens toward the third combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof and the other end thereof is connected with said compressed air source.

13. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 12, further comprising:

an air inlet means provided near second connecting part of said second combustion unit in such a manner that one open end of said air inlet means opens toward the second combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof and the other end of said air inlet means is connected with said compressed air source.

14. Avortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim l3, wherein:

said gas inlet means is only one inlet means provided such that one open end of said gas inlet means opens toward the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the other open end of said gas inlet means is connected integrally with a converged open end of the four exhaust passage means of a four cylinder engine. I

15. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 12, further comprising:

an outer casing made of adiabatic material having a cylindrical side wall and two closed end walls surroudning said first, second and third combustion units in spaced relation therewith for forming an annular air passage between the inner side of said outer casing and the outer peripheral walls of said units, said outer casing being provided coaxially with said units; and

an air inlet means provided into one end of said outer casing at a position near the end of the second combustion unit in such a manner that one open end of said air inlet means opens toward said annular air passage along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall of said outer casing and the other open end of said air inlet means is connected with said compressedair source; and wherein said airinlet means near the closed end of said first combustion unit is disposed in such a manner that said other end thereof opens toward saidannular air passage along a tangential direction of the pe ripheral side wall thereof; and

said throttled opening of said first connecting part has a diameter smaller than that of said throttled opening of said second connecting part and is coaxial therewith;

said gas inlet means and said gas outlet means penetrating said wall of said outer casing, and

said air inlet means provided near said first connecting part of said third combustion unit penetrates said wall of said outer casing.

16. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1, wherein said air supplying means further comprises:

an air inlet means provided in the exhaust passage means connecting the exhaust hole of the engine and said gas inlet means on the way thereto in such a manner that one open end of said air inlet means opens into said exhaust passage means and the other open end thereof is connected with said compressed air source for mixing the compressed air with the exhaust gas exhausted from said exhaust hole of the engine; and wherein said gas inlet means is provided in said first combustion unit integrally such that the open end of said gas inlet means opens toward-the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the other end of said gas inlet means is connected with the exhaust hole of the engine through said exhaust passage means;

said gas outlet means is provided in said second combustion unit integrally such that the one open end of said gas outlet means opens toward the second combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof and the other end of said gas outlet means is connected with the atmosphere; and

said first throttled openingof said first connecting part and said units are provided coaxially.

17. A vortex combustor type manifoldreactoraccording to claim 16, wherein:

said gas inlet means is four inlet means provided in said first combustion unit at nearly equal axial intervals.

18. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor ac cording to claim 16, wherein:

said gas inlet means is only one inlet means provided in such a manner that one open end of said gas inlet means opens toward the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the. other open end of said gas inlet means is connected integrally with a converged open end ofthe four exhaust passage means of a four cylinder engine.

19. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor ac cording to claim 18, wherein said air supplying means further comprises:

an air inlet means provided near said first connecting part of said second combustion unit in such a manner that one open end of said air inlet means opens toward the second combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall 22 thereof and the other end of said air inlet means is connected with said compressed air source. 20. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 19, further comprising:

a third combustion unit having a cylindrical side wall and two open ends interposed between said first combustion unit and said second combustion unit, one open end of said third combustion unit being integrally connected to the other end of said first combustion unit by said first connecting part having said first throttled opening;

a second connecting part having a second throttled opening for integrally connecting the other open end of said third combustion unit and the other end of said second combustion unit wherein:

said first and second throttled openings being coaxially provided and said air supplying means further comprising an air inlet means provided in said third combustion unit near first connecting part such that the one open end of said air inlet means opens toward the third combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof, and the other end of said air inlet means is connected with said compressed air source.

21; A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 20, wherein said air supplying means further comprises:

an air inlet means provided near the closed end of said first combustion unit in such a manner that the open end of said air inlet means opens toward the first combustion chamber along a tangential direction of the peripheral side wall thereof and the other end of said air inlet means is connected with said compressed air source, and further comprising an exhaust gas cooling device having an air inlet hole for lowering the temperature of the purified exhaust gas conducted from the second combustion chamber, one end thereof being integrally connected with said gas outlet means and the other end thereof being connected to the atmosphere.

22. A vortex combustor type manifild reactor according to claim 1, wherein:

said first and second combustion units are composed of an annular cylinder member in which a plate having a central circular opening is coaxially disposed at a predetermined position and two circular plates are coaxially disposed at the both end portions in order to close the two circular open ends of said annular cylinder member.

23. A vortex combustor type manifold reactor according to claim 1; wherein:

said first combustion unit is composed of a first annular cylinder member having a circular closed end;

clyinder member.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3893810 *Dec 18, 1972Jul 8, 1975Lientz La CledeFlare stack burner for odor and pollutant elimination
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Classifications
U.S. Classification60/298, 422/170, 60/306, 60/307
International ClassificationF01N3/26
Cooperative ClassificationF01N3/26
European ClassificationF01N3/26