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Publication numberUS3805940 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 23, 1974
Filing dateJul 12, 1971
Priority dateJul 12, 1971
Also published asDE2228204A1
Publication numberUS 3805940 A, US 3805940A, US-A-3805940, US3805940 A, US3805940A
InventorsStockham W
Original AssigneeAutomix Keyboards
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Justifying apparatus
US 3805940 A
Abstract
Apparatus for use in conjunction with a keyboard for operating a typesetter provides an indication when a justifiable line has been entered and continuously supplies a numerical indication of the line length remaining. The keyboard output code accesses incremental width information in a read-only-memory relative to the various characters selected, and this information is entered in an incremental width counter. The incremental width counter is counted down, and an accumulator counter is likewise counted down from an initial line length entry, for digitally outputting the line length remaining. In the event a character or word is deleted, the accumulator counter is accordingly counted upwards.
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'[451 Apr. 23, 1974 I 1 JUSTIFYING APPARATUS William M. Stockham, Redmond, Wash.

[73] Assignee: Automix Keyboards, Inc., Bellevue,

Wash.

[22] Filed: July 12, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 161,714

[75] Inventor:

[52] U.S. Cl 197/20, 197/187, 199/18, 95/4.5, 315/85, 340/17 SP [51] Int. Cl B41j 5/36 [58] Field of Search 197/19, 20, 84 R, 84 A, 197/187; 199/18; 95/45; 315/85, 8.6; 340/173 SP [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,690,231 9/1972 Storch 95/4.5 R

2,751,584 6/1956 Isborn.... 197/187 UX 3,509,817 5/1970 Sims 197/84 R X R26,l44 l/l967 Robbins et al... 197/20 X 3,529,299 9/1970 Chung et al. 340/173 SP 3,530,976 9/1970 Higgason et a1. 199/18 2,379,862 7/1945 Bush 197/84 A 2,402,989 7/1946 Dickinson 315/86 2,632,548 3/1953 Ackerman 197/187 X 2,661,899 12/1953 Chromy et a1. 3l5/8.5 X 2,678,713 5/1954 Higonnet et al. 197/84 A 2,682,814 7/1954 Higonnet et a1. 197/84 R X 3,028,659 4/1962 Chow et a1. 340/173 SP DETECTOR LINE END RESET 3,049,210 8/1962 Moyroud 197/19 3,272,306 9/1966 De Witt et a1.. 197/187 3,350,691 10/1967 Faulis et al. 340/173 SP 3,576,549 4/1971 Hess et a1. 340/173 SP 3,618,050 11/1971 Heeren et al.... 340/173 SP 3,631,410 12/1971 Velasco 340/173 SP OTHER PUBLICATIONS IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Composing Machine, Lincoln et al., Vol. 4, No. 12, May 1962, pp. 67-70.

Sparkman,

[57] ABSTRACT Apparatus for use in conjunction with a keyboard for operating a typesetter provides an indication when a justifiable line has been entered and continuously supplies a numerical indication of the line length remaining. The keyboard output code accesses incremental width information in a read-only-memory relative to the various characters selected, and this information is entered in an incremental width counter. The incremental width counter is counted down, and an accumulator counter is likewise counted down from an initial line length entry, for digitally outputting the line length remaining. In the event a character or word is deleted, the accumulator counter is accordingly counted upwards.

10 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENTED APR 2 3 S74 SHEET 1 [IF 3 INVENTOR WILLIAM M. STOCKHAM BUCKHORN, BLORE, KLARQUIST & SPARKMAN ATTORNEYS mOPUmL-w O O OIWMKI F PATENTEBAPR 23 19m 3; 805 940 SHEET 2 [IF 3 l-O mmaiuonkII-On:

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L1] Q 2 m 3 D Z LLl INVENTOR BY WILLIAM M. STOCKHAM BUCKHORN, BLORE, KLARQUIST & SPARKMAN ATTORNEYS iATENTEDAPR 23 mm SHEET 3 BF 3 FIG. 4 /22 2887 l 294 r C2 J) L I 26 f I WORD 296 300 SELECT I I MATRIX j 302 k 23a 1 30/6 I i-so4 I l K 3|8 320 3 2? 24!} 24 I WILLIAM M. STOCKHAM INVENTOR ATTORNEYS JUSTIFYING APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A keyboard apparatus may be used for generating output information in the form of a punched paper tape which supplies input information for operating a typesetting device such as a phototypesetter or a device which casts solid lines of type. Initially, the length of the line for a given column measure, e.g., pica measure, is determined and information related thereto is en tered upon the tape for controlling the typesetter. However, at the end of each subsequent line, the operator must enter a line-end indication, similar to a carriage return on a typewriter, before such line would exceed the predetermined line length. The present invention relates to apparatus which provides the operator some indication that each line is nearly long enough so that awkwardly large spaces are not left between words, as well as some indication of the actual line length remaining. The typesetting device which subsequently receives the punched paper tape will automatically justify each line to fill the column by increasing the spacing between words, with the line length being long enough to fall within a predetermined justifiable range.

Heretofore, relatively complex apparatus has been employed for providing a width indication for each character selected, accumulating the character widths into a line length indication, and providing a notification when the line is nearly filled. A comparatively large number of lines from keyboard keys were employed to operate decoder apparatus for supplying character widths and this decoder apparatus in turn supplied inputs to binary weighting means generating binary output representations of the character widths. These character widths were applied for counting down a line length accumulator. An analog output was frequently produced for operating a meter specifying the line length remaining, and when a predetermined line length was reached a notification was given of a justifiable line.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the present invention, an apparatus for accumulating the width of successive characters selected by a keyboard includes memory means for receiving character codes from the keyboard and for directly accessing the incremental widths of the characters in digital form in the memory means. An incremental width counter directly receives the incremental widths from the memory means and is subsequently counted down, while an accumulator counter, previously preset to a predetermined line length, is simultaneously counted down in a decimal digital manner. Decimal digital readout means continuously supplies a numerical output representing the line length remaining. Also, an indication is given when a justifiable line has been produced According to a further aspect of the present invention, a binary counter means is counted in accordance with the predetermined line length entered into the apparatus, and provides a binary output for use by a typesetter device.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, circuitry is included for adapting the present apparatus to the deletion of a character or a word. When a character or a word is deleted, the accumulator counter is accordingly counted upwardly by the accumulated width of the portion deleted.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide improved and simplified apparatus for accumulating the width of successive characters as selected by a typesetter-operating keyboard for the indication of a remaining line length.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide an improved apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive printing characters wherein the apparatus directly accesses a digital width representation in response to a character code of the type applicable to a perforator or the like.

It is another object of the present invention to provide apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive characters and supplying a continuous indication in a digital decimal manner of the line length remaining.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide an improved and simplified apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive printing characters and indicating when a justifiable line is completed.

It is another object of the present invention to provide apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive printing characters selected by a keyboard, and for adjusting such accumulation in accordance with the deletion of words or characters.

The subject matter which I regard as my invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the concluding portion of this specification. The invention, however, both as to organization and method of operation, together with further advantages and objects thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein like reference characters refer to like elements.

DRAWING FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a first portion of apparatus according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a second portion of apparatus according to the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a switching device employed with the present invention; and

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a typical read-onlymemory employed according to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to the drawing and particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, the apparatus according to the present invention is adapted to be operated from a keyboard 10 which provides outputs on leads 12 for operating paper tape perforator 14 in accordance with the standard TTS teletype code or other suitable code structure. Keyboard 10 and perforator 14 are of the standard type employed in the art and will not be described in detail. The punched paper tape produced is then employed as input for a typesetting device such as a phototypesetter or a device which casts solid lines of type from hot metal. The apparatus according to the present invention signals the operator by means of an indicator 16 when a line is almost filled. That is, when a line of characters and spaces accumulate thicknesses as would nearly total a line of type for filling a specified column measure, then the operator is notified by means of indicator 16. Meanwhile, a continuous numerical representation of the line length remaining is given upon visible display means 18 in the form of a digital number.

Indicator 16 is actuated at such time as the line of type specified is justifiable to fill the column measure. A minimum space measure (between words) and a maximum space measure are predetermined. When the number of spaces or space bands designated by the keyboard are expandible for filling the remainder of a line, indicator l6 informs the operator, while display means 18 continuously informs him of the remaining line length. A line end designation may be entered at the keyboard 10 at the proper time. The typesetting apparatus receiving the tape will then be capable of justifying the line by positioning of mechanical space bands or the like'between words. In this specification, the term space band is used synonymously with the term space to indicate the designation or entry of a space at keyboard 10.

Considering the invention in greater detail, the output of keyboard 10 representative of each character or space to be physically presented in the line of type is provided on leads according to the standard TTS teletype code or other character code structure. Thus, leads 20 correspond to leads 12 connected to perforator 14 and'each lead 20 by the presence or absence of a signal would designate the presence or absence of a paper tape perforation. Leads 20 are connected to read-only-memory 22 and a code on leads 20, representative of a character or space, accesses a digital output on leads 24 and 26 in the form of a digital representation of the character width. According to the present apparatus, incremental units are employed representing a small linear measure, such as a thousandth of an inch, and fractions of incremental units. The relation between these units and the conventional pica measure or the like is more fully explained hereinbelow.

The memory 22 (See FIG. 4) is of the type comprising a multiplicity of semiconductor elements 294, 296...298 in a matrix 292 whereby any given character code causes digit indicating outputs, or the inverse thereof, on all of leads 24, 26. These elements 294, 296 298 are suitably bipolar transistors or field effect transistors. The memory 22 is programmed for a particular font of characters by disabling selected memory elements 300, 302 304 (FIG. 4) whereby a digital output representation in units or fractions of units is supplied when a character code is entered. Thus, selected means are caused to be nonfunctional by the programming. The read-only-memory 22 may be of the programmable type such as devices manufactured by Monolithic Memories lnc., such as the ROM 0512, or may be of the MOS LSl type such as manufactured by Intel Corp. such as the 1601 electrically programmable memory. 256 possible digital outputs are provided, 128 being assigned to each of two fonts or magazines. A switching means (not shown) is employed to switch between the two fonts or magazines. Furthermore, a plurality of such memories 22 are conveniently switched to supply further type fonts, and moreover are removable or exchangeable for providing additional fonts.

In the present embodiment, the character width accessed from memory 22 is provided in binary coded form wherein leads 24 express the first digit in the form of a series of binary digits, while the outputs on leads 26 express the second or higher order digit in the form of binary digits. The binary digits are entered respectively into binary counters 28 and 30, which together form an incremental width counter. Each of these binary counters 28 and 30 is capable of being counted upwardly or downwardly, e.g., from 0 through 15 to 0, producing a carry, or in the reverse direction producing a borrow output. The borrow output of binary counters 28 and 30 are supplied as an input to NOR gate 32. The incremental width counter comprising binary counters 28, 30 is operated principally as a down counter, as will hereinafter more fully appear, and consequently a down counting input connection lead 34 receives the output of clock signal generator 36. The carry and borrow output leads 37 and 38 respectively of binary counter 28 are'coupled to the up and down counting inputs of binary counter 30. Thus, if binary counter 28 were to count in a positive direction and reach zero, a carry would be provided on carry out-put lead 37 for stepping binary counter 30 by one. However, if binary counter 28 is counted downwardly past zero, the output on borrow output lead 38 resets binary counter 30 at one lower count. Counter circuitry of this type is well known in the art and will not be described in detail.

The digital value of character width accessed from read-only-memory 22 is not counted into incremental width counter 28, 30, but is entered directly into incremental width counter 28, 30 when a strobe signal is provided on leads 40 and 42 from threshold detector 44 by way of inverting amplifier 46. Thus, as a consequence of strobing, the digital outputs on leads 24, 26 are entered directly into incremental width counter 28, 30 operating as a register, and at this time the incremental width counter 28, 30 will contain exactly the numerical output provided on leads 24, 26. This output is momentarily supplied by the read-only-memory 22, but will be stored in incremental width counter 28, 30.

Each time a teletype code is received on leads 20 (which may or may not represent a character), threshold detector 44 is operated through one of the diodes 48. The threshold detector 44 detects the presence of a code and supplies a positive going pulse which is inverted by amplifier 46 for strobing incremental width counter 28, 30, and, as the code is representative of a character or space, the outputs on leads 24, 26 will be stored in the incremental width counter 28, 30. The space width output here indicates the minimum spacing between words.

An output of threshold detector 44 is also coupled via the capacitor 50 to the input of the inverting amplifier 52 for operating latching circuit 54. Amlifier 52 is biased such that it produces a positive going output pulse at the conclusion of the strobing pulse output supplied from amplifier 46. This output of amplifier 52 sets latching circuit 54 causing an output thereof supplied to NAND gate 56 to go low. In response thereto the output of NAND gate 56 goes high and enables clock signal generator 36. Clock signal generator 36 is an astable multivibrator providing a countdown input to incremental width counter 28, 30 on input connection lead 34. When the incremental width counter 28, 30 counts down to zero from the value initially entered from memory 22, a borrow signal applied to the two inputs of the NOR gate 32 will cause the output thereof to go high, resetting latching circuit 54 and turning off clock signal generator 36. In the interim, clock signal generator 36 will have provided a number of counts equal to the digital value initially entered into incremental width counter 28, 30 from memory 22. Clock signal generator 36 has an output frequency capable of easily counting down the incremental width counter 28, 30 before the next output from keyboard is received.

The line length suitable to fill a desired column measure is entered by means of a plurality of switches 58, each designed to ground certain switch outputs in a binary coded decimal (BCD) sequence indicative of the desired number. Together, the switches 58 are employed to select or enter into the apparatus the predetermined line length in units. In the present embodiment clock signal generator 36 counts incremental width 28, 30 in quarter units.

The outputs of switches 58 are designed for entry into an accumulator counter comprising decades 60, 62, 64 and 66. Each of these decades 60, 62, 64 and 66 may comprise counters substantially similar to the hereinbefore described incremental width counter 28, 30. The decade counters are cascaded to provide an over-all binary coded decimal counter and the outputs of the decimal counter decades 60, 62, 64 and 66 are supplied to decoder circuits 68, 70, 72 and 74.

In order to enter the selected number from switches 58 into accumulator counter 60-66, a pushbutton 78 may be initially pressed providing a ground return for one-shot multivibrator 80 which thereupon supplies a strobe pulse on lead 82 via NOR gate 84. The strobe signal on lead 82 causes a direct entry of information from switches 58 into decades 60, 62, 64 and 66, in binary coded decimal form. The one-shot multivibrator 80 provides a single positive pulse which causes the output of NOR gate 84 to drop momentarily providing the stroke signal on lead 82. The same strobe suitably presets a two-stage counter or divider 86 via lead 88.

The decoder circuits 68, 70, 72 and 74 are adapted to provide seven-segment driver outputs via coupling resistors 76 to display means 18. Each display means 18 is suitably a light-emitting display such as a Monsanto Man No. 1. The display. provides seven horizontal and vertical light-emitter segments which if all energized, would provide a visible representation of the figure 8 in block style. The other numerals are formed from a lesser number of segments. Thus, in the illustrated example, the number 1,296 is entered from switches 58 into the accumulator counter 60-66, and at the start of each line operation, the number 1,296 will appear on the display means 18.

The fractional unit pulses generated by clock signal generator 36 are supplied as an input to counter 86, and the latter provides up and down counting pulses to the accumulator counter 60-66 by way of NAND gates 90 and 92. As will hereinafter become more evident, NAND gate 92 is normally energized whereby accumulator counter 60-66 counts down from the value initially entered from switches 58. In the instance of the specific example, clock signal generator 36 provided four pulses for each incremental unit, and consequently a counter or divider 86 is employed comprising two stages, the second stage of which supplies unit counts on lead 94, supplying inputs for NAND gates 90 and 92. When both of the inputs upon one of the NAND gates 90 or 92 is energized, the said NAND gates 90, 92 provide an output for stepping the accumulator counter 6066 in the selected direction.

It should be apparent that since one-quarter unit and one-half unit counts are available at counter 86, output display means may also be supplied for such half and quarter units. Also, additional switches for half or quarter units may be supplied for use in conjunction with switches 58 and which can be used to preset one or both stages for counter 86.

Assuming NAND gate 92 is energized, by down lead 96, it will be seen that as clock signal generator 36 counts incremental width counter 28, 30 down to zero for each new character, the accumulator counter 66 will be similarly counted down by a portion of the line length which may theretofore have been entered from switches 58. With each ensuing character or space, the total in accumulator counter 60-66 becomes less until the line length is reduced to the justifiable level. The line length remaining is displayed by display means 18 so the operator is continuously aware of the approaching line end. Furthermore, the binary coded decimal outputs from decades 60, 62 and 64 are provided as inputs to comparator 98 (see FIG. 2). The sets of output leads 100, 102 and 104 from the decades 60, 62 and 64 are coupled to the comparator 98 in FIG. 2 as shown, with the signals on each set of four leads of each of output leads 100, 102 and 104 representing a binary coded decimal digit. It is observed only the three lowest order decimal digits are compared.

Comparator 98 receives not only the outputs of decades 60, 62 and 64, but also comparator 98 receives corresponding binary coded decimal outputs from a register comprising decades 106, 108 and 110. The register 106, 108 and 110 is employed as an up counter and consequently only carry leads 112 and 114 are employed between stages. The respective decimal digits are compared digit for digit in comparator 98, i.e. a lowest order or ones digit on leads from decade 60 is compared with the output of decade 106, while the output of decade 62 on leads 102 is compared with the output of decade 108, and the output of decade 64 on leads 104 is compared with the output of decade 110. As hereinafter more fully described, the register 106, 108, accumulates the value representative of the maximum allowable expansion for a space band multiplied by the number of space bands. Thus, each time a space band is designated by the operator on keyboard 10, the count in register 106, 108, 110 is increased by a number of units indicative of the allowable expansion per space band which has been determined in advance. Therefore, as accumulator counter 60-66 counts downwardly from the preset line length, register 106, 108, 110 counts upwardly for designating the maximum total expansion value for spaces thus far specified in the line by the operator. Comparator 98 suitably comprises a number of exclusive-OR function gates for comparing the binary coded decimal BCD inputs provided from decades 60, 62, 64 and from decades 106, 108, 110, digit for digit, until the outputs become equal or until the outputs of decades 60, 62, 64 cross over the outputs for decades 106, 108, 110. As the comparison takes place, comparator 98 provides a signal for operating latch 116 and latch 116 energizes indicator 16 which may provide a light, an audible tone, or the like. Latch l 16 is subsequently reset by a line-end reset signal on lead 118.

When the operator receives the indication provided by indicator 16, he may observe the units left in the line from display means 18 and will conclude the line as soon as practical by providing a proper code from keyboard 10. This code will be punched on the punched paper tape by perforator 14 for causing the typesetting device to start a new line. The typesetting device will, of course, automatically justify the concluded line to the extent desired. If it is not convenient for the operator to conclude the line immediately, he can determine whether the line length remaining as represented by display means 18 will allow completion of a word, or whether the word should be hyphenated or deleted.

When a line-end code is provided by keyboard 10, latch 116 is reset via lead 118. Also, when the line-end code is designated upon keyboard 10, NOR gate 84 is also operated via lead 120 for again entering the entire line length in accumulator counter 60-66 from switches 58.

The maximum expansion value for each space band is set into the apparatus by means of switches 122 which are .each suitably substantially the same as switches 58. Thus, each such switch 122 provides a binary coded decimal output for entrance into an updown counter comprising decade counters 124 and 126. These decade counters 124 and 126 are interconnected in substantially the same manner as hereinbefore described in reference to binary counters 28 and 30. When a strobe signal is received on lead 128 from the keyboard via amplifying and shaping circuitry 130, at the end of a space band indication from the keyboard 10, the information from switches 122 is inserted into up-down counter 124, 126 operating as a register. At the same time, flip-flop 132 is set via line 134, which starts astable multivibrator 136 producing a chain of output pulses. Astable multivibrator 136 is suitably the same in construction and frequency of operation as clock signal generator 36. The output of multivibrator 136 supplies an input for decade counter 124 causing the up-down counter 124, 126 to count downwardly from the maximum expansion value set therein from switches 122. At the same time, the output of multivibrator 136 is applied to register 106, 108, 110 by way of lead 138 for counting register 106, 108, 110 upwardly. Upon the occurrence ofleach space band indication from the keyboard 10, register 106, 108, 110 is counted upwardly and continuously accumulates a value equaling the allowable space band expansion value multiplied by the number of space bands designated from the keyboard 10. In the instance of each space band, the up-down counter 124, 126 resets flipflop 132, turning off multivibrator 136, when the count in up-down counter 124, 126 reaches zero. For this purpose, a pair of inverting amplifiers 140 and 142 receive the borrow outputs from decade counters 124 and 126, and their combined output when both decade counters 124, 126 supply such borrow output is provided for resetting flip-flop 132 through inverting amplifier 144. The up-down counter 124, 126, together with multivibrator 136 and associated circuitry, comprise means responsive to space band indications transmitted from the keyboard 10 for providing an output signal representative of the incremental count for maximum expansion allowed for a single space band.

For purposes of providing the designated line length to the typesetting device, it is desirable to enter the line length as selected on switches 58 onto the punched paper tape. For this purpose, keyboard 10 is provided with a key or switch supplying a line length flag on lead 146. At the same time, pushbutton 78 is operated or the same line length flag from keyboard 10 may be connected by an additional lead (not shown) for operating one-shot multivibrator 80. Therefore, upon the appearance of a line length flag (and before any copy is entered on the keyboard 10), the line length from switches 58 is initially entered into accumulator counter 60-66.

The line length flag signal on lead 146 sets latch 148, the latter suitably comprising a flip-flop circuit. Latch 148 operates a two-stage counter 150, which comprises a pair of flip-flops providing a series of non-inverted and inverted outputs on output leads 152 indicative of the states of the counter stages. These are successively presented in four different combinations for successively operating NAND gates 154, 156, 158 and 160. The latch 148, however, initially sets the counter to operate NAND gate 154 which energizes clock signal generator 36 via lead 155 and NAND gate 56. As a consequence, clock signal generator 36 produces a series of output pulses which step counter 86, and accumulator counter 60-66, downwardly from the value of the line length entered from switches 58. At this time, accumulator counter 60-66 is counted downwardly to zero, and when the zero value is reached, borrow outputs from the decades 60, 62 64 and 66 provide a joint output via inverting amplifiers 162, 164, 166 and 168, on lead 170. Also, the zero condition of the second stage of counter 86 is indicated on the same lead 170 by way of inverting amplifier 172. Lead 170 provides one input to NAND gate 174 while the other input thereof is derived from the first stage of counter 86. When both stages of counter 86 as well as all stages of accumulator counter 60-66 have been counted down to zero, an output will be provided from NAND gate 174 on lead 176 which supplies an input to NOR gate 178. NOR gate 178 thereupon supplies an output, inverted by amplifier 180 and delayed somewhat by the resistor 182 capacitor 184 combination, to step counter 150 to its next count. Thereupon, the appropriate combination of outputs is provided on leads 152 for deenergizing NAND gate 154 and energizing NAND gate 156. As a consequence, clock signal generator 36 will be shut off.

While accumulator counter 60-66 was counting downwardly, an output was provided from the first stage of counter 86 via lead 186 to supply an input for a binary counter comprising stages 188, 190 and 192. Counter 188, 190, 192 is connected to operate in true binary fashion rather than in binary coded decimal fashion whereby the outputs on output leads 194 will comprise a binary representation of the line length as theretofore contained in binary coded decimal form in accumulator counter 60-66. Thus, as accumulator counter 60-66 is counted downwardly, binary counter 188, 190, 192 is counted upwardly to the same value in binary notation. At this time, the binary stages 188, 190, 192 are enabled from latch 148 via lead 196.

The input from the first counter stage of counter 86 delivered on lead 186 is actually a half-unit count. Thus, two outputs are provided on lead 186 for every output supplied to decade 60 via NAND gate 92. Con-' sequently, the output leads 194, starting from the bottom, would indicate the binary values for one-half through 1024. The binary values from one-half through 16 are supplied to NAND gates 198, while binary outputs from 32 through 1024 are supplied to NAND gates 200.

When NAND gate 156 is enabled and NAND gate 154 is disabled from counter 150, NAND gates 198 are enabled via capacitor 202 and inverting amplifier 204. Therefore, binary values from one-half unit through 16 units will be provided on the output leads of NAND gates 198. It is convenient to provide this first set of binary values to the perforator 14 on six leads so that the first part of the line length punching can be punched in a row by the perforator 14. When such punching takes place, a data signal is provided from the perforator 14 on lead 206. This merely indicates that the perforator 14 has operated. The output on lead 206 energizes NOR gate 178 and steps counter 150 by one step. Thereupon, NAND gate 158 is energized in place of any of the other NAND gates 154-160. Therefore, NAND gates 200 are enabled via capacitor 207 and inverting amplifier 209. Consequently, the higher order binary digits will then be provided to the perforator 14 for another punching. As this is accomplished, lead 206 is energized again for again stepping counter 150. NAND gate 160 is then energized and resets latch 148 by way of capacitor 211. The binary counter 188, 190, 192 is reset via lead 196, and the cycle is complete. Thereupon, the line length may be reentered into accumulator counter 6066 by means of pushbutton 78, and the keyboard 10 maybe operated in the usual manner for punching the information for a line of type on the paper tape in the perforator 14.

In a number of instances, it may be desirable to delete a word or a character which has already been punched in the tape by the perforator l4. Ths is conventionally done, as is well known in the art, by backing up the perforator 14 and punching all holes for each of the character rows where the information is no longer desired. Thus, an incorrect character, word, or the like, can be deleted by reverse feeding the perforator l4 and providing a delete designation from the keyboard 10 to the perforator 14. Unfortunately, such action would deleteriously affect the operation of the apparatus for indicating the remaining line length or for providing an indication when a justifiable length remains in a line. Therefore, circuitry is provided for altering the remaining length of line count in accumulator counter 60-66, in accordance with those character and word deletions which are accomplished. Referring again to the diagram, and especially to FIG. 2, the instance of deletion of a single character will first be considered.

A character counter comprises binary counters 208, 210 connected in substantially the same fashion as the decades of accumulator counter 60-66. Thus, character counter 208, 210 operates in binary fashion with the lower order digit being counted in binary counter 208 and the higher order digit being counted in binary counter 210. The counting input for character counter 208, 210 is provided from clock signal generator 36 via lead 212, and NAND gate 214 is normally enabled from inverting amplifier 216 whereby character counter 208, 210 will count upwardly at the same time accumulator counter 60-66 counts downwardly. It is noted the output of inverting amplifier 216 is also applied for energizing NAND gate 92 by way of lead 218 so that accumulator counter 60-66 normally operates in the down-counting mode as hereinbefore described. Thus, during the execution of a line, the incremental count for each character, actually in quarter units, is entered into character counter 208, 210. It is also noted that lead 218 is normally high for supplying a remaining input to NAND gate 56.

' Each time perforator 14 operates, a data output indication is provided on lead 220 which resets character counter 208, 210. The data output on lead 220 brings about a negative going output from amplifying and shaping circuitry 222 whereby the output of NAND gate 224 goes high, resetting character counter 208, 210 via lead 226. As a consequence, the character counter 208, 210 is normally reset before the next character count is received.

When the operator decides to remove a character, a reverse feed function is first initiated by him which causes a reverse feed signal on lead 230 from the perforator 14. This signal sets latch 232 which may comprise a flip-flop circuit. A code delete will then be provided by the operator employing keyboard 10 supplying a code delete signal on lead 228. The code delete signal on lead 228 together with the output of latch 232, both being negative going signals, bring about a positive going output from NOR gate 234 which is inverted in inverting amplifier 236. The resulting negative going signal sets character delete latch 238, the latter suitably comprising a flip-flop circuit. The latch 238 provides one of the signals for NOR gate 240 and when one such signal is present, the output of NOR gate 240 drops. This output is inverted by inverting amplifier 242 providing a positive going signal on lead 244. The latter energizes NAND gate 246 while at the same time disabling NAND gate 214. When NAND gate 246 is energized in place of NAND gate 214, character counter 208, 210 is enabled to count down to zero from the character incremental width indication as resides in character counter 208, 210. This positive signal on lead 244 is applied to NAND gate in FIG. 1 energizing the same, while NAND gate 92 in FIG. 1 is deenergized as lead 218 goes low. The same negative going signal at NAND gate 56 causes clock signal generator 36 to provide a train of pulses, but instead of counting down accumulator counter 60-66 in the usual manner, such chain of pulses causes accumulator counter 60-66 to count upwardly. Thus, NAND gate 90 is now energized instead of NAND gate 92 and consequently the operation of accumulator counter 60-66 reverses. inasmuch as the normal character perforated on the tape has the effect of reducing the count in accumulator counter 60-66 so that an indication of the remainder of the line would be given, it is seen that the deletion of such character should have the reverse effect on the accu mulated count, i.e., should increase the accumulated count and the indication provided by display means 18. Counting continues until the character counter 208, 210 in FIG. 2 counts to zero as indicated by two borrow inputs from binary counters 208 and 210 detected by NOR gate 245. The output of NOR gate 245 is inverted by inverting amplifier 248 for resetting latch 238 via lead 250. Of course, when latch 238 is reset, the normal level on lead 244 is restored whereby accumulator counter 60-66 can count downwardly, and character counter 208, 210 can count upwardly. At the end of the sequence of events, operation may continue accurately toward a justifiable line indication. The presence of any data, punched by the perforator l4, resets latch 232 by means of lead 206.

Considering the circuitry for word deletion, a counter comprising binary counters 252, 254 and 256 parallels the operation of character counter 208, 210,

receiving the same inputs as character counter 208, 210, and also operating in a binary manner. However, counter 252, 254, 256 is not reset at the end of every character, but rather is reset at the end of every word. Consequently, a space band signal is received from the keyboard on lead 258. This signal is negative going and causes a positive output from NAND gate 260 which resets counter 252, 254, 256. However, after a slight delay provided by delay and shaping circuitry 262, the incremental width indicated for the space band is entered from the binary counter 208 into binary counter 252 on leads 264 with a strobe input for binary counter 252 being provided on lead 266. This loads the space band incremental width count into the counter 252, 254, 256 at the start of each word, inasmuch as when a word is deleted, it is considered as including the space at the beginning of the word and it is desired to back up" accumulator counter 60-66 to the end of the previous word. It is also seen that an end-of-line signal on lead 280 resets both character counter 208, 210 and counter 252, 254,256.

In the case of deleting a word, an additional counter, not shown, may be provided for use with perforator 14. This counter simply counts the number of characters or letters in each word and resets at each space band after which a one is entered. If the operator then wishes to delete a character he may do so automatically by providing a code whereby the perforator l4 backs up the number or rows designated by such counter and punches all holes in the locations of the deleted word. The same function could, of course, be accomplished manually by backing up the perforator 14, and punching all holes where the word is located. The additional counter does not form a part of the present invention.

When a word delete function, e.g. an automatic word delete as above described, is indicated by the operator on keyboard 10, a word delete signal is provided on lead 268 from the keyboard 10, and word delete latch 270 is set thereby. Latch 270 suitably comprises a flipflop circuit. The output of latch 270 operates NOR gate 240, as in the case of character delete, whereby counter 252, 254, 256, and accumulator counter 60-66 are prepared for counting in directions reversed to their usual directing of counting. Character counter 208, 210 is reset via amplifying and shaping circuitry 271 and NAND gate 224. Also, clock signal generator 36 is again initiated in operation by a signal on lead 218. Thereupon, counter 252, 254, 256 counts downwardly while accumulator counter 60-66 counts upwardly until counter 252, 254, 256 reaches zero. Then, the borrow signals provided inverting amplifiers 272, 274, 276 together bring about an output via inverting amplifier 278 for resetting latch 270. Accumulator counter 60-66 will count upwardly until the deleted word is accounted for.

In the event that the operator should attempt to overrun, or provide a line which cannot be set by the typesetter, the accumulator counter 60-66 will run down to zero. This situation is generally to be avoided, and consequently a NAND gate 282 is provided in FIG. 1 which receives the borrow signal on line 170, as well as a similar indication via inverting amplifier 172 from the second stage of counter 86. A second input to the NAND gate 282 comprises the output of the first stage of counter 86. In the event of oversetting, NAND gate 282 detects the presence of a number fractionally less than zero in the line length minus the total accumulated incremental widths and provides an indication via indication means 284. Also an output is provided on lead 286, the function of which is to lock up the keyboard 10 and the perforator 14 so that the character that caused overset and further characters cannot be entered in the line by keyboard 10. However, a new line can be started.

Referring to FIG. 3, one of the switches 58 is illustrated in greater detail. Such switch 58 may suitably comprise a plurality of ganged switch sections 310, 312, 314 and 316, with the movable contacts being connected to provide the inputs for decade 66. Selected of the switch fixed contacts are connected together and are grounded such that in selected switch positions, ones of the inputs to decade 66 are grounded. The arrangement is such that the switches 58 provide a binary coded input to the decade 66, wherein switch section 310 provides the lowest order digit. For the zero setting of the switch 58, none of the sections 310, 312, 314, 316 ground any of the inputs to decade 66. For a one" setting, section 310 provides a grounded input on the lowest order digit wire. For position two, switch section 312 provides a grounded input to the second order decade counter input wire. For switch position three, both sections 310 and 312 provide grounded inputs on their respective wires connected to decade 66, and so on in binary fashion. Obviously, this type of switching may be implemented in any similar manner so far as physical structure is concerned.

In operating the present apparatus, the operator first selects the number of units per line by means of switches 58, as hereinbefore mentioned. The number of units entered for the line length will, of course, be dependent upon the column measure intended, and will be dependent upon the point size of the type. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the individual incremental unit was selected to be oneeighteenth of an em, i.e., there were 18 units to the em. The units per pica are determined by dividing the number 216 by the point size of the type, the point size being implemented in the present circuit by the readonly-memory 22 selected. Thus, for a particular point size type, the ems per pica will be predetermined. The actual line length in picas per line is determined from actual measurement, with each pica being equal to onesixteenth inch. The units per line, to be entered by means of switches 58, are calculated and equal to units per pica (for the particular font of type) multiplied by the picas per line '(as actually measured). Thus, suppose there are 36 units per pica in a given instance corresponding to 6-point type. Let us also suppose that the column measure happens to be 18 picas. Then, the number set into switches 58 equals 36X l 8 or 648 units.

Referring to FIG. 4, an example of a read-onlymemory 22 is illustrated. This memory 22 comprises a word-select matrix 288 receiving a character code on leads 20 and energizing a selected lead 290 in response thereto. Word-select matrix 288 is typically a diode matrix wherein a given input code comprising a given combination of inputs on input leads 20 will select one of the output leads 290. An additional input 318 is typically provided for shifting between upper and lower case letters, while a further input 320 selects between a pair of type font magazines. One of the output leads 290 can be selected by an exclusive-AND function in a conventional manner from an input code. The codes for different characters and for a space band will each select a different one of leads 290. In the particular instance illustrated, word-select matrix 288 may select one of 256 output leads 290, designated C C C,,. The word-select matrix 288 is employed for addressing memory matrix 292 which includes transistors 294, 296 298 connected at their bases to the respective input leads 290. It is understood that other transistors are similarly coupled to the remaining, intervening ones of the 256 inputs. The transistor collectors are coupled to a source of voltage, and the emitters are provided with memory elements 300, 302 304, respectively, wherein these memory elements 300, 302 304 may comprise a fusible link which can be programmed. The memory elements are connected in common to the base of output transistor 306 having its base returned to its emitter by input resistor 308, having its emitter coupled to a source of voltage, and hav ing its collector connected to one of the output leads 24, here numbered 24. A similar memory matrix 292 exists for each one of the output leads 24, 26. In the memory 22 illustrated, the presence of a memory element 300, 302 304 provides a zero output and its absence will provide a one" output. To eliminate one of the memory elements 300, 302 304 permanently, for programming the unit, a predetermined negative current is applied to the corresponding output terminal where a one output is desired corresponding to a particular input code, which is simultaneously applied on leads 20. An open circuit will result at the location of a memory element 300, 302 304 coupled to such output terminal and representing, in binary form, a digit of the character code applied.

It is understood that one of the input leads 290 will connect to corresponding transistors 294, 296 298 in each memory matrix 292 whereby every output combination is initially possible. Clearly, the read-onlyrnemory 22 can be implemented as one integrated circuit unit including 256 addressing leads 290, or may alternatively comprise a plurality of smaller integrated circuit memories employed together and selectively enabled. I

While I have shown and described a preferred embodiment ofmy invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many changes and modifications may be made without departing from my invention in its broader aspects. 1 therefore intend the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of my invention.

What is claimed isi 1. A system for generating output information for presentation to a typesetting device and for accumulating the widths of successive characters as selected by a keyboard for indicating the line length remaining, said apparatus comprising:

a keyboard,

tape producing means for receiving the code for each character from said keyboard for generating a tape for providing the input to said typesetting device,

memory means receiving the code for each character substantially simultaneously with tape production, directly from said keyboard, for accessing the incremental width of the character as a digital output number, said memory means comprising a 14 read-only-memory for supplying digital output numbers in response to character code inputs in at least one font of type,

an accumulator counter comprising a plurality of electronic register stages including means for presetting said stages to a digital value representative of a predetermined line length,

circuitry means responsive to said digital output number of said memory means for changing the digital value in said accumulator counter in accordance with the digital output number representative of each character to establish in said accumulator counter a value representative of the line length as successively reduced by such digital output number-from the memory means,

decimal readout means for digitally indicating the value in said accumulator counter, said decimal readout means comprising a plurality of visible digital display units which are respectively responsive to the contents of said register stages,

means responsive to successive space indications from said keyboard for accumulating allowable space band expansion, comparator means for comparing the accumulated allowable space band expansion and the value in said accumulator counter representative of the line length remaining, and indicator means responsive to equality of the two values compared in said comparator means for indicating a justifiable line. 2. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said read-only-memory comprises a semiconductor matrix including memory means rendered inoperative for establishing digital output patterns responsive to character codes entered from said keyboard.

3. In a system for generating output information for presentation to a typesetting device, an apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive characters as selected by a keyboard and for indicating the line length remaining, said apparatus comprising:

memory means receiving each character code directly from said keyboard for accessing the incremental width of the character represented by said code in at least one font of type and for providing said incremental width as a digital output, said memory means comprising a read-only-memory for supplying digital outputs in response to character code inputs, an incremental width counter directly receiving each said digital output in parallel from said memory means for setting said incremental width counter at a value representative of each digital output,

an accumulator counter comprising a plurality of electronic register stages including means for presetting said stages to a decimal digital value representative of a predetermined line length, signal generator means responsive to the entry of characters from said keyboard for providing an input to both said incremental width counter and said accumulator counter for counting said incremental width counter a number of counts indicative of said incremental width digital output entered therein from said memory means, said signal generator means at the same time counting said accumulator counter for establishing in said accumulator counter a value representative of the predetermined line length as successively reduced by each said digital output,

decimal readout means operated by said accumulator counter for continuously supplying a numerical output indicative of said reduced line length, said decimal readout means comprising a plurality of visible digital display units which are respectively responsive to the contents of said register stages,

means responsive to a space band indication transmitted from said keyboard for providing an output signal representative of the incremental count for the maximum expansion allowed for a single space band,

a register for receiving said maximum expansion incremental count for each space band and accumulating a value representative of such maximum expansion incremental count multiplied by the number of space bands in a line,

comparator means for comparing the value in said register and in said accumulator counter and providing an output when the values in said register and said accumulator counter become equal or the value in said accumulator counter becomes less than the value in said register,

and indicator means responsive to the output of said comparator means for indicating a justifiable line.

4. The apparatus according to claim 3 wherein said memory means comprises a matrix of semiconductor means connected to supply standard digital outputs in response to input codes, ones of said semiconductor means being programmed in accordance with the character widths for a given font or fonts of type to access digital outputs representative of the incremental widths of characters selected.

5. The apparatus according to claim 4 wherein said memory means also includes means responsive to space band indications from said keyboard to provide a digital output in response thereto in accordance with the predetermined minimum space band incremental width.

6. The apparatus according to claim 4 wherein said matrix of semiconductor means includes programmable memory elements, ones of said elements having been programmed to be nonconductive leaving a matrix of elements making connections for providing digital outputs indicative of said font or fonts of type.

7. In a system for generating output information for presentation to a typesetting device, an apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive characters as selected by a keyboard and for indicating the line length remaining, said apparatus comprising:

means responsive to said keyboard for providing as an output incremental width information for each character selected by said keyboard,

an accumulator counter including means for presetting said counter to a value representative of a predetermined line length,

circuitry means responsive to said incremental width information for each character for changing the value in said accumulator counter in accordance with the incremental width of each character to establish in said accumulator counter a value representative of the line length as successively reduced by such incremental width information,

output means for indicating the value in said accumulator counter, and including means for indicating a justifiable line,

separate counter means for also receiving and counting incremental width information at the same time the said value in said accumulator counter is changed, said separate counter means being reset at the end of a character,

means for reverse counting said separate counter means in accordance with copy which it is desired to delete,

and means for simultaneously counting said accumulator counter to remove width information relative to deleted copy. I

8. The system according to claim 7 further including additional separate counter means for also receiving incremental width information, said additional separate counter means being reset at the end of a word,

means for reverse counting said additional separate counter means in accordance with copy which it is desired to delete,

and means for simultaneously counting said accumulator counter to remove width information relative to deleted copy. 9. In a system for generating output information for presentation to a typesetting device, an apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive characters as selected by a keyboard and for indicating the line length remaining, said apparatus comprising:

memory means receiving each character code from said keyboard for accessing the incremental width of the character represented by said code in at least one font of type and for providing said incremental width as a digital output, an incremental width counter directly receiving each said digital output in parallel from said memory means for setting said incremental width counter at a value representative of each digital output,

an accumulator counter comprising a plurality of electronic register stages including means for presetting said stages to a decimal digital value representative of a predetermined line length,

signal generator means responsive to the entry of characters from said keyboard for providing an input to both said incremental width counter and said accumulator counter for counting said incremental width counter a number of counts indicative of said incremental width digital output entered therein from said memory means, said signal generator means at the same time counting said accumulator counter for establishing in said accumulator counter a value representative of the predetermined line length as successively reduced by each said digital output, decimal readout means operated by said accumulator counter for continuously supplying a numerical output indicative of said reduced line length, said decimal readout means comprising a plurality of visible digital display units which are respectively responsive to the contents of said register stages, and means for providing an output in binary form indicative of a line length as may be initially preset into said accumulator counter comprising: a binary counter receiving the output of said signal generator means for operating said signal generator means for initially counting said accumulator counter a number of counts indicative of the line length value preset therein, and output gating means for providing the output of said binary counter as an initial part of said output information for a typesetting device, after said accumulator counter has been counted 21 number of counts indicative of the line length value preset therein. 10. In a system for generating output information for presentation to a typesetting device, an apparatus for accumulating the widths of successive characters as selected by a keyboard and for indicating the line length remaining, said apparatus comprising:

memory means receiving each character code from said keyboard for accessing the incremental width of the character represented by said code in at least one font of type and for providing said incremental width as a digital output, an incremental width counter directly receiving each said digital output in parallel from said memory means for setting said incremental width counter at a value representative of each digital output, an accumulator counter comprising a plurality of electronic register stages including means for presetting said stages to a decimal digital value representative of a predetermined line length, signal generator means responsive to the entry of characters from said keyboard for providing an input to both said incremental width counter and said accumulator counter for counting said incremental width counter a number of counts indicative of said incremental width digital output entered therein from said memory means, said signal generator means at the same time counting said accumulator counter in a first counting direction for establishing in said accumulator counter a value representative of the predetermined line length as successively reduced by each said digital output,

decimal readout means operated by said accumulator counter for continuously supplying a numerical output indicative of said reduced line length, said decimal readout means comprising a plurality of visible digital display units which are respectively responsive to the contents of said register stages,

and circuitry for altering the count in said accumulator counter in accordance with characters and words deleted under the direction of said keyboard, said circuitry comprising:

separate counter means responsive to said signal generator means for counting the number of increments in each word and character at the same time as said signal generator means provides an input to said accumulator counter, said separate counter means being reset at the end of each such word and character respectively,

means for reverse counting said separate counter means in accordance with the word or character which it is desired to delete,

and means for simultaneously reversely counting said accumulator counter from said first counting direction until said reverse counting of said separate counting means has been accomplished.

V UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CQRRECTEON p ten 3,805,940 Dated April 23, 1974 I William M. Stockham It :is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 4, line 51, "Amlifier" should be -Amplifier-.

Column 5, line 14, after "width" insert -counter-.

Column 5, line-35, "stroke" should be -strobe.

Column 12, line 48, "sixteenth" should be sixth.

Signed arid sealed this 5th day of November 1974.

(SEAL) Attest:

McCOY M. GIBSON JR. Attesting Officer C MARSHALL DANN Commissioner of Patents FORM USCOMM DC 60376 ps9 Q U.5, GOVERNMENT PRINTYNG OFFICE: 96 9 D-355-334 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTEON patent 3,805,940 Dated April 23, 1974 Inventor s M. It "is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 4, line 51, "Amlifier" should be Amplifier.

Column 5, line 14, after "width" insert counter-.

Column 5, line'35, "stroke" should be strobe--.

Column 12, line 48, "sixteenth" should be -sixth.

Signed and sealed this 5th day of November 1974.

( EAL) Attest: I

McCOY M. GIBSON JR. C. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents USCOMM'DC 60376-P69 9 U GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 0-356'334 FORM PO-1OSO (10-69)

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Classifications
U.S. Classification400/6, 396/552, 365/236, 199/18, 315/8.51, 400/15
International ClassificationB41B27/36, B41B27/00
Cooperative ClassificationB41B27/00, B41B27/36
European ClassificationB41B27/00, B41B27/36