|Publication number||US3806074 A|
|Publication date||Apr 23, 1974|
|Filing date||Mar 8, 1971|
|Priority date||Mar 8, 1971|
|Publication number||US 3806074 A, US 3806074A, US-A-3806074, US3806074 A, US3806074A|
|Original Assignee||Ward J|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (22), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Ward [4 Apr. 23, 1974  Inventor: James S. Ward, 963 Crestridge Rd.,
Omaha, Nebr. 68154  Filed: Mar. 8, 1971  Appl. No.: 122,021
521 u.s.c1. ..24s/22s 51 Int.'Cl. ..E04gll/00 58 Field of Search 248/228, 242; 249/23, 24,
[5 6] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,525,495 8/1970 Brosseau 249/219 R X 3,472,475 10/1969 Rudiger 248/228 3,584,825 6/197l Williams... 249/23 3,628,765 12/1971 Sanders 249/24 X 2,564,935 8/1951 Templeton 248/242 1,764,697 6/1930 Shlager et al. l.. 248/228 UX 1,433,617 10/1922 Hoffman 248/228 UX 689,420 l2/l96l Scammell 248/228 UX 3,383,080 5/1968 Frisbie 249/25 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Germany 248/228 Primary Examiner-William M. Schultz Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Waters, Roditi, Schwartz & Nissen [5 7] ABSTRACT Forms are provided for molding concrete on horizontal I-beams, the forms being adjustable from a position above the beams. With respect to the interior space between two beams, clips and/or hangers suspend bolts adjacent the beams, the bolts being threadably engaged with brackets between which extend a joist,
' the joist being located below and in overlapping relation with the upper flanges of the beams. The bolts are rotatable from a position atop thebeams to adjust the brackets to control the locating of the joist. Sheeting supported on the joist constitutes a support or mold for wet concrete. The joist and brackets along -with the bolts as well as other components constitute a portable unit which can be assembled according to a template or other such plan at a station removed from the beams whereafter this unit can be dropped into position between the beams. A relatively small U-shaped clip can be used to support the bolts. With respect to the fascia overhang form, a system of two combined triangles having pivoted legs one of which is in part shared in common is employed. The length of one leg is adjustable from atop the beam from which this system' is suspended so that the location of a Wale attached to the system can be controlled.
7 l8 Claims, 36 Drawing Figures PATENTEDAPR 23 m4 SHEET [1F 8 mlzmiwm m 3806.074
' SHEET 7 OF 8 INTERIOR AND FASCIA OVERHANG FORMS FOR CONCRETE AND RELATED COMPONENTS,
SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND METHODS FIELD OF INVENTION This invention relates to load supporting systems and to related suspension arrangements and methods and components therefor, and more particularly to systems and techniques for hanging interior and fascia forms to support the weight of wet concrete until it sets.
BACKGROUND In the construction of bridges, highways and the like, systems of parallel steel I-beams are used as bases to support concrete which is molded thereon. This concrete is poured in wet form onto molds or supports carried by and/or between such beams and, after the concrete has set, these molds are removed.
The mounting of forms on steel beams for the aforenoted purpose involves various problems. First of all, relatively large amounts of concrete have to be supported so that the forms must be strong. Secondly, the installation of such forms will. generally take place in the field at a location where sophisticated tools are not available and where working conditions are not the best. Additionally, installation may take place under all sorts of weather conditions and in the face of all sorts of hazards and inconveniences.
Despite the above problems, numerous approaches have been developed for mounting concrete molds or forms on steel beams. Some of the approaches relate to' fascia forms involving the solution of cantilever problems as shown, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 2,855,654 (G. H. Stroben), Pat. No. 3,077,645 (H. B. Fleming), Pat. No. 3,119,590 (G. .l. Eriksson), Pat. No. 2,974,386 (R. A. Frost) and Pat.-No. 2,058,268 (0. M. Stanley). Further solutions to this problem are shown in Bulletin No. 3, Richmond Hanging Devices, Richmond Screw Anchor Co., New York; Fleming Brackets for Bridge Overhangs, Fleming Devices Inc., Maine;
, nois, as well asin other catalogs which have been filed with the U.S. Patent Office concurrently herewith. Other of the aforementioned approaches relate to the suspension or hanging of molds or forms between spaced parallel beams as shown in the aforementioned literature and patents and, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,985,946 and 2,985,947 (B. l-lillberg').
Most of the above form arrangements are in commercial use and perform more or less satisfactorily to achieve their purposes. They do not, however, provide the best possibilities with respect to ease of adjustment and with respect to safety and convenience in use. Thus, for'example, none of the known supporting or hanging arrangements provide an effective adjustment from atop the corresponding beams and none of the known arrangements provide a truly facile technique for bringing load supporting members into position on the associated beam or beams.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION Generally, it is an object of the invention to provide improved means and techniques for mounting load supporting members on beams and the like.
More specifically, one object of the invention is to provide an improved technique whereby, if desired, a form supporting arrangement may be assembled as a unit which can be transported to the supporting beam or beams and then installed thereon, this enabling a general conformation to a template or other such plan at a station removed from the installation site and a fine adjustment following installation.
Another specific object of the invention is to provide improved techniques for adjusting molds or forms as to level, attitude and so forth, taking into account safety and convenience factors for the installing personnel.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide supporting or hanging arrangements which can be fabricated from simple components which are relatively small and may therefore be made of relatively exotic materials, e.g., plated, galvanized, without introducing intolerable cost factors and which, in any event, are of relatively low cost and are easily manufactured.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an extremely versatile hanging system capable of adapting readily to the different geometries of bridge and highway structures and the like.,
To achieve the above and other objects and advantages of the invention, there is provided in accordance therewith a complete system and technique for hanging the interior and fascia overhang forms to support the weight of wetconcrete until the concrete has set or hardened whereafter the forms can be readily removed.
According to one aspect of the invention, there is provided a construction apparatus to support a concrete mold between two beams comprising a joist adapted to constitute at least part of a mold support with spaced beam engaging means provided on the joist to enable the joist to be supported on the beams and to be adjusted relative to the beams or to a horizontal attitude from a position atop the beams, the joist and engaging means beingconnected together as a portable unit with the means being arranged to accommodate the spacing of the beams at a location remote therefrom whereby the unit can be subsequently transported to the beams and the joist dropped into a position between the beams.
In further accordance with this aspect of the inven tion, the aforesaid engaging means include further means to release the joist from a position below the, beams whereby after the concrete has set in the mold the joist can be readily removed.
According to another feature of the invention, the
beams include upper and lower flanges connected by a web with the upper flanges having facing edges and the engaging means including members adapted to seat on respective of the upper flanges adjacent and cupping around the facing edges thereof.
In further accordance with the invention, the aforesaid members include sections provided with generally cylindrical and vertical openings adjacent the edges, the engaging means comprising brackets engaging the aforesaid joist, threaded bolts extending through the aforesaid openings and threadably engaging the brackets and nuts or other such members on the bolts resting atop the members for the transfer of load to the latter.
In accordance with another feature of the invention, the aforesaid brackets may be U-shaped brackets mounted in reversed attitudes on the joist, the bolts enclosing the joist in the brackets, the apparatus further comprising fastening means connecting the brackets to the joist.
According to still another feature of the invention, wedge means are optionally sandwiched between the joist and the aforenot ed upper flanges of the beams.
According to still another feature of the invention, heads may be provided on the bolts below the brackets providing for detaching the bolts and thereby the brackets and joist from the aforesaid members in accordance with the release function referred to hereinabove.
Still another feature of the invention relates to the inclusion by the brackets of upper and lower legs provided with aligned openings and nuts welded to respec-- tive of the legs in correspondence with the openings therein, the aforesaid bolts extending through the openings and nuts and threadably engaging the same.
Moreover, the legs may touch one another'adjacent the.
aforesaid cylindrical portion or may be spaced adjacent this portion. I
In accordance with still another aspect of the invention there is provided concrete mold apparatus which comprises spaced beams including upper flanges having facing edges and remote edges and being of determinable width, a joist extending between the beams.
and being below and in overlapping relationship with the upper flanges, there being furthermore provided brackets on the joist in correspondence with the facing edges. In accordance with this aspect of the invention, there are moreover included rods threadably and adjustably engaging the brackets and extending upwardly therefrompast the edges of the beam, suspension clips being provided on the flanges cupping around these edges, there being furthermore provided means for supporting the bolts on the clips with the upper extremities of the bolts exposed above the clips for engagement above the flanges whereby the brackets and joist can be adjusted from a position above the beams.
According to still a further feature of the invention, at least one of the aforesaid clips is spaced from and is free of connection with the corresponding remote edge whereby this clip is held in position by connection with the joist.
According to this aspect of the invention, there is moreover provided a cover atop the joist to support concrete for molding, this cover including sheets provided with slots to straddle the bolts, the sheets being sandwiched between wedge means and the aforesaid upper flanges. I
The rods of this aspect of the invention will extend below the aforesaid brackets and joist and the apparatus will moreover comprise means on these rods for engaging and rotating the latter from below the beams to detach the joist and brackets from the suspension clips.
In accordance with still another aspect of the invention there is provided for supporting a concrete mold arrangement on a beam which includes an upper flange, an apparatus comprising a mold supporting member, means for suspending this member from and at least in part below the upper flange and means to engage the first said means above the flange to adjust the same and to adjust the horizontal attitude of the mold supporting member. Moreover, the first said means of this aspect of the invention may include an adjustable threaded engagement means coupled to the 'said member below the aforesaid flange for adjusting the position of this member and means extending above the flange for adjustment of the engagement means.
In further accordance with the invention there is provided a method. This method comprises attaching to a concrete mold supporting member a thread actuated adjustment for the adjustment of said member, suspending the adjustment and member from .the upper flange of a beam by a threaded member such that the threaded member extends above the beam but engages the adjustment below the said flange and adjusting the threaded'member from above the flange.
This method may further comprise preparing a plan establishing a relationship between the supporting member and beam, connecting the adjustment and threaded member to the said supporting member to form a unit according to the aforesaid plan at a station remote from the beam and transporting the unit to the said beam and suspending the unit from this beam.
. In accordance with still another aspect of the invention, there is provided a tool for performing the aforesaid adjustments. This tool will provide for rotating a rod at least one end portion of which is cylindrical and threaded. The tool includes a head provided with a blind and threaded cylindrical receptacle adapted to be threaded to a homing position on the end portion of the rod which is cylindrical and threaded. Moreover, there is provided a means to apply a rotational force concentric with the cylindrical receptacle to the aforesaid head. 1
In accordance with still another aspect of the invention, there is provided an apparatus for supporting a load bearing member from a beam having a web and an upper flange on the web, this apparatus comprising first and second legs pivotally connected to each other, there being furthermore provided suspension means suspending the first said leg from the flange, pivot means connecting the second legto said load bearing thus to the load bearing member. The fourth leg in this embodiment of the invention includes an end remote from the third leg which is adapted to bear against the beam at a position below and spaced from the upper flange.
Still further in this embodiment of the invention there may be provided a clamping means on the first leg pivotally connecting the second leg to the first leg and cooperating with the suspension means to clamp the flange therebetween.
The fourth leg of the apparatus of this embodiment of the invention may be of adjustable length and there may be provided a limit means connected between the third and fourth legs to limit the angular displacement therebetween.
Still further in accordance with this embodiment of the invention, the first leg may be a threaded bolt and the adjustment means will be in threaded engagement therewith, the bolt extending through and above the suspension means whereby to be engageable above the beam for adjustment of the adjustment means.
Still further, the load bearing member may include two planks and the third leg may include two facing angles connected to the planks,-the adjustment means including a threaded element pivotally connected between these angles.
According to other aspects of this embodiment of the invention, the pivot means may include a pin extending between the aforesaid angles and spaced straps connected between the pin and first leg. Moreover, there may be comprised a first nut on the bolt for transferring load from the bolt to the suspension means and a second nut on the bolt to urge the clamping means against the flange. Still further, the suspension means may include a portion through which the bolt extends in nonthreaded engagement.
Further features of this embodiment of the invention include that the aforesaid portion is laterally open for the insertion of the bolt and is provided with notches to receive the said first nut and hold the same against rotation. Still further, the aforesaid clamping means may comprise mirror image elements rigidly interconnected and cooperatively comprising a first portion defining a cylindrical bore and a second portion provided with a hole perpendicular to this bore for pivotal connection of the said second leg, the second portion of the clamping means having a flat bearing surface at about a forty-five degree angle to the aforesaid bore for bearing against the flange.
In accordance with still another aspect of the invention there is provided a load bearing apparatus adapted for being mounted on a beam having an upper flange, this apparatus comprising first and second partly coextensive triangulated means, said first means including a first leg part of which constitutes a first leg of the second means, said first means including a second leg pivotally connected to the first leg thereof, said second means including second and third legs pivoted together and to a first leg thereof, adjustment means for pivotally connecting the first leg of the first means and the second leg of the second means such that the length of the first leg of the second means is adjustable, there being moreover provided a load bearing member rigidly affixed to the first leg of the first means.
In this embodiment of the invention there is provided a suspension means adapted to seat on the upper flange and to receive and hold the second leg of the second means with the second leg of the second means bearing endwise against the beam.
A clamping means is provided in accordance with this embodiment of the invention on the second leg of the second means to cooperate with the suspension means to clamp the flange therebetween. Moreover, as noted hereinabove, with respect to another aspect of the invention there may be provided a limit means to limit the maximum angle between the first and second legs of the first means.
The above objects and features of the invention, as well as advantages thereof, will be described in detail hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawmg.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a top view of a suspension clip employed in the suspension arrangement of FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a side view of the suspension clip of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 illustrates a modification of the clip of FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 illustrates a further modification of the clip of FIG. 6;
FIG. 10 is a side view of a bracket employed in the construction illustrated in FIG. 1;
FIG. 11 is a view from another side of the bracket illustrated in FIG. 10; 1
FIG. 12 illustrates on enlarged scale the fascia overhang support employed in the construction of FIG. 1;
FIG. 13 is a sectional viewtaken along line XIIIX- III of FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken along line XIV-XIV of FIG. 12;
FIG. 15 is an end view of the bottom portion of the bracket illustrated in FIG. 12;
FIG. 16 illustrates a modification of the structure illustrated in FIG. 15;
FIG. 17 illustrates on enlarged scale a component employed in the construction of FIG. 12;
FIG. 18 is a side view of the component of FIG. 17;
FIG. 19 illustrates another component employed in the construction of FIG. 12;
FIG. 20 is a side view of the component of FIG. 19;
FIG. 21 is a front view of another component employed in the construction of FIG. 12;
FIG. 22 is a side view of the component of FIG. 21;
FIG. 23 is a top view of another component employed in the construction of FIG. 12;
FIG. 24 is a side view of the component illustrated in FIG. 23;
FIG. 25 illustrates a modification of the construction of FIG. 12;
FIG. 26 is a top view of a suspension clip which may be used in substitution for that illustrated in FIG. 12;
FIG. 27 is a side view of the suspension clip of FIG. 26;
FIG. 28 diagrammatically illustrates a form of tool which can be employed for adjustment purposes in the aforesaid apparatus; I
FIG. 29 illustrates a modification of the tool illustrated in FIG. 28;
FIG. 30 is a view corresponding to FIG. 14 showing a modification thereof;
FIG. 31 is a side view of the threadably engaged components in FIG. 30 taken along line XXXI XXXI of FIG. 30;
FIGS. 32 and 33 correspond .to FIGS. 26 and 27 and show a modification of the same;
FIGS. 34 and 35 are view of a further embodiment of the invention constituting a variation embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 32 and 33; and
FIG. 36 is a pictorial view illustrating a method of the invention utilizing some of the above structural components.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION A deck form is a structure for receiving wet concrete and supporting the same on steel beams so that the concrete may set and form an adjunct to the steel beam such as a concrete road or the like. The details of a deck form are illustrated in FIG. 1.
In FIG. 1 are illustrated two spaced and parallel steel beams and 12. Beam 10 includes an uppper flange 14, a lower flange l6 and a web 18 connecting these flanges. Beam 12 includes an upper flange 20, a lower flange 22 and a connecting web 24.
Flanges 14 and have facing edges 26 and 28 and remote edges and 32, i.e., these edges are remote from one another in contrast to facing edges 26 and 28.
An additional number of beams may be employed in the overall construction, however, it is satisfactory for purposes of explanation to deal simply with the two illustrated beams 10 and 12.
Generally indicated at 34 is the interior form which supports the wet concrete at the interior of the overall construction, whereas generally indicated at 36 is the fascia overhang which supports that part of the wet concrete which is outboard of the outermost beam 10.
of the flanges 14 and 20 and by other. minor compo-' nents to be mentioned hereinafter.
The sheet 40 is supported between the beams 10 and 12 by means of a joist 50. This joist is provided with wood slats or scabs 52 and 54 by means of which an upwardly directed extension or filler 56 is supported atop the joist for elevating the sheet 40 with respect thereto. The joist 50 as well as extension 56 may be fabricated of wood and the sheet 40, as well as other such sheets may be made of plywood or the like. A further boundary to the mold is provided by side sheets 58 and 60 connected to the ends of extension 56.
Connected to the joist 50 at the opposite ends thereof are brackets 60 and 62. These engage end portions 64 and 66 of joist 50, these end portions extending respectively below upper flanges 14 and 20 and being thus in overlapping relationship withthe same.
As will be described in greater detail hereinafter, threaded rods or bolts 70 and 72 extend through the brackets 60 and 62 and extend upwardly past facing edges 26 and 28 to a position above the respective beams. Thereat they are engaged and supported by clips or suspension elements and 82,'the details of which will be described hereinafter.
' To avoid leakage of the wet concrete as it is being poured, there are in addition provided strips 84 and 86, these strips being appropriately provided with slots so that they are capable of straddling the bolts 70 and 72 and the strips 84 and 86 extend below and inface to face contact with the bottom surfaces of upper flanges 14 and 20. Between these strips and the upper edge of joist 50 there are provided wedges 88 and 90 which enable the strips to' be wedged tightly against the bottom surfaces of the upper flanges of the beams after appro priate adjustment has been made of the horizontal attitude of joist 50 and the constructional elements mounted thereuponfSuch adjustment is made through operation of the threaded bolts 70 and 72 which have threaded engagement with the aforenoted brackets, ad-
' justment of the attitude of the sheet 40 being made in cooperation with the use of a level or in cooperation with the use of surveyors equipment according to well known techniques.
From what has been described above, it will now be apparent that a plurality of interior forms may be provided between a succession of I-beams in the manner described to provide a concrete mold of desired width. The outer extremity of the mold or fascia overhang portion is provided at both lateral extremities of the mold in the manner to be described next below.
The fascia overhang requires a cantilever structure and for this purpose there is provided a wale supported by a bracket arrangement to be hereinafter described. Atop the wale 100 is shown a plurality of wooden beams 102, 104, 106, 108 and 110, these supporting the cover or sheet 42 atop which is mounted a further beam or facing 112 held in position by a turnbuckle arrangement 114 or other such means. In this portion of the mold provision may be made for a curb 116 which is formed according to conventional concrete molding techniques which are well known and which are not themselves a part of the present invention.
It will now be seen that a suspension device 120 is connected to suspension device'80 by means of a transverse rod 122. Suspension device 120 holds a threaded rod 124 which, as will be shown hereinafter, forms one leg of a triangulated device generally indicated at 126 for purposes to be noted hereinafter. Triangulated device 126 cooperates with triangulated device 128 having a leg generally indicatd at 130, an end of which bears against the lower flange 116. These two triangulated devices 126 and 128 are adjustable and interdependent and cooperatively control the location or attitude of wale 100.
Shown in phantom lines in FIG. 1 is a second position for a lower flange 16 as might be the situation if the beam 18 were of greater height. In this latter event, the lower end of leg 130 does not bear against the lower flange and is instead held in position by a chain 132 which limits the angle which the leg 130 may assume relative to the wale 100 in a constructional variation to be described in greater detail hereinafter.
From what has been described above, it will be seen that the bolts 70 and 72, as well as the bolt 124 have exposed portions extending upwardly above the mold form. By means thereof and due to the details which will later be described, it is possible to control the attitude of the joist 50 and the wale 100 from a position atop the beams and 12 as a result of which this adjustment can be conveniently and safely made by personnel effecting the installation. As will also be seen hereinafter, adjustment of the wale 100 can be made without working on the outboard end of the same or without the need for working below the upper flange of the beam 10. As will also become apparent hereinafter, the aforesaid bolts are provided with downwardly located heads 140, 142 and 144 by means'of which these bolts can be subsequently-removed from the respective suspension devices so that after the concrete 38 has set, it is possible to remove these bolts along with the corresponding brackets and along with the joists and wales which have been employed. This is absolutely essential from the point of view of removing both materials which can deteriorate and brackets and associated components which can be re-used on other projects or on other portions of the same construction.
The concrete form illustrated in FIG. 1 is a typical haunch construction. There is, however, illustrated in FIG. 2 a'form in which no haunch is employed. Herein appears an upper flange 160 of a beam having associated therewith a cover or-sheet 162, these two elements having coplanar upper surfaces 164 and 166. Cover 162 is supported on a beam or plank 168 supported on a wale 170, the wale being held by a bracket including a threaded bolt 172 supported in a suspension device 174 by means of a nut 176 through which the load is transferred to suspension device 174. The bracket employed herein is generally similar to that of FIG. 1 and will be described in greater detail hereinafter. FIG. 3 shows still another constructional variation involving a vertical haunch in which the upper flange 190 of a beam has associated therewith a cover or sheet 192 supported partly on a horizontal sheet 194 and partly through the intermediary of a beam or plank 196 on 'a wale 198. A suspension device 2 00 is employed with a bracket arrangement indicated generally at 202, the details hereof to be described below.
In FIGS. 4 and 5 are shown the beam 12 with upper flange and joist 50. Also illustrated are the suspension device 82 and bracket 62. Threaded rod 72 is seen to extend through the bracket 62 and to form therewith an enclosure 210 in which the joist 50 is accommodated. A nut 212 threadably engages the rod 72 at the upper end thereof and constitutes the element through which load is transferred to the suspension clip 82. The details of the suspension clip will be described in detail hereinafter. However, it is suitable to note at this point that the suspension clip cups around the corresponding edge of upper flange 20 and thus may not be displaced inwardly on this upper flange. It is also suitable to note that the suspension clip 82 is localized at the edge of the flange and does not extend to the remote edge of the flange nor is it engaged with any element positioned at this remote edge. It will also be seen that the bracket 62 is connected to the joist 50 by means of fastening elements such as nails 214 and 216 which are driven through appropriate holes provided in the bracket.
Similarly it will be noted that there is a nut 218 welded to the bottom leg of the bracket 62, this nut being in threaded engagement with the threaded bolt or rod 72 for purposes of adjustment of the bracket.
Suspension device 82 is shown in greater detail and on enlarged scale in FIGS. 6 and 7. Therein it can be seen that this device includes a generally cylindrical portion 220 as well as legs 222 and 224. The legs and cylindrical portion are integrally fabricated of steel or other suitable material having appropriate strength and since it is of relativelysmall size can be made of a relatively exotic material such as plated steel or a galvanized material which will not greatly increase the cost of this device due to the relatively small size thereof.
It is to be noted that the diameter of the cylindrical portion indicated .at x is much smaller than the extent y of the legs 222 and 224, the dimension y being equal to or greater than twice the diameter x in the preferred version of this device. It will also be noted that the height H1 of the legs is somewhat smaller than the height or depth H2 of the cylindrical portion, this providing for a recess 226 by means of which the suspension device can rest on top of the flange while cupping around the edge of the same.
It will also be noted that the cylindrical portion 220 and legs 222 have a common coplanar upper surface indicated at 228.
The interior bore 230 of the cylindrical portion 220 is smooth surfaced as indicated at 232. The reason for this is that in the preferred embodiment of the invention no threaded engagement between the cylindrical portion and the bolt passing therethrough is desired.
In the embodiment of FIG. 6 the legs are shown as being spaced apart by gap 234. Thisis not always essential since the clip can take the form illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9.
The suspension clip of FIG. 8 includes a cylindrical portion 240 and two legs 242 and 244. In profile, these components take the form illustrated in FIG. 7. The legs 242 and 244 are, however, parallel members and are preferably in face to face abutting relationship.
The clip of FIG. 9 also includes a cylindrical portion 250 and legs 252 and 254. These legs are flared as indicated above with respect to FIG. 6. However, these legs come into contacting relationship with one another as indicated at 256.
Bracket 62 is shown in greater detail in FIGS. 10 and 11. In it is seen that the bracket is a U-shaped bracket consisting of legs 260 and 262 connected by a connecting portion 264. Legs 260 and 262 are provided with aligned holes or openings 266 and 268 through which passes the threaded rod or bolt 72. A nut 274 is welded to kg 262 which is the bottom leg of the bracket, the nut having a threaded bore which is coaxial with openings 266'and 268 and which makes threaded engagement with rod 72. It thus results that the bracket can be moved along the rod 72 by rotation of the latter in the manner which has been implied hereinabove.
Connecting section 264 is provided with openings 276 and 278. The purpose of these openings is to accommodate fastening members such as the nails 214 and 216 referred to hereinabove with respectto FIGS. 4 and 5.
As has also been indicated hereinabove, the rod 72 is provided with a head 140, the purpose of which is to enable the detachment of this rod from the suspension device 82 after the concrete has been set whereupon the brackets, rods, joist and so forth may be removed for future use. The head 140 may be constituted by a nut which is welded to the rod 72.
The bracket may be fabricated, for example, from one-eighth-inch steel stock-having suitable strength.
It will be seen from the above description that each bracket has a closed side provided by connecting section 264 and an open side indicated generally at 280. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the brackets are mounted in reversed attitude on the wale 150 so that the closed sections 264 of the brackets are positioned on opposite surfaces of the wale. This greatly aids in avoiding a twisting moment with respect to the wale and is the preferred technique to be followed in practicing the invention.
In further accordance with the method of the invention, it is to be noted that the brackets are fastened at opposite-extremities of the joist with the threaded rods in engagement with the brackets. This may be effected at a position remote from the steel beams which represents a great convenience, the assembly of these elements and the other components connected thereto constituting a portable unit which can be fabricated and then transported to the beams and dropped between the beams from a position above the same.
In practice the beams will be very frequently elevated from the ground or above the surface of a body of water and working atop the beams will be a hazardous function. It will thus be obvious that the fact that the aforesaid portable unit can be fabricated at a station remote from the beams represents a great advantage contributing materially to the convenience and to the safety of the overall operation.
Thus, it will also be seen that the unit of the invention provides for a simple type of adjustment from the top of the respective beams, this being enabled by the ex posed upper end portions of the threaded rods 70 and 72 with which a rotational type engagement can be made in a manner to be explained hereinafter whereby the brackets 60 and 62 can be displaced along the threaded rods to adjust the level or horizontal attitude of the joist in cooperation with the use of a level of surveyors apparatus in accordance with conventional and well known techniques.
It will also be appreciated that due to the provision of the heads 140 and 142 on the bottom of the aforesaid threaded rods, these rods can be detached from the nuts holding the same on the suspension devices 80 and 82 whereupon the unit can be completely removed for further use'for purposes of economy and the like.
Reference is next made to the fascia overhang structure illustrated in FIG. 12, wherein appears beam 10 including upper flange 14, lower flange 16 and connecting web 18. Herein are also seen the triangulated bracket 126 cooperating with triangulated bracket 128 in a manner to be described next hereinafter.
In FIG. 12, different reference characters will be employed than have been employed previously with respect to FIG. 1 because a slightly varied embodiment of the invention is shown.
More particularly, triangulated bracket 126 includes legs 300 and 302 pivotally connected to a wale 304 and pivotally connected to each other at pin 306, the leg 302 being pivotally connected to wale 304 at pin 310 and leg 300 being pivotally connected to wale 304 at pin 308.
The triangulated bracket 128 includes a leg indicated at 312-and another leg indicated at 314. The leg 314 is rigidly connected to the wale 304. Legs 312 and 314 are pivotally connected at pin 316. p
The leg 312 includes a free end portion 318 at the end of which is mounted a cylindrical member 320 which is fixed in position on the end portion 318 and which comes to bear against the web 18 and against the lower flange l6 nestling in the corner defined between the same. A strap 322 is mounted on the pin 310 in a manner which will be described hereinafter and cooperatively serves a purpose with the flange'324 which is provided with a hole 326. i
The leg 312 includes two sections 330 and 332, there being provided openings 334 through one of which is selectively inserted a pin 336 so that the. effective length of leg 312 can be adjusted.
The leg 314 is rigidly affixed to the wale 304 as aforesaid by means of fastening elements such as the nails 340 which are inserted through holes provided in the leg 314 in appropriate position as will be described in greaterdetail hereinafter.
The leg 330 of triangulated bracket 126 is a threaded rod at the lowerextremi'ty of which is mounted a head in the form of a nut which is welded to the threaded rod. The purpose of this head or nut is to enable the detachment of the rod 300 from the associated .suspension device in the manner which has been indicated hereinabove as a result of which the wale 304 and the associated brackets can be recovered.
Suspension device352 rests atop the upper surface of the upper flange 14 and is connected by means of a rod 354 to a suspension device performing a like function at the remote edge of the flange 14. A nut 356 threadably engages the upper extremity 358 of rod 300 and is the load transferring member by means of which the rod 300 is connected to the suspension-device 352.
The exposure of the upper end portion 358 ofthe rod 300 provides the means by which a rotational force can be applied to the'rod 300 as a result of which an adjustment can be made in. a manner to be indicated'in greater detail hereinafter.-
' FIG. 13 illustrates that the wale 304 'is'made in two parallel sections 360 and 362, throughwhich extends the pin 310 mentioned hereinabove. The pin 310 is I held in position by means of a head 364 and a nut 366,
there being a central portion ofthe-pin 310 on which are mounted the spaced straps angularly disposed with respect to one another and identified at 368 and 370,
these two straps'eonstituting the leg 302 mentioned hereinabove with respect to triangulated bracket 126. A pin 306 which has been identified hereinabove passes through the upper extremities of straps 368 and 370 and functions to connect the leg 302 pivotally to the leg 300 as has been mentioned hereinabove.
As will be seen in FIG. 13, the leg 314 consists of two sections 372 and 374 which are angles to be described hereinafter. Strap 322 is mounted between straps 368 and 370 to perform a function to be described hereinafter.
FIG.. 14 also illustrates the sections 360 and 362 of the wale and also appearing in this figure is the threaded rod 300. Herein it will appear that the pin 308 illustrated in FIG. 12 consists of sections 376 and 378 which are coextensive and coaxial. Section 376 is provided with head 380 whereas section 378 is provided tions 388 and 390 between which is welded a helical coil 392. This helical coil 392 constitutes a section provided with an internally threaded bore by means of which threaded engagement is made with the rod or leg 380 for purposes of threaded and adjustable engagement therealong.
FIG. 15 illustrates the cylindrical portion 320 of FIG. 12 mounted at the lower extremity 318 of leg 312 which consists as aforesaid of sections 330 and 332. Also appearing herein is the flange 324 as well as the bolt 336 by means of which selective connection is made between the two leg sections for purposes of adjusting the length of the leg.
As appears in FIG. 16, the bolt 336 may be replaced by a pin 400 having a head 402 and held in position by a cotter pin 404.
FIGS. 17 and 18 illustrate the details of the threaded receptacle of FIG. 14, in greater detail. Herein appears the coil 392 welded into position between straps 388 and 390. It can be seen that the straps 388 and 390 consist of parallel portions 406 and 408 connected by shoulders 410 and 412 to parallelsections 414 and 416. In these latter sections are provided holes 418 and 420 through which extend pin sections 376 and 378 (FIG. 14), the latter being held in position by heads 380 and 382. 4
The coil 392 may be formed, for example, as a threefourths inch diameter coil having seven and one-half turns approximately three-sixteenths of an inch diameter wire stock. As aforesaid, these turns cooperatively define an inner threaded receptacle which makes threaded engagement with the rod 300.
As noted hereinabove, the leg 314 of FIG. 12 is made of two angles, these appearing in greater detail in FIGS. 19 and 20. There it is seen that the section 372, for example, is provided with a plurality of holes 430 adapted to accommodate the fastening members or nails which attach the angles to the wale and that there are in addition provided holes 432, 434, 436 and 438. Hole 432 accommodates the passage of pin 316, whereas hole 434 accommodates the. passage of the sections of pin 308. Holes 436 and 438 are selectively and alternativelyemployed to accommodate, for example, the pin 310. The strap 322 of FIG. 12 is shown in greater detail in FIGS. 21 and 22 wherein it is seen that this strap is of inverted U-shape or horseshoe shape and is provided with openings 450 and 452 to accommodate the passage of a pin, the use of which will be shown in greater detail hereinafter.
The strap employed and illustrated in FIGS. 21 and 22 can be made, for example, of steel and may be of, for example, one-eighth inch stock.
FIGS. 23 and 24 shown another important component of the invention and in particular the component illustrated in FIG. 12 for engaging the threaded rod 300 and for supporting pin 306.
In FIGS. 23 and 24 it is seen that the element 454 consists of two mirror image sections 456 and 458 which cooperatively define a smooth cylindrical bore 460 through which extends the rod 300.
The component 454 moreover comprises two flat portions '462 and 464 in face to face relationship and welded together as indicated by welding points 466.
The element 454 has an upper surface 468, the purpose of which is to permit bearing against the lower surface of upper flange 14 of beam 10 oragainst an intervening sheet when this is desired. The upper surface 468 of component 458 serves in cooperation with the suspension device 352 having a parallel lower surfce for sandwiching the upper'flange 14 therebetween for a firm engagement of the supporting device with the supporting flange.
As has been noted hereinabove with respect to the interior form the fascia overhang form illustrated in FIGS. 12-24 can be set up at a station remote from the beam and subsequently transferred 'or transported to the beam whereat the rod 300 is passed through the suspension device 352 and the nut 356 applied to hold the bracket arrangement in position. The triangulated brackets 126 and 128 may be set up according to a template or other form appropriately prepared with respect to the beam and the constructional plans for the project whereafter final adjustment may be made by engaging the upper exposed portion 358 of the bolt 300 which is effective through triangulated brackets 126 and 128 to tilt the wale 304 to desired attitude.
With the lower end portion seating against the beam 10 through the intermediary of cylindrical portion 320, a very firm supportof the wale is provided, while the adjustment of end portion 358 of threaded rod 300 is effective to move the pin 308 along with threaded receptacle 392 along rod 330 whereupon a tilting adjustment of leg 314 is efi'ected.
Before the adjustment operation is effected, how ever, it is to be noted that the construction is moreover provided with nuts 470 and 472, of which the latter is a locking nut. The purpose of these nuts is tobring the component 454 first loosely and finally snugly into engagement with the undersurface of the upper flange 14 to sandwich the flange between components '454- and 352.
With this adjustment made relative to components 454 rotational engagement of threaded rod 300 as aforesaid will be effective through the threaded receptacle 392 to effect a tilting of the wale 304 bringing the same into desired position in cooperation with the use of a level or surveyors equipment in accordance with conventional techniques.
As has been indicated above, the lower flange 16 o the beam 10 may be at a lower position due to a greater height of the web 18. In this event, the circular portion 320 at the end of leg 312 may not engage against the lower flange 16 as illustrated in FIG. 25. In this event, a limiting device such as the chain 476 may be employed or there may be employed any other flexible or non-flexible limiting device connected between a pin 478 held by strap'322 mounted on pin 310 as aforesaid, the other end of the chain being connected by means of a pin 480 to the flange 324 discussed above.
By the use of this variation of construction a limitation is placed on the angular relationship possible between legs 312 and 314, as a result of which engagement of cylindrical element 320 against lower flange 16 is no longer necessary.
The suspension device 352 is part of a hanger described heretofore in connection with US. application Ser. No. 23,844, Boll et al., filed Mar. 30, 1970. In the suspension device shown in this area of the structure in FIGS. 1 and 12, it is necessary to insert rod 300 through the bore provided in the suspension device.
FIGS. 26 and 27 show an alternative embodiment of V the invention in accordance with which the threading of a rod through the suspension device in an axial direction is not necessary. 4
In FIGS. 26 and 27 appear a suspension device 480 consisting of two lateral elements 482 and 484 welded on a traversing rod 486 which extends to the opposite edge of the flange involved. The sections 482 and 484 define a late rnal opening 488 through which the rod 300 can be inserted without need for an axial displacement of the same. The nut 356 engaging the end portion 358 of the rod is engaged in slots 490 and 492 so that the nut 356 is held against rotation and is prevented from sliding out of the grip of sections 482 and 484.
Suspension device 480 has a flat lower surface 494 which rests on top of the upper flange 14, the bore or grip provided between sections 482 and 484 being at approximately a 45 degree angle with respect to bottom surface 494 as indicated by angle A.
To engage the upper exposedends of the various rods for purposes of effecting adjustment of the various brackets, there is provided a special tool, one such tool being indicated by way of example in FIG. 28 at 500. Herein it is seen that the tool comprises a head 502 having a threaded receptacle 504 of a limited depth provided by end stop 506 of rod 508 which constitutes a handle forthe tool, the extremity of this handle being bent over at approximately right angles as indicated at 510. It will be readily appreciated that the exposed end extremities of the rods may be engaged in threaded receptacle 504 to the extent limited by end stop 506, whereafter the rotation ofhandle 508 will be transferred to the rod such as for example the rod300 in FIG. 12 whichwill be thereby rotated.
A variation of the tool appears in FIG. 29, wherein is seen a head 512 provided with threaded receptacle 514 having a handle 516 wherein a T-shaped grip 518 is'provided for purposes of enabling a rotary or torque force to be imparted to the exposed portions of the aforesaid rods.
From what has been stated above, it will now be clear that the invention pertains to a complete system for hanging both interior and fascia overhang forms to support the weight of wet concrete until it hardens whereafter the forms can be readily removed.
As has been indicated above, due to the different geometries of bridge .decks and the like, a forming or hanging system has to be extremely versatile. The system described hereinabove is extremely versatile and in addition provides for a unique method of adjusting the forms both with respect to the interior forms and the fascia overhang forms. Such adjustment may take place directly from the tops of the respective beams, there being independent hangers employed on each of the sides of the interior beams and a special hanger on the fascia beam used in conjunction with an adjustable fascia bracket, all of the aforesaid adjustments being possible at and atop of the respective beams.
The overhang bracket of the invention has been geometrically designed so that one bolt controls all adjustments and applied loads. The basic components of this bracket are one large and one relatively small variable angle triangulated bracket connected to opposte each other at 180. Adjustment is accomplished by rotating a bolt, which is known as a king bolt, to change the length of one leg in the small triangle forcing the large triangle to rotate over the points of connections in the vertically inclined constant length legs of both triangles thus changing the angles of all legs of both triangles thereby creating a vertical movement up or down in the horizontally inclined leg of the large triangle on a constant ratio to the change in length of the variable length leg of the small triangle.
The adjustable fascia bracket has the additional advantage of using two horizontal wood members available at the job site thereby minimizing fabrication and shipping costs.
Additionally, the adjustable fascia overhang bracket can be used so that the diagonal member of the large triangle rests on the bottom flange of the beam giving a safe and positive support. For unusually deep beams the bracket is adaptable for being used as an overhanging cantilever with the use of a chain to minimize the angular displacement between the legs of the larger triangle. 4
Provision has been made according to a feature of the invention to provide for sliding the bolt laterally into the suspension device without having to thread the bolt through the hanger.
The interior system is designed to use approximately one-half the lumber of conventional systems by eliminating in most cases the use of longitudinal joists and using only one instead of double transverse wales.
As has been indicated hereinabove, the entire assembly of wale or joist, adjusting bolts and hanger clips can be preassembled on the ground and merely dropped into position on the beams. Final adjustment to grade is then made conventionally or by adjusting the threaded bolt from the top with a special tool.
The hanger clips are specially made so that they cannot be accidentally turned" or put out of position by careless workmen. Once dropped into position the assembly is rugged and stiff and there can be no undesired lateral movement.
Furthermore, with this system the entire assembly hangs free for easy adjustment at any time, whereas another advantage of the system is that the hanger clips are light enough to be made of a rust-free material such as stainless steel or plastic or they can be economically plated or galvanized if required. 0
Referring next to FIGS. 30 and 31, these show a modification'of the structure discussed above with reference to FIG. 14. This modification provides a local eccentric rather than concentric distribution of forces in the vicinity of bolt 300 in order to counteract and thereby neutralize other forces in the system.
In FIG. 30 are shown the wale sections 360 and 362 through which extends a bolt 600 which passes through an eye 602 in a metallic hairpin shaped member 604 which is sandwiched between angles 372 and 374 mounted on the bottom inside corners of sections 360 and 36 2. i p
A wire coil 606 is welded to the member 604 and constitutes a threaded receptacle through which extends the threaded rod 300.
The adjustment permitted by this construction is the same adjustment referred to hereinbefore withreference to FIG. 14. The difference, however, is that a single bolt 600 is employed instead of the two bolt sections described in the prior embodiment.
With respect 'to FIGS. 32 and 3 3, which show a modification of the construction described above with reference to FIGS. 26 and 27, the nut 256 which engages the threaded rod 300 is seated on a washer 620 accommodated on the upper surface 622 of modified suspension bracket 624. Protrusions 626 and 628 at the upper extremities of the suspension device prevent washer 620 from slipping out of position and at the same time nut 356 is elevated to position whereat this nut can be rotated for adjustment without encountering interference with suspension device 624.
From the above it will be apparent that numerous variations are possible within the scope of the invention without distinguishing from the scope of the following claims.
For example, FIGS. 34 and 35 show a modification I erally made to steel I-beams employed in bridge and road constructions and the like. It is to be understood, however, that the load suspending members of the invention may equally as well be employed in buildings and in connection with wooden supporting members as well as structural members of other types. The general importance of the application of the aforegoing structural devices will be apparent from an examination of FIG. 36 wherein is exemplified a method of the invention as well as applications thereof.
In FIG. 36 appear a plurality of beams 800, 802 and 804, these three beams being exemplary of an arbitrary number of beams which may be employed in any given structure. Between these beams are defined a plurality of bays 806 and 808. Corresponding ends of the aforeno ted beams are shown supported on a beam support 810. This beam support may be, for example, a natural geological support or an artificial support which is manufactured for purposes of supporting the beams.
At a station indicated generally at 812 an operator 814 is fabricating units 816 which, as has been noted hereinabove, consists of joints 818, brackets 820, suspension devices 822 and threaded bolts. The brackets are mounted on the joists in accordance with an arrangement indicated by a template 824.
These units are carried by operators 826 along the beams and are dropped into position between these beams. The units thus constitute individual portable units which are readily brought to position and suspended between adjacent beams being held in position between these beams due to the spacing of the brackets and threaded bolts in correspondence with the beam spacing.
As is illustrated, only the bay 806 is being decked whereas bay 808 has not yet been treated. This is an important aspect of the invention which was not heretofore possible inasmuch as in known constructions an interdependence between bays was inherent. In the present invention, however, this interdependence is completely avoided since the suspension devices at least with respect to the interior forms are independent of suspension devices associated with other bays.
As further illustrated in FIG. 36, operators 826 are carrying sheets of plywood 828 which are supported on the suspended joists, thereby forming a decking upon which wet concrete can be deposited for subsequent setting. As is known, the grading of this decking is importantand must be carefully controlled. This grading is controlled with the use of a level or the like by means of rotating the bolts passing through the back brackets mounted on the joists whereby the brackets are compelled to descend or ascend on the associated threaded bolt or rod. Such adjustment can be effected in entirety from atop the associated beams by the use of any of the aforementioned tools or their equivalents. The abovenoted fascia overhang arrangements can be used in association with the interior form arrangements or inde pendently thereof as desired.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for supporting a load bearing member from a beam having a web and upper flange on the web, said apparatus comprising first and second legs pivotally connected to each other, suspension means suspending said first leg from said flange, pivot means connecting said second leg to said load bearing member, and adjustment means pivotally connecting said first leg to said load bearing member at a position spaced from said pivot means, said adjustment means being controllable through said first leg to adjustthe effective length of the latter whereby to tilt said load bearing member.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 comprising third and fourth legs pivotally connected together, said third leg being fixed to the load bearing member, said first and second legs being pivotally connected at spaced positions to said third leg and thus to said load bearing 4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein said v fourth leg is of adjustable length.
5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 comprising limit means connected between said third and fourth legs to limit the angular displacement therebetween.
6. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein said first leg is a threaded bolt and said adjustment means is in threaded engagement therewith, said bolt extending through and above said suspension means whereby to be engageable above the beam for adjustment of said adjustment means.
7. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein said load bearing member includes two planks, said third leg including two facing angles connected to said planks, said adjustment means including a threaded element pivotally connected between said angles.
8. Apparatus as claimed in claim 7 wherein said pivot means includes a pin extending between said two angles and spaced straps connected between said pin and first leg.
9. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6 comprising a first nut on saidbolt for transferring load from said bolt to said suspension means and a second nut on said bolt to urge said clamping means against said flange.
10. Apparatus as claimed in claim 9 wherein said suspension means includes a portion through which said bolt extends in non-threaded engagement.
11. Apparatus as claimed in claim 10 wherein said portion is laterally open for the insertion of said bolt and is provided with notches to receive said first nut and hold the same against rotation.
12. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6 wherein said clamping means comprises mirror-image elements rigidly interconnected and cooperatively comprising a first portion defining a smooth cylindrical bore and a second portion provided with a hole perpendicular to said'bore for pivotal connection of said second leg, said second portion of the clamping means having a flat bearing surface at about a forty-five degree angle to said bore for bearing against said flange.
13. Loading bearingappparatus adapted for being mounted on a beam having an upper flange, said apparatus comprising first and second partly coextensive triangulated means, said first means including a first leg, part of which constitutes a first leg of said second means, said first means including a second leg pivotally connected to the first leg thereof, said second means including second and third legs pivoted together and to the first leg thereof, adjustment means for pivotally connecting the first leg of the first means and the second leg of said second means such that the length of the first leg of the second means is adjustable, and a load bearing member rigidly affixed to the first leg of the first means.
14. Apparatus as claimed in claim 13 comprising suspension means adapted to seat on said upper flange and to receive and hold the second leg of said second means with a second leg of the second means bearing endwise against the beam;
15. Apparatus as claimed in claim 14 comprising clamping means on the second leg of the second means to cooperate with said suspension means to clamp said flange ther'ebetween.
16. Apparatus as claimed in claim 15 comprising limit means to limit the maximum angle between the first and second legs of the first means.
17. Apparatus as claimed in claim 10 comprising a washer between said first nut and suspension means.
18. Apparatus as claimed in claim 17 wherein said washer includes flanges straddling said suspension means.
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|US1764697 *||Apr 9, 1929||Jun 17, 1930||Groisser Bennett M||Clamp|
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|US6848221 *||Nov 1, 2002||Feb 1, 2005||The Ruhlin Company||Overhang falsework|
|US6976336||Oct 28, 2004||Dec 20, 2005||The Ruhlin Company||Overhang falsework|
|US7032268 *||Dec 24, 2003||Apr 25, 2006||Jackson George W||Bridge overhang bracket|
|US7159262||Mar 24, 2005||Jan 9, 2007||Jackson George W||Bridge overhang bracket|
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|U.S. Classification||248/228.1, 249/23, 249/24, 249/211|
|International Classification||E04G13/06, E04G17/18|
|Cooperative Classification||E04G17/18, E04G13/06|
|European Classification||E04G17/18, E04G13/06|