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Publication numberUS3807322 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 30, 1974
Filing dateJan 16, 1973
Priority dateJan 16, 1973
Also published asCA981982A, CA981982A1
Publication numberUS 3807322 A, US 3807322A, US-A-3807322, US3807322 A, US3807322A
InventorsBakker L, Liu H
Original AssigneeAir Preheater
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multiple chamber incinerator
US 3807322 A
Abstract
A grateless incinerator having a pair of combustion chambers including a primary chamber and a secondary chamber separated by a movable closure means. Incineration is started in the primary combustion chamber, then ash including unburned residual matter is dropped from the primary chamber through the movable closure means to the secondary chamber which is located subjacent thereto. Smoke and gas generated by continuing combustion of the incompletely burned residual matter is returned through a controlled passageway to the incinerator downstream therefrom whereby it is again subjected to incinerating temperatures before it is directed through an exhaust duct to the atmosphere.
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a United States Patent Liu et al. Apr. 30, 1974 [54] MULTIPLE CHAMBER INCINERATOR 3,330,230 7/ 1967 Sasaki 1 10/17 [75] Inventors: g gsg gzg b iz' Lubertus Primary Examiner-Kenneth W. Sprague Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wayne H. Lang [73] Assignee: The Air Preheater Company, Inc.,

Wellsville, N.Y. [57] ABSTRACT [22] Filed: Jam 16, 1973 A grateless incinerator having a pair of combustion Appl. No.: 324,011

chambers including a primary chamber and a secondary chamber separated by a movable closure means. Incineration is started in the primary combustion chamber, then ash including unburned residual matter is dropped from the primary chamber through the movable closure means to the secondary chamber which is located subjacent thereto. Smoke and gas generated by continuing combustion of the incompletely burned residual matter is returned through a controlled passageway to the incinerator downstream therefrom whereby it is again subjected to incinerating temperatures before it is directed through an exhaust duct to the atmosphere.

8 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures MULTIPLE CER INCINERATOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The invention relates to a device for the incineration of waste material. The device includes an incinerator including an enclosed primary combustion or pyrolyzing chamber, a subjacent secondary combustion chamber, and an afterburner. The secondary combustion chamber is closed except for a source of air and fuel for combustion and an exhaust duct connected back to the incinerator whereby smoke and other gaseous matter generated therein may again be subjected to high combustion temperatures before it is exhausted to the atmosphere.

2. Description of Prior Art While it is common knowledge that a multichambered incinerator constructed to include a controlled pyrolyzing chamber together with an afterburner comprises a common arrangement for eliminating organic waste, the effective operation of such apparatus requires complete pyrolyzation of waste and then complete cooling of the pyrolyzing chamber before the incinerator may be opened to the atmosphere and the ash manually removed therefrom in the manner shown by U. S. Pat. Nos. 3,491,707 and 3,505,181.

In these patents, the incinerator comprises a housing enclosing a grateless combustion chamber that effects the pyrolyzation of organic waste thereinand having in combination an afterburner that is connected to the housing exhaust to burn the gases given off therefrom. Pyroly zation of waste may continue for some time, but when periodically charging with waste material the loading door must be opened so that the controlled atmosphere in the pyrolyzing chamber altered, and the conditions of pyrolyzation thus terminated. Moreover, pyrolyzation must be halted periodically to permit a cool-down of the chamber sufficient to allow it to be manually opened and the accumulation of ash removed. Furthermore, conventional metallic grates can not be used in high temperature zones as their longevity requires the continuous flow of cooling air in a manner not avilable in a controlled atmosphere incinerator.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It has been found that when incinerating a normal mix of organic waste and trash the completion of a normal burning cycle of operation may require from six to eight hours time, although 90 percent of the waste.

1 charge may be burned during the first hour or so of operation. Therefore, most of the burning time is required to dispose of but a small part of the unburned residual matter, by far the largest portion of the waste being disposed of during the first moments of operation.

The present invention therefore relates to a controlled air pyrolyzing or starved air type incinerator of are ducted back into the incinerator where final com-,

bustion is effected so only carbon dioxide, water and some metallic fumes are exhausted into the atmosphere.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING A better understanding of the invention may be had by reference to the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a sectional elevation of my invention.

FIG. 2 is a line graph that shows the reduction in volume of a charge in an incinerator as viewed with respect to time.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In the drawings of the present invention the reference numeral 10 designates a housing enclosing a pyrolyzation or primary chamber 12 having an access door 14 for the loading of waste material therein and an outlet opening 16 for the exhaust of gaseous products from the pyrolyzation chamber.

Connected to the outlet opening 16 is a duct 18 that encloses an afterburner chamber 22 and exhausts through a stack 24 to the atmosphere. I

A source of air 26 is directed through line 28 to the pyrolyzation chamber 12 through line 32 to the afterburner 22 having respectively control valves 30 and 33 whereby gases generated in chamber 12 may be provided with adequate air for the pyrolyzation of the waste in chamber 12 and complete burning of the pyrolyzed gases in the afterburner. A separate source of fuel is provided to the afterburner through line 34 and controlled by valve 57 whereby temperatures therein may be m intained at frqm 12 09519200? adlbm sh line 55 controlled by valve to chamber 12 whereby the temperature therein may preferably range from 500 to 1,500 F. depending upon the charge in chamber 12. The valves in the air and fuel supply lines may be manually controlled or they may be thermostatically controlled in a manner that is now well known in the art and shown by U. S. Pat. No. 3,491,707.

The bottom of the chamber 12 has a movable closure 36 that comprises a single or multiple door arrangement that effectively seals primary chamber 12 from a subjacent secondary chamber 38. The movable closure is formed of ceramic or other heat resistant material and is provided with a suitable arrangement such as hydraulic actuator 42 pivoted to an extension 49 on the closure 36, whereby the closure may be inclined as desired to permit any material thereon to slide down to the secondary chamber 38.

A connecting duct 44 joins chamber 38 to the primary chamber 12 and to the afterburner 22 wherein gases from chamber 38 may be selectively directed to chamber 12 of the afterburner 22. Suitable valves 45 and 47 make possible the opening and closing of the connecting branch ducts to their respective chambers.

A mechanical collector 51 having valve means 52 through which air accumulation of particulate matter may be removed is included in the connecting duct 44 whereby large particles of ash entering duct 44 are directed through collector 51 and immediately removed from the carrier gas so they are not passed through duct 44 and permitted to erode the duct and its control valves 45 and 47.

As the ash and other residual matter falls from chamber 12 to secondary chamber 38, agitation may produce a cloud of particulate matter including smoke and ash that accompanies the smoke produced by the unburned particulate matter. At this time valve 47 is closed and valve 45 is opened so that the gases carrying particulate matter will be directed back into chamber 12 which now serves as a settling chamber therefor.

Thus, upon entering chamber 12 the small particles of 5 particulate matter will drop to the bottom of the housing and gaseous material alone will exhaust to the afterburner chamber 22 and the outlet stack 24. Inasmuch as combustion is closely controlled in chamber 12 by regulating valve 30 in the air duct 28 and valve 50 in fuel line 55, the delicate conditions of pyrolyzation therein may be further upset by directing exhaust gases including combustible gases and air back into chamber 12 through duct 44. Therefore, after residual matter has been dumped through closure 36, the ash has settled, and after a burn of a new charge in chamber 12 has been initiated, valve 45 may be closed and valve 47 to the afterburner opened so that exhaust from chamber 38 now including air and fuel is not directed back into chamber 12 to. upset conditions of pyrolyzation there, but is ducted directly to afterburner 22 for high temperature incineration and then via stack 24 to the atmosphere.

An ash clean-out door 43 is provided in the secon- I dary incinerator chamber 38 to permit an accumulation of ash to be periodically removed, generally at a time when the entire incinerator is shut down. However, by closing valves 39 and 47 for the air and fuel, the valves 45 and 47 for the exhaust gases, the chamber 38 may be completely isolated from the rest of the incinerator whereby the door 43 may be opened at any time without upsetting conditions in the rest of the incinerator.

In operation, rubbish, garbage and other carbonaceous material is loaded into the incinerator chamber 12 through loading door 14. Ignition is started therein by any suitable method such as simply opening fuel valve 50 and applying a lighted match to the flowing fuel. The flow of air from source 26 is started and controlled by opening valve 30 as required, and as the waste material in the incinerator burns, gas and smoke generated in chamber 12 is exhausted through exhaust port 16 to afterburner chamber 22.

Excess air added to the afterburner 22 through duct 32 and fuel added through 34 causes complete combustion of all pyrolyzed gas and smoke generated in chamber 12 so only residual gases and smoke are exhausted through stack 24 to the atmosphere.

In a burn that normally takes six to eight hours for completion, approximately 90 percent of a total charge in an incinerator is burned in the first hour, the remaining five to seven hours being required to burn the remaining 10 percent of the charge in the manner shown by graph of FIG. 2.

Accordingly, incompletely burned residual matter and ash from chamber 12 is dumped through opened closure 36 by means of actuator 42. After being opened momentarily to permit residual matter to pass therethrough, the closure 36 is quickly closed so that a new charge of waste material may immediately be loaded through opening 14 and combustion thereof maybe initiated.

The incompletely burned residual matter in chamber 38 continues to smolder and smoke, but the by-pass duct 44 now directs the exhaust therefrom through collector 51 to the chamber 12 where it is immediately mixed with the hot gases therein and passed through port 16 to the afterburner 22 where the hydrocarbons are completely incinerated before being exhausted to the atmosphere. Conditions suitable for limited combustion are maintained in chamber 38 by supplying air through supply line 35 as controlled by valve 39, and

fuel from source 37 as controlled by valve 41 whereby not shown in the drawing, it should be understood that conventional thermocouples in the several chambers may be used in the manner illustrated by U. S. Pat. Nos. 3,491,707 and 3,595,181 without departing from the spirit of the invention.

It is therefore intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

We claim:

1. An incinerator for burning combustible waste material comprising a primary combustion chamber having an inlet opening for the admission of waste material and an outlet opening for the exhaust of gases generated therein, an outlet stack having an afterburner, means connecting the outlet stack to the outlet from the primary combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber subjacent the primary combustion chamber, a source of air for combustion supplied to the primary and secondary combustion chambers, movable closure means separating the primary combustion chamber from the secondary chamber, means for actuating the movable closure means, and duct means interconnecting the secondary combustion chamber and the incinerator downstream therefrom whereby gas and particulate matter generated in the secondary combustion chamber may be directed back into the incinerator to be subjected to further incineration.

2. An incinerator for burning combustible waste material as defined in claim 1 wherein the means that connects the secondary combustion chamber and the incinerator downstream therefrom comprises a duct between the primary and the secondary combustion chambers. 1

3. An incinerator for burning combustible waste material as defined in claim 1 wherein the movable closure comprises a partition that isolates the primary from the 1 terial as defined in claim 1 including means brojecting cooling water into the secondary combustion chamber,

a source of water, and means regulating the flow of water from the source of the secondary chamber.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1759042 *Nov 20, 1926May 20, 1930De Carie Felix OIncinerator
US1776914 *Apr 25, 1928Sep 30, 1930Langford Adrian EGarbage incinerator
US3043248 *Jul 28, 1958Jul 10, 1962Locke Stove CompanyIncinerator
US3303798 *Apr 22, 1964Feb 14, 1967Signal Oil & Gas CoRefuse incinerating process and apparatus
US3330230 *Jun 14, 1965Jul 11, 1967Yoichiro SasakiRefuse destruction system and furnace therefor
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4048927 *Sep 11, 1975Sep 20, 1977Kernforschungsanlage Julich Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungPlant for burning waste
US4156394 *Nov 28, 1977May 29, 1979Kernforschungs Anlage Julich GmbHMethod and apparatus for thermally economical incineration of waste
US4784069 *Oct 27, 1986Nov 15, 1988Foster Wheeler Usa CorporationChemical process fired heaters, furnaces or boilers
WO1988003634A1 *Nov 5, 1987May 19, 1988Jandu Pty. Ltd.Incinerators
Classifications
U.S. Classification110/212
International ClassificationF23G5/027, F23C9/00, F23G5/14, F23G5/16, F23G5/00
Cooperative ClassificationF23G5/14, F23G5/027
European ClassificationF23G5/027, F23G5/14