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Publication numberUS3807512 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 30, 1974
Filing dateDec 29, 1972
Priority dateDec 29, 1972
Publication numberUS 3807512 A, US 3807512A, US-A-3807512, US3807512 A, US3807512A
InventorsPogonowski I, Saadeh F
Original AssigneeTexaco Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Percussion-rotary drilling mechanism with mud drive turbine
US 3807512 A
Abstract
A percussion-rotary drilling mechanism comprising a rotary drill bit and a percussion drill bit is disclosed with a mud driven turbine wheel for actuating the latter drill bit. Likewise, two reciprocators for receiving rotary motion from the turbine wheel and for generating reciprocal movement in the percussion drill bit portion of the percussion-rotary drilling mechanism comprise an arcuate cam and cam follower drive mechanism and a rotatable eccentrically weighted wheel drive mechanism.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 1 Pogonowski et a].

[451 Apr. 30, 1974 [5 PERCUSSION-ROTARY DRILLING 1,861,042 5/1932 Zublin 175/296 MECHANISM WITH, MUD DRIVE TURBINE 3,193,027 7/1965 Bodine l75/57 [75] Inventors: Ivo C. P onowski, Blacksbur Va.;

Fuad T. S aadeh Houston Ta Pnmm Leppmk Attorney, Agent, or Firm-T. H. Whaley; C. G. Ries [73] Assignee: Texaco Inc., New York, NY.

[22] Filed: Dec. 29, 1972 [57] ABSTRACT [21] Appl. No.: 319,259 A percussion-rotary drilling mechanism comprising a rotary drill bit and a percussion drill bit is disclosed with a mud driven turbine wheel for actuating the lat- 5 1 2 33 ter drill bit. Likewise, two reciprocators for receiving 58] Fieid 106 107 rotary motion from the turbine wheel and for generating reciprocal movement in the percussion drill bit [56] References Cited portion of the percussion-rotary drilling mechanism comprise an arcuate cam and cam follower drive UNITED STATES PATENTS mechanism and a rotatable eccentrically weighted 2,868,511 1/1959 Barrett 175/296 wheel drive mechanism 2,942,85l 6/1960 Beck 2,970,660 2/l96l Bodine, Jr 175/56 11 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures /fl 2 h :i s z:

H I x H /5 E E E 2/ 1632-7! PERCUSSION-ROTARY DRILLING MECHANISM WITH MUD DRIVE TURBINE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, a principal object of this invention is to provide an improved drive means for a drill bit mechanism for use in a drill string for drilling a well through the subsurface stratigraphy.

Another principal object of this invention is to provide a mud driven turbine motor for driving a percussion type drill bit to augment the bottom hole delivered horsepower in rotary drilling.

A further object of this invention is to provide a rotary cam and cam follower means for transmission of the rotary movement from a mud driven turbine to a reciprocating percussion type drill bit of a percussionrotary drilling mechanism.

Another and alternate object of this invention is to provide a rotatable eccentric weight reciprocator for transmission of the mud driven turbine rotary motion to a reciprocating percussion drill bit of a vibratoryrotary drilling mechanism.

A still further object of this invention is to provide an improved drilling mechanism utilizing a mud driven turbine which is easy to operate, is of simple configuration, is economical to build and assemble, and is of greater efficiency for drilling through hard rock.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The drawings diagrammatically illustrate by way of example, not by way of limitation, three forms or mechanisms of the invention wherein like reference numerals have been employed to indicate similar parts in the several views in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic vertical view of the invention with parts in section when incorporated in an oil or gas well being drilled;

FIG. 2 is a schematic vertical sectional view of the invention taken at 2-2 on FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a schematic vertical sectional view taken at 3-3 on FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a schematic sectional view of the invention taken at 4-4 on FIG. 1, with the percussion drill bit illustrated in its lowered position;

FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4 but with the percussion drill bit illustrated in its upper position;

FIG. 6 is a schematic bottom view of the invention taken at 6-6 on FIG. 1;

FIG. 7 is a schematic sectional view of the invention taken at 7-7 on FIG. 4;

FIG. 8 is a schematic sectional view of the invention taken at 8-8 on FIG. 4;

FIG. 9 is a schematic longitudinal sectional view of a modification of the invention of FIG. 4, with the percussion drill bit illustrated in its lowered position;

FIG. 10 is a schematic sectional view similar to FIG. 9, but with the percussion drill bit illustrated in its upper position;

FIG. 11 is a schematic sectional view of the invention taken at 1 111 on FIG. 9 having two rows of eccentric weights;

FIG. 12 is a schematic'detailed perspective view of one of the rotatable eccentric weights of the modification of FIG. 9; and I FIG. 13 is a schematic sectional view of another mod ification of the invention, similar to FIG. 11 but having four rows of eccentric weights.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The invention disclosed herein, the scope of which being defined in the appended claims, is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangements of parts shown and described, since the invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or carried out in various other ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation. Further, many modifications and variations of the invention as hereinbefore set forth will occur to those skilled in the art. Therefore, all such modifications and variations which are within the spirit and scope of the invention herein are included and only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.

The drawings disclose three embodiments of the invention for drilling a well, such as but not limited to an oil or gas well through hard rock particularly.

DESCRIPTION OF ONE EMBODIMENT OF THE DRILLING MECHANISM OF FIG. 1

FIG. 1, a schematic, vertical sectional view of one embodiment of the inventive drilling mechanism 10, discloses a drill collar 11 comprising upper and lower portions, 11a and 11b, respectively, attached with a connector 12 to the bottom of a drill pipe (not shown) and having a drill bit mechanism 13 for forming the lower end of a drill string for drilling a wellbore 14.

One of'the main features of this'invention is the mud turbine 15, FIG. 1, driven by the downward flow of the drilling fluid or mud entering the drill collar 10 at the top through the connector 12 and passing through the drill collar to the drill bit mechanism 13 from where the drilling mud picks up the rock chips and heat as it is forced up to the surface through the annulus formed between the drill string and the wellbore.

MUD TURBINE Mud turbine 15, FIG. 1, is mounted in upper and lower thrust bearings 16a and 16b, respectively and is telescopically connected to the drill bitmechanism 13 through a reciprocator to the drill bit 17 in the lower portion 1 1b of the drilling mechanism 10. FIG. 2, a sec tion at 2-2 on FIG. 1, shows greater details of the mud turbine 15, a conventional turbine driven by the downward flow of drilling mud in the drill string and having conventional upper and lower seals 18a, 18b. Upper and lower bearings 16a and 16b are conventional bearings fixedly mounted in the drill collar with set screws 19 protruding into substantially enantiomorphic bearing retainers or housings a, 20b for holding ball bearings 21. On the bottom of mud turbine 15, FIG. 2, is formed an extension 22, FIG. 3, particularly, having a square hole 23 for slideably receiving a square end 24a, FIG.'4, of square ended shaft 24 from the reciprocator 17, FIG. 1. Further, if the design so dictates, a male and female spline drive may be utilized.

COMBINATION DRILL BIT 2,868,51 1. Further, a positive, mechanical connection throughout the disclosed reciprocator is described herein after showing it to be a definite improvement over the usual compressed air device as shown in the above-identified patent.

FIG. 3, a sectional view at 33 on FIG. 2, illustrates lower bearing 16b having three mud passages 27b and the square hole 23 internally of mud turbine extension 22. Likewise, upper bearing 16a, FIG. 2, has three similar mud passages 27a.

RECIPROCATOR OF FIG. 4 The, reciprocator 17, FIG. 1, comprises basically cams and cam followers for generating reciprocal movement in the percussion drill bit 26. In greater detail, square shaft end 24a, FIG. 4, is the upper end of elongated square ended shaft 24 mounted in suitable bearings 28a, 28b, 28c, and terminating at the bottom with a cam plate 29 connected to shaft lower square end 24b and having two semicircular incline planes 29a and 291), FIG. 7, all of which are thus rotated by the mud turbine through its extension 22, FIG. 4, as illustrated.

Drill collar lower portion 11b, FIG. 4, has a cup shaped sleeve 30 slideable therein, the sleeve having inward projecting axles 31a, 31b with cam rollers 32a, 32b, mounted thereon for rolling on the semicircular inclined planes 29a, 29b, FIG. 7. Thus with counterclockwise rotation of the cam 29 on shaft 24, FIGS. 4 and 7, the cam rollers 32a, 32b roll up the inclined lanes 29a, 29b with each half turn to raise the sleeve 30 by the height of the cam surfaces illustrated in FIG. 5,

prior to both cam rollers dropping off simultaneously to adjacent the cam lower surface. A compression spring 33 mounted between the top of the cup shaped sleeve 30 and the bottom of a bearing retainer 34 accelerates downward movement of sleeve 30 when the rollers 32a, 32b roll off the inclined planes 29a, 29b.

Cup shaped sleeve 30, FIG. 4, has thick sides, thick bottom, and heavy plates 35a 350 secured therein, as by a nut on a threaded upper end portion 36a of percussion drill bit shaft 36 for increased momentum or inertiaA guide rod 37 maintains plates 35a 35c with their respective drilling mud passages 38a 380 in proper alignment. Thus drilling mud flows from the drill string through the mud turbine 15, FIG. 1, down through mud passages 34a, FIG. 4, in bearing retainer 34, through cam plate mud passages 29c, FIGS. 4 and 7, through plate mud passages 37a 37c, FIG. 4, and

through drill bit mud passages 13a, FIG. 1, to the drill bits 25 and 26 of the drill bit mechanism 13 for carrying rock chips and heat back to the surface.

FIG. 7, a sectional view at 7-7 on FIG. 4, along with FIG. 4 and 5, particularly illustrate the cam plate inclined surfaces 29a and 29b.

FIG. 8, a sectional view at 8-8 on FIG. 4, illustrates the three mud passages 37a in top weight 35a in sleeve 30, the latter having splines 30a and 30b slideable in the drill collar lower portion 1 1b for permitting vertical longitudinal movement of the sleeve relative to the drill collar, but preventing rotational relative movement between the two cylindrical elements.

Briefly, in operation of the vibratory-rotary drilling mechanism with the mud driven turbine of the embodiment of FIGS. l-8, the drill collar 11, FIG. 1, is rotated by the drill pipes (not shown) of the drill string for rotating the roller bits 25 in the conventional manner. Combined with the roller drill bit 25 is the three prong percussion drill bit 26, which in addition to the chiseling action at the center has chisel prongs 26a 26c positioned in between each of the roller bit cones 25a 25c for greater efficiency.

A principal feature is the mud turbine drive mechanism and one embodiment of a reciprocator driven thereby, for driving the percussion drill hit. As the mud flows through the drill collar and through the full length of the mud turbine 15, it is rotated with great force for rotating cam plate 29. With the gradual rise and sudden fall of the cam followers and percussion drill bit connected thereto, hard blows result with this chisel bit, particularly from the spring action and added weights, all operated from the rotation imparted by new mud turbine. The result is a very fast and efficeint drilling mechanism.

Cam plate 29, FIG. 4, may be spaced slightly below the lowest position of the cam rollers when the percussion bit is resting on the bottom, if so desired, to insure that all downward force is absorbed by the hard rock well bottom.

RECIPROCATOR OF FIGS. 9 AND 10 FIG. 9 discloses a second type of reciprocator 40 which is driven by the new and same mud turbine 15 for transmitting powerful vibratory motion to the percussion drill bit shaft 36b which is attached to the percussion drill bit (not shown), the latter percussion drill bit being identical to that, 25, of the first embodiment.

Mud turbine 15, FIG. 9, mounted in lower thrust bearing 16b has an elongated square hole 15a for slideably connecting thereto a square end 42a of worm drive 42, similar to the corresponding mud turbine lower slideable connection of the first embodiment of FIG. 1, whereby substantial length is provided in the slideable connection of the worm drive to permit oscillation thereof in the vertical direction. Likewise if so desired, a spline drive may be utilized on the bottom of the mud turbine.

Reciprocator 40, FIG. 9, comprises a housing 43 for mounting a plurality of eccentric weights for vibrating or oscillating the housing in a vertical direction for supplying powerful and strong reciprocal movement to the percussion drill bit (not shown) for drilling therewith in combination with the roller drill bit (not shown). I-Iousing 43, FIG. 11, a sectional view at 11-11 on FIG. 9, has vertical splines 44a, 44b, slideable in correspondingly shaped grooves 45a, 45b in the drill collar lower portion 11b, FIG. 9, for maintaining the percussion drill bit equally spaced between the roller bit cones as will be evident hereinafter.

Ten eccentric weights, for example, each like eccentric weight 46 having a worm gear formed integral therewith as illustrated in FIG. 12, are mounted on axles 47, FIGS. 9 -l1, in suitable bearings in housing 43, FIGS. 9, 11, in a vertical row of horizontal pairs with the vertical worm drive separating, but in operable contact with, the eccentric weight worm gears of each pair, eccentric weights 46a and 46b mounted on'the respective axles 47a and 47b being typical. Stud 48, FIG. 9, fixedly connects the bottom of housing'43 to percussion drill bit shaft 36b.

After the mud has passed downwardly through the mud turbine 15, FIG. 9, it passes through mud passages 160 in lower bearing retainer 16b, downsides of reciprocator housing 43, FIG. 11, through mud passages 43b, FIGS. 9 and 11, in housing bottom 43a, and through the bottom of the drill collar to the drill bits as shown in FIG. 1.

Briefly, in operation of the percussion-rotary drilling mechanism with the mud driven turbine of the embodiment of FIGS. 9 12, the roller bits are rotated by the rotating drill collar in the conventional manner. Combined with the roller drill bit is the three prong percussion drill bit, like the first embodiment, having the three chisel equally spaced between the three roller bit cones for providing a chiseling in the cone area in addition to the chiseling action at the center for increased efficiency.

Likewise, the mud turbine combined and utilized with the two drill bits provides an outstanding drilling mechanism. Thus with all eccentric weights mounted identically to each other on the worm drive 42, as they all are rotating together and when their heavy sides come down, as illustrated in FIG. 9, the housing 43 and accordingly the percussion drill 36b is driven or forced down with great force. With the rotation of the heavy side of the eccentric weights to the upper position shown in FIG. 10, the reciprocator 40 as well as the precussion drill bit are raised to gain momentum for the next downward blow.

Thus due to the hammering action generated by the reciprocator 40 as operated by rotation efficiently imparted by the new mud turbine, the result is a fast, reliable, simple, and economical precussion-rotary drilling mechanism.

FIG. 13 illustrates a third modification in which eccentric weighted wheel housing 43a is cruciform in shape providing twice the number of eccentric weights, as one horizontal plane of weights 46a 46d, to be utilized and driven by the mud turbine for increased drilling force.

It is known that for a well that requires 9 hours to drill solely with a percussion type of chisel drill bit by known drilling methods, and for a similar well that requires 3 hours to drill solely with a rotary or three roller cone drill bit, that by reciprocally adding the time to drill a similar well with both bits simultaneously, the time required is 2-5 hours. However, by utilizing the disclosed improved drilling mechanism including the mud driven turbine and either of the modififed reciprocators, it is estimated that the drilling time for a similar well is cut to 1-% hours.

While only three mechanisms have been disclosed, it

will be evident that various other modifications are possible in the arrangement and construction of the disclosed drilling mechanisms without departing from the,

scope of the invention and it is accordingly desired to comprehend within the purview of this invention such modifications as may be considered to fall within the scope of the appended claims.

We claim:

1. A drill string having drilling mud flowing downwardly and internally thereof comprising:

a. drill collar means having an upper portion and a lower portion in the drill string for receiving drilling mud therethrough,

b. drill bit means for said lower portion of said drill collar means for receiving said drilling mud,

c. mud driven turbine means rotatably mounted in said upper portion of said drill collar means for being rotated by said drilling mud for operation of said drill bit means,

d. said drill bit means comprises a rotary drill bit means and a percussion drill bit means,

e. said rotary drill bit means comprises a plurality of spaced apart roller bits,

f. said percussion drill bit means comprises the same number of prongs as roller bits extending laterally from the bottom of a vertical shaft extending downwardly from said mud driven turbine-means and is operable by said rotating mud driven turbine means, and

g. each of said percussion drill bit means prongs is equally spaced between said roller bits for providing a very efficient percussion-rotary drilling mechanism.

2. A drill string as recited in claim 1 wherein said drill collar means has a longitudinal axis and wherein,

a. said percussion drill bit means is responsive to said rotating mud driven turbine means for reciprocal movement in a direction parallel to the drill collar means longitudinal axis.

3.'A drill string as recited in claim 1 wherein,

a. saidmud driven turbine means has a rotary cam connected thereto for being rotated therewith, and

b. said percussion bit means has a cam follower moveably mounted on said rotarycam for generating reciprocal movement in said percussion bit means.

4. A drill string as recited in claim 1 wherein,

a. said mud driven turbine means has a rotatable eccentric weight reciprocator means connected thereto for being reciprocated and vibrated thereby; and

b. said percussion bit means is connected to said rotatable eccentric weight reciprocator for being reciprocated thereby.

5. A drill string having a plurality of drill pipes with drilling mud flowing downwardly and internally thereof to the bottom comprising,

a. a drill collar attached to the lower end of the lowest drill pipe for receiving a drilling mud therethrough from above,

b. a drill bit mechanism mounted on a lower end of said drill collar for receiving said drilling mud,

c. mud driven turbine means rotatably mounted in an upper portion of said drill collar for being rotated by said drilling mud as it passes down to said drilling mechanism,

d. said mud driven turbine means is connected to said drilling mechanism for operation thereof about the center line of rotation of said mud turbine,

e. said drill bit mechanism comprises a rotary bit means and a percussion bit means,

f. said rotary bit means comprises three spaced apart roller bits rotatably mounted to the lower portion of said drill collar,

g. said percussion bit means comprises three prongs extending laterally from the bottom of a vertical shaft extending downwardly from said mud driven turbine means,

h. each of said percussion drill bit means three prongs is equally spaced between said three roller bits, and

i. said percussion bit means is responsive to said mud driven turbine means for reciprocal movement between said spaced apart roller bits for providing a very efficient percussion-rotary drilling mechanism.

6. A drill string as recited in claim wherein,

a. said mud driven turbine means has a rotary cam connected thereto for being rotated therewith, and

b. said percussion bit means has a cam follower moveably mounted on said rotary cam for generating reciprocal movement in said percussion bit means.

7. A drill string as recited in claim 5 wherein,

a. said mud driven turbine means has a rotatable eccentric weight reciprocator means connected thereto for being reciprocated thereby, and

' b. said percussion bit means is connected to said rotatable eccentric weight reciprocator for being reciprocated thereby.

8. A drill string as recited in claim 5 wherein,

a. said elongated turbine wheel lower end has an arcuate cam fixed thereto for rotation therewith, and

b. said drill bit mechanism has a cam follower roller mounted on said arcuate cam for generating reciprocal movement in said drill bit mechanism as said arcuate cam rotates with said mud driven elongated turbine wheel.

9. A drill string having a plurality of drill pipes with drilling mud flowing downwardly and internally thereof to the bottom comprising,

a. a drill collar attached to the lower end of the lowest drill pipe for receiving a drilling mud therethrough from above, I

b. a drill bit mechanism mounted on a lower end of sai drill collar for receiving said drilling mud,

c. mud driven turbine means rotatably mounted in an upper portion of said drill collar for being rotated by said drilling mud as it passes down to said drilling mechanism,

d. said mud driven turbine means is connected to said drilling mechanism for operation thereof about the center line of rotation of said mud turbine,

c. said mud driven turbine means comprises an elongated turbine rotor having upper and lower ends mounted axially in said drill collar in bearings at each of said ends of said elongated turbine wheel,

f. said elongated turbine wheel lower end is connected to said drill bit mechanism for operation thereof,

g. said elongated turbine wheel lower end has a rotary eccentric weight reciprocating mechanism connected thereto comprising a worm drive in rotating contact with a worm gear fixed to an eccentric weight for generating reciprocal motion with rotation of said elongated turbine wheel lower end, and

h. said drill bit mechanism has a percussion bit means fixed to said rotary eccentric weight reciprocating mechanism for being reciprocated thereby with rotation of said mud driven elongated turbine wheel.

10. A percussion-rotary drilling mechanism as recited in claim 9 wherein said reciprocator means comprises, I

a. a cam plate connected to the bottom of said mud driven turbine means to rotate therewith, and

b. cam rollers mounted on said percussion drilling means and operable on said rotatable cam plate for generating reciprocal movement in said percussion drilling means.

11. A percussion-rotary drilling mechanism having a plurality of drill pipes with drilling mud flowing downwardly and internally thereof to the bottom comprising,

a. a drill collar attached to the lower end of the lowest drill pipe for receiving a drilling mud therethrough from above,

b. a drill bit mechanism mounted on a lower end of said drill collar for receiving said drilling mud,

c. mud driven turbine means rotatably mounted in an upper portion of said drill collar for. being rotated by said drilling mud as it passes down to said drilling mechanism, 1

d. said mud driven turbine means is connected to said drilling mechanism for operation thereof about the center line of rotation of said mud turbine,

e. said mud driven turbine means comprises an elongated turbine rotor having upper and lower ends mounted axially in said drill collar in bearings at each of said ends of said elongated turbine wheel,

f. an eccentric weight having a worm gear fixed thereto and rotatably mounted on said percussion drilling means,

g. a worm drive mounted on the bottom of said mud driven turbine means to rotate therewith, and

h. said rotatable eccentric weight worm gear being mounted in operable engagement with said rotating worm drive for generating reciprocal movement in said percussion drilling means.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification175/106, 175/107, 175/296
International ClassificationE21B6/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B6/00
European ClassificationE21B6/00