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Publication numberUS3808955 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 7, 1974
Filing dateOct 12, 1972
Priority dateOct 12, 1972
Publication numberUS 3808955 A, US 3808955A, US-A-3808955, US3808955 A, US3808955A
InventorsHamada Y, Jinno S, Nakamoto Y
Original AssigneeYanmar Diesel Engine Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cylinders of internal-combustion engines
US 3808955 A
Abstract
Cylinders of internal-combustion engines, reciprocating-piston or rotary-piston type, made of hypereutectoid aluminum-silicon alloy and formed with a labyrinth of grooves, in checkered or spiral pattern for example, in at least the area of the inner surface along which gastight seal members of the piston slide, said grooves being packed with a dystectic material, such as a ferric alloy, molybdenum, metallic carbide, or ceramic, or a mixture thereof, flush with the rest of the inner surface formed of an aluminum-silicon alloy.
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United States Patent 1191 Hamada eta].

[1111 3,808,955 [451 May 7, 1974 Assignee:

CYLINDERS OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Inventors: Yoshitugu Hamada; Yasunori Nakamoto; Seizo Jinno, all of Nagahama, Japan Yanmar Diesel Engine Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan Filed: Oct. 12, 1972 Appl. No.: 297,092

U.S. c1. 92/169, 123/193 0 1111.01. F0lb 11/02, F02! 1/20 Field of Search 123/193 C; 92/169, 170

References Cited I UNITED STATES PATENTS I 2/1938 Sanders 92/169 8/1942 Sanders i 92/169 5/1967 Jones 92/169 10/1970 lzumi 123/93 C 3,620,137 11/1971 Prasse 92/169 FORElGN PATENTS 0 APPLICATIONS 1,133,041

ll/1956 France 92/169 PrimaryExaminer-Wendell E. Burns Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Ladas, Parry, Von Gehr, Goldsmith & Deschamps 1 ABSTRACT 1 5 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures I PATENTEUMAY 7 1974 SHEET 1 0Fv 2 FIG.

Q. xv?

FIG. 2

PATENTED MAY 7 I974 SHEU 2" BF 2 F|ej3 'FIG. 4

This invention relates to cylinders of internalcombustion engines.

For the purpose of the invention the term cylinders means the cases each surrounding each piston of an internal-combustion engine and defining a working chamber or chambers therebetween.

With the view to saving the weight of engines and improving their cooling efficiency to. meet increased power output, it is sometimes attempted at using aluminum alloy cylinders without iron sleeves. Usually in such case a hyper-eutectoid aluminum-silicon alloy is used which contains crystallized silicon in the parent metal. The same material has been adopted for the fabrication of side housings of rotary-piston engines having trochoid-shaped cylinders.

I The hyper-eutectoid aluminum-silicon alloy cylinders, which contain hard crystallized sillicon as stated above, are superior in abrasion resistance to the cylinders provided with iron sleeves or chrome-plated on the inner surface, provided that the former is adequately lubricated.

It is known, however, that at the time of cold-weather starting the cylinders of this material tend ,to suffer from objectionable scuffing on the inner surface due to their contact with sliding gastight seal members of the pistons. [Refer to Aluminum engine will power minicar, Product Engineering, Apr. 27, 1970, published by Margan-Grampin Inc., New York, p.54, or Light metal casting and its trends, .IIDOSHA GIJUTSU (Automobile Technology, a Japanese periodical), 26, 4, 1972, p.395.]

The tendency is presumably sttribut'ed to the following facts.

For starting in cold weather the engine must be fed with a rich fuel-air mixture by means of a choke valve. The fuel thus applied in an increased proportion washes away' lubricating oil from the surface along which gastight seal members on each piston slide, thereby leading to very poor lubrication of the surface. (Refer to The Vega 2300 Engine, SAE Paper 710/47, p.4.)

As the gastight seal members slide on'such surface,

ing the possibility of aforementioned'scuffing. As a result, it has now beenfound that the foregoingpurposes can be fulfilled by forming grooves in a certain labyrinth pattern on at least the inner surface portion of the cylinder that is subjected to the sliding contact by gastight seal members of a pistonand depositing a material having a higher melting point than the aluminumsilicon alloy in the grooves so that the surface of the dystectic material filling up the grooves can be flush with the rest of the inner surface, i.e., the exposed surface of the hyper-eutectoid aluminumsilicon alloy. The present invention is predicated upon this. discovery.

The reason for which the scuffing of the inner surface of cylinders in cold-weather starting of an engine can be avoided by the construction above described is yet to be theoretically clarified. However, it appears most likely that, as the gastight seal members of the piston move in sliding contact with the inner. surface of the cylinder, the particles produced by the abrasion of the dystectic material are dispersed and embedded in the aluminum alloy tomake it resistant to scuffing.

. The invention is illustrated, by way of example, by the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a part of a cylinder for a reciprocating-piston engine FIG. 2 is a detail of the portion of the cylinder-encir The labyrinth of dystectic material isformed, forex- I ample,by knurling the inner surface of the cylinder,

they no longer formany lubricant film and come into direct contact with the aluminum alloy surface. .When

this happens, the latter, which is a metal having a relatively low melting point, readily fuses and wears partly with the seal material. This wear due to fusion results in scuffing on the surface of the aluminum alloy along which the piston works.

Such an objectionable phenomenon seldom takes place with the materials as used in the fabrication of iron sleeves that have higher melting points that aluminum alloys.

Naturally the scuffing is precluded by the use of more dystectic materials, e.g., molybdenum, metallic carbides, and ceramics.

In view of this, we made numerous experiments on combinations of hyper-eutectoid aluminum-silicon alloy and various. dystectic materials. The aluminumsilicon alloy is light in weight, easy to cool, and possesses excellent wear resistance under the operating conditions except for the cold-weather start as already pointed out. The experiments were aimed at taking advantage of these features of the alloy and also eliminatthereby forming grooves in a checkered pattern, and spraying a ferrous alloy, molybdenum, metallic carbide, or ceramic, in molten form, over the inner surface, and then removing the resulting deposit from the area of the inner surface'other than the groove surface.

FIG. 2 is a micrographic representation of the portion encircled at A in FIG. 1. The structure consists of crystallized silicon 7, a hyper-eutectoid base 9 of silicon and aluminum, and a dystectic material 11 deposited on the grooves formed on the inner surface 3 of the cylinder.

FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrates another embodiment of the invention as applied to a rotary-piston engine having a trochoid-shaped cylinder, FIG. 3 showing a rotor housing and FIG. 4 a side housing. T

In FIG. 3 the housing l5'is made of a hyper-eutectoid' aluminum-silicon alloy and has a trochoid-shaped inner 3 4 nular surface surrounds a spiralling loop of a dystectic 2. A cylinder as defined in, claim 1 wherein the patmatel'ial 25- tern of the grooves is checkered, striped. dotted. or spi- What is claimed 'is: ral. 1. A cylinder of an internal-combustion engine char- A cylindar as d fi d claim 1 wherein h acterized by the combination of the following features: 5 stectic materia} is a ferrous alloy molybdenum a contacttherewith, and.(3) a dystectic material having (l) made of a hyper'eutectold alummum'smcon tallic carbide, or ceramic, or a mixture thereof.

(2) It formed wlth glooves m a labyrmth H 4. A cylinder as defined in claim I wherein the cylintern in at least the area of the inner surface along wh1ch d t t I b gastight seal members of a piston move in sliding areclpmca mg'pls on m ema us engine.

a higher melting point than the said aluminum-silicon A Cylinder as defined Clalm 1 h the y alloy is deposited in the grooves and exposed flush with def is a trochoid-shaped cylinder in a ry-pi n the rest of the inner surface of the cylinder formed by rna -combust on engine. 5 the hyper-eutectoid aluminum-silicon alloy.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2108392 *Feb 6, 1937Feb 15, 1938John Fowler & Company Leeds LtCylinder liner for internal-combustion engines
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US3620137 *Oct 6, 1969Nov 16, 1971Ramsey CorpPiston sleeve
FR1133041A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4044217 *May 7, 1975Aug 23, 1977Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki KaishaSliding surface working method using wire-explosion coating
US4074956 *Jun 9, 1976Feb 21, 1978Riken Piston Ring Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaSulphur and nitrogen treated iron based rotor for rotary piston engine
US4079720 *May 11, 1976Mar 21, 1978Nippon Piston Ring Co., Ltd.Relative combination of a cylinder and a seal ring for internal combustion engines
US4125637 *Mar 30, 1977Nov 14, 1978Laystall Engineering Company LimitedProcess for embedding hard particles in a bearing surface
US4212602 *Aug 8, 1975Jul 15, 1980Goetzewerke Friedrich Goetze AgWear-resistant coating for sealing strips in rotary engines
US4260658 *Jun 21, 1979Apr 7, 1981Kobe, Inc.Erosion resistant surface
US4285640 *Jul 25, 1979Aug 25, 1981Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokki SeisakushoSwash plate type compressor
US4528950 *Oct 6, 1983Jul 16, 1985Daimler-Benz AktiengesellschaftCylinder/crank casing in cast iron for internal combustion engines
US4679994 *Jun 27, 1983Jul 14, 1987Allied CorporationPiston vacuum pump
US4706417 *Mar 10, 1987Nov 17, 1987Chromium CorporationFinish for cylinder liners
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US4862864 *Oct 20, 1987Sep 5, 1989Chromium CorporationFinish for cylinder liners
US4970769 *Apr 18, 1989Nov 20, 1990Kioritz CorporationMethod for producing cylinder having scavenging passages for two-cycle internal combustion engine
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US5749331 *Aug 18, 1995May 12, 1998Tecsyn, Inc.Powdered metal cylinder liners
US5988340 *Jul 17, 1997Nov 23, 1999Fichtel & Sachs AgTwo components of a cylinder for a hydraulically operated friction clutch assembly having scored running surface for minimizing noise
US6041749 *Feb 16, 1999Mar 28, 2000Daimlerchrysler AgWear resistant cylinder barrel surface for supporting a piston
US6474954Aug 10, 2000Nov 5, 2002Thomas Industries Inc.Compressor cooling system
US6622685 *Nov 13, 2001Sep 23, 2003Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.Prespray processed cylinder inside and cylinder inside prespray processing method
US6736101 *Jan 30, 2002May 18, 2004Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.Low friction sliding element for a reciprocating engine
US7165430Mar 3, 2005Jan 23, 2007Makino, Inc.Method and apparatus for patterning of bore surfaces
US7322778Jul 27, 2006Jan 29, 2008Makino, Inc.Tool with selectively-biased member
US7412956 *Apr 26, 2006Aug 19, 2008Kayaba Industry Co., Ltd.Reinforcing structure of cylinder barrel
US7438038 *Apr 3, 2007Oct 21, 2008Federal-Mogul Worldwide, Inc.Cylinder liner and methods construction thereof and improving engine performance therewith
US7717652Aug 20, 2007May 18, 2010Makino, Inc.Tool with selectively-biased member having an adjustment feature
US7806635Mar 7, 2007Oct 5, 2010Makino, Inc.Method and apparatus for producing a shaped bore
US20050217336 *Mar 3, 2005Oct 6, 2005Weidmer Stan CMethod and apparatus for patterning of bore surfaces
US20140144404 *Jul 4, 2012May 29, 2014Mahle International GmbhMethod for producing a cylinder liner surface and cylinder liner
US20150136063 *Mar 6, 2013May 21, 2015Mahle International GmbhPiston pin
WO2000040849A1 *Dec 22, 1999Jul 13, 2000Jesper Weis FoghReciprocating piston engine
Classifications
U.S. Classification92/169.1, 123/193.2, 418/178, 29/888.6
International ClassificationF02F1/18
Cooperative ClassificationF02F1/18
European ClassificationF02F1/18