US 3809123 A
A magnet-valve device comprising a housing constructed of a non-magnetic material, said housing having an outlet tube and a pair of opposed inlet tubes, said housing containing at least one armature comprising a pair of terminals disposed on either side of a magnet, one of said terminals adapted to engage on opposed sides one of said inlets, said housing having disposed therearound at least one electricity-carrying coil whereby movement of the terminal adapted to engage the opposed inlets opens and closes said inlets in response to current passing through said coil.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Heimann m1 3,809,123 [451 May 7,1974
[ ONE- AND SURPLUS-WAY MAGNETIC VALVE WITH PERMANENT MAGNET AND CONTROLS BY PULSES  Inventor: Georg Heimann, Wendelinusstr. 61,
Stetternich, Germany 22 Filed: Mar. 14,1972
21 Appl. No.: 233,052
 Foreign Application Priority Data Mar. 16, 1971 Germany 2112614 Feb. 22, 1972 Germany 2208218  US. Cl. 137/625.5, 251/141  Int. Cl. Fl6k 11/00  Field of Search 137/6255, 625.48, 81.5; 251/132, 137, 141; 235/201 ME  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,549,119 12/1970 Sellers....; 251/141 X 3,178,151 4/1965 Caldwell 251/141 X 3,289,905 12/1966 Pitt et al. 251/137 2,927,606 3/1960 Matchett, Jr. et al. 137/6255 X 2,991,805 7/1961 Page 235/201 ME 3,185,178 5/1965 Bonnard 137/625.48 X
3,305,209 2/1967 Bender et a1. 25 l/137 3,431,934 3/1969 Riordan 235/201 ME 3,552,437 1/1971 Blosser, Jr. et a1. 235/201 ME 3,624,752 11/1971 Schmidt... 137/6254) 3,651,833 3/1972 Piko 251/141 X 3,680,595 8/1972 Boulton 137/625.48
Primary ExaminerSamuel Scott Attorney, Agent, or Firm--Burgess, Dinklage &
Sprung 1  ABSTRACT A magnet-valve device comprising a housing constructed of a non-magnetic material, said housing having an outlet tube and a pair of opposed inlet tubes, said housing containing at least one armature comprising a pair of terminals disposed on either side of a magnet, one of said terminals adapted to engage on opposed sides one of said inlets, said housing having disposed therearound at least one electricity-carrying coil whereby movement of the terminal adapted to engage the oppqsed inlets opens and closes said inlets in response to current passing throughsaid coil.
9 Claims, 10 Dravving Figures ONE- AND SURPLUS-WAY MAGNETIC VALVE WITH PERMANENT MAGNET AND CONTROLS BY PULSES THE STATE OF TECHNICAL SCIENCE TODAY There are known a number of magnetic valves with a magnetic-coil and armaturefor the moving of the thightening. The general mark of all these valves is the working-armature inside of a magnetic coil which is flown through by a direct current or an alternating current. At a change of condition of the valve the magnetic-coil is flown through by a current during the whole time of the changed condition. This kind of operation has some disadvantages:
The magnetic coil becomes heated in a great measure. This heatening in some cases leads to a destruction of the valve-coils.
The magnetic coil has great dimensions.
The valves can be used only in one determined builtin position.
The valves only are to use for one direction of the flow because the working armature is fixed in the resting-position by a spring. i
The valvw-thightening has the possibility to lift by changing pressure or pressure shocks in opposite direction because the power of the armature is small.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS. SOLUTION It was the object of this development to constuct a new valve for the use in pneumatic or hydraulic pipesystems and in special a magnetic valve without the disadvantages of the known magnetic valves.
In the new valve the normal armature an iron rod which most is mounted outside of the valve is replaced by a permanent magnet fitted inside of the valve-housing. The adhesive power of this magnet, which is equivalent to the armature of the known magnetic valves, is used to fix the armature in the positions open" or closed without an electric current in the magnetic coils and without using a spring too. By the new valve only an electric pulse is used for controls.
By constructing the new valve the magnetic coilwas divided in two symmetrical coils fitted at the outside of the valve-housing. Each of this coils is built in an iron envelopment (yokes) to improve the effect of the coils. The yokes --in the following called tensionringshave the same outer diameters as the permanent-magnet and they are fitted in the manner that only a thin wall separates magnet and tension rings. So a short electric pulse in the coils is sufiicient to bring the armature in this case the magnet in the wanted position open or closed. Afterwards the magnet is fixed in its position by the adhesive power between magnet and tension-ring.
The result of this development is a magnetical valve of very small dimensions. This valve is to control by short electric pulses. It can be used in each built-in position and for each direction of the medium-flow.
A great advantage is the full-closed housing of the valve. There are no bore-holes or thightenings for operation-elements. The housing of the new valve can become adapted to respective requirements.
DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE- AND SURPLUS-WAY MAGNETIC VALVE WITH PERMANENT MAGNET AND CONTROLS BY PULSE As example a symmetric constructed three-valve is chosen. FIG. 1 shows the arrangement. In this case the housing of the valve is a little cylindrical vessel 1 and it consists of a non magnetic material. It has the connection-tubes 2, 3 and 4. Inside of this cylindrical vessel there is the permanent magnet, 21 ring 5 with the terminals 6 and 7. The parts 5,6 and 7 together are the armature 8. At the ends of the inner terminal 7 are fitted the thightenings 9 and 10. The corresponding valve-seats are the rings 11 and 12 at the ends of the tubes 2 and 3 inside of the valve-housing.
The magnet 5 is magnetisized in radial direction corresponding to the terminals 6 and 7. So the armature has two magnetic fields, one on the side in direction to the tube 2 and the other in direction to the tube 3. So
the tension-rings l3 and 14 the material of which is a soft iron are fitted on the top and the bottom of the valve-housing. By this manner the tension-rings give a short-circuit for the power-lines of the magnetic fields. Inside of the tension-rings the working-coils 16 and 17 are mounted. To prevent losses by whirl-currents the tension-rings 13 and 14 have a slit.
It is assumed that in the case, shown in FIG. 1, the armature has its upper position and touches the lid of the housing 1. By the adhesive power between the tensionring 13 and the armature 8 the armature is fixed in its position. The elastic thightening9 now closes the tube 2. The way from tube 3 to tube 4 in this position is opened.
When in this situation the coils '16 and 17 are flown through by a short electrical current and the direction of the flow indicates in the upper tension-ring 13 a magnetic field which is equal to that of the armature and in the ring 14 a field in opposite to that of the armature the armature moves downward. In this position the armature is hold by the ring 14 by adhesive power too. Now the tube 3 is closed and the way from 2 to 4 is opened. i
In a similar manner with an electric pulse of opposite direction it is possible to bring the armature again in the upper position. Both positions the armature 8 near 13 or near 14 are stable. They are fixed by the adhesive power between the armature 8 and the rings 13 or 14. One of these positions only can become changed by an electric pulse of respective direction of current-flow in the coils l6 and 17.
In opposite to the known magnetic valves no fields of any electric-magnet-coil are neededto hold one of the two possible positions of the armature. Springs are not needed too at this construction. The electrical energy to move the armature is very small and so there is no heating of the coils 16 and 17.
The adhesive power between the armature 8 and one of the rings 13 or 14 depends on the distance between armature and ring. For this reason the wall of the housing 1 may not overcome a determined limit.
Because for higher operation pressure of the valve the walls of the housing must have a greater thickness another construction of the valve-housing is necessary. This construction is shown in FIG. 2 (the upper half of the valve). In the lid and in the bottom of the housing 1' too are enclosed iron-rings l8 and 19. These rings serve for the leading of the magnetic power-lines (magnetical flow) from the armature-magnet to the tensionrings 13 and 14. With a sufficient wall-thickness of the housing 1' such a valve can be used up to a pressure till to some hundreds of ata (Kp/cm).
To diminish the flow-resistance inside of the valvehousing 1 (or 1') it is possible and opportune to make a slit 29 in the ring 6 of the armature 8. This is shown in FIG. 3. In this case it is necessary to save the armature 8 against a turning. This is' possible by means of steps at the ring 6 and corresponding steps at the tension-rings 13 and 14. Such an arrangement is shown in the FIGS. 4a and 4b. The valve-construction for high pressure has for this case only steps in the ring 6 and the leading-rings in the lid and in the bottom of the housing are replaced by leading-segments. This is shown in FIG. 40. Another method to diminish the flow-resistance in the housing is to make a grove in the inside of the housing wall. This grove reaches from the top to the bottom and passes the opening of the tube 4.
If the valve is used for liquid mediums for little flowresistance it is necessary to fit out the armature 8 with bore-holes 31, see FIG. 5.
When the valve has greater dimensions and so the armature 8 has a greater weight it is possible that mechanical shocks remove the armature from its fixed position. In this case another construction of the valve has advantages. As to be seen from FIG. 8 the magnet 5 and its ring 6 are stable mounted and only the part 7, the inner iron-rod, is movable. To have no great friction between part 5 and 7 there a thin tube of a nonmagnetic material is foreseen between these parts. The function of the valve constructed in this manner is the same as that of valves according to FIG. 1 or 2.
The one-way valve has the same construction as FIG. 1 or 2, only the tube 3 is not present. The bottom of these valves is full-closed.
As the valve according to the new construction for controls only needs short current-pulses it is necessary to have a position-announcement for the workingcondition. An example for such an arrangement shows FIG. 6. Parts of this arrangement are the little magnetic rod 20, the iron yokes 21 and 22 and their coils 23 and 24. These coils are connected in series with the coils l6 and 17 of the valve. At each current-pulse the magnet changes its position between the yokes according to the position of the armature 8 in the valve.
A possible circuit to operate the valve with the position-announcement together is to be seen in FIG. 7. By pushing the buttons 25 or 26 the capacitors 27 or 28 are discharged by a current-flow through the coils l6, 17, 23 and 24. The induced magnetic-fields in the yokes 13, 14 (tension-rings of the valve), 21 and 22 move the armature 8 and the announcement-magnet respectively in the same manner.
What I claim is:
1. In a magnet-valve-device for one and surplus operation having a cylindrical housing having a lid and a bottom of a non-magnetic material having three tubes entering therein, two of which are opposed to one another the improvement which comprises a movable permanent magnet disposed inside said cylindrical housing having a pair of terminals wherein at least one terminal is provided with a tightening member which is disposed in facing ralationship with one of the opposed inlets and is adaptable to overlie said inlet, an armature disposed in axial direction within said housing, a pair of tension rings mounted at the outside of said housing, said rings having on the inside thereof electrical coils so that by passage of an electrical pulse drive said armature is moved from one fixed position in said housing to another fixed position so that the opposed tubes are opened or closed in response to movement of the movable permanent magnet within said housing which can overlie the opening of at least one tube said device having a pair of rings of soft iron in said lid and in said bottom of said housing to give an immediate short current of the magnetic-power-lines from said armature to said tension rings.
2. A magnet-valve-device according to the claims 1 with slits in the armature to diminish the flowresistance inside of the valve-housing.
3. A magnet-valve-device according to claim 1 wherein the permanent magnet and the outer terminal are not movable in said housing and the inner terminal disposed in axial direction is movable in response to electrical pulses in said coils, and to diminish the friction between the permanent magnet and the terminal provided with tightening members there is mounted a thin tube of non-magnetic material.
4. A magnetic-valve-device according to claim 1 at which the coils are flown through in series by an electric current-pulse to enlarge the effectivity of the pulse.
5. A magnetic-valve-device according to the claim 1 with a position-announcement corresponding to FIG. 6 and in a circuit corresponding to FIG. 7 which by coupling of the coils shows the respective position of the armature in the valve.
6. A magnet-valve-device according to claim I having leading segments in the lid and in the bottom of the housing and steps in the outer terminal of the armature to prevent a turning of the armature and to have a safe position for slits in relation to the opening of the tube which is not one of the opposed tubes.
7. A magnet-valve-device according to claim 6 whose armature is fitted out with bore-holes, to diminish the flow-resistance inside of the valve for liquid mediums.
8. A magnetic-valve-device comprising a cylindrical housing constructive of anon-magnetic material, said housing having an outlet tube and a pair of opposed inlet tubes, said housing containing at least one armature comprising a pair of terminals disposed over either side of a permanent magnet within said cylindrical housing, one of said terminals adapted to engage on opposed sides one of said inlets so as to overly at least one of said inlets, said housing and said permanent magnet having disposed therearound at least one electricitycarrying coil whereby movement of the terminal, adapted to engage the opposed inlets and to overly the same, opens and closes the said inlets in response to current passing through said coil.
9. A magnetic-valve-device comprising a cylindrical housing constructed of a non-magnetic material, said housing having an outlet tube and a pair of opposed inlet tubes, said housing containing at least one armature comprising a pair of terminals disposed on either side of a permanent magnet within said cylindrical housing, said permanent magnet disposed about a movable terminal, movable independently of said magnet, said terminal adapted to engage on opposed sides one of said inlets so as to overly at least one of said inlets, said terminal being movable while said magnet is stationary, said housing and said permanent magnet having disposed therearound at least one electricity carrying coil whereby movement of the terminal adapted to engage the opposed inlet opens and closes said inlet in response to current passing through said coil.