|Publication number||US3809315 A|
|Publication date||May 7, 1974|
|Filing date||Oct 4, 1972|
|Priority date||Oct 4, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3809315 A, US 3809315A, US-A-3809315, US3809315 A, US3809315A|
|Original Assignee||Haws Drinking Fountain Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (15), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
[451 May 7,1974
[ EYEWASH FOUNTAIN AND NOZZLE STRUCTURE TTIEREF OR Allen C. Wright, Moraga', Calif.
 Assignee: Haws Drinking Fountain Company,
22 Filed: Oct. 4, 1972 21 Appl. No.: 294,863
 US. Cl 239/31, 4/l66,239/542, 239/543, 239/590.3  Int. Cl A6lh 33/04  Field of Search 239/16, 29, 31, 542, 543, 239/589, 590, 590.3; 4/166; 128/249  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,522,928 9/1950 Carroll 239/590.3
3,602,436 8/1971 Wright 239/590.3 X 3,599,251 8/1971 Wright i 239/16 X 3,642,031 2/1972 Wright 239/24 X 10/1933 Newman et al 239/29 X Primary Examiner,M. Henson Assistant ExaminerAndres Kashnikow Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Joseph B. Gardner, Esq.
 ABSTRACT An eyewash fountain and nozzle structure therefor that are especially useful in industrial and laboratory environments to provide a water discharge suitable for flooding the eyes of a workman to flush irritants and injurious matter therefrom. Use of such fountains is mostly sporadic and occasional so that water is ordinarily absent from the nozzle structure and supply conduit leading thereto at the start of each use either because of evaporation therefrom or, in the case of a freeze-proof fountain, because of the self-draining characteristics thereof. The fountain has a flow control device interposed in the water flow circuit to maintain the volumetric flow of water to the nozzle structure relatively independent of supply line pres- 8 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures EYEWASII FOUNTAIN AND NOZZLE STRUCTURE THEREFOR This invention relates to water fountains and the like and, more particularly, to an eyewash fountain and nozzle structure therefor through which an eye-bathing flow of water can be discharged for the purpose of flushing irritants and injurious matter from the eyes of a workman.
In certain factories, other industrial locations, laboratories and elsewhere, gaseous fumes, liquids and sometimes solid materials are present which can irritate or injure the eyes if they come into contact therewith. In such environments, it is relatively common to use eyewash fountains that provide a soft spray or relatively low velocity flow of water suitable for flushing such matter from the eyes by flooding the same with the water discharge. Use of eyewash fountains is generally infrequent, and the rather long periods of nonuse results in drying of the nozzle structures and supply conduits leading thereto by natural evaporation. Further, in cold locations it is necessary to protect the flow systems of such fountains from freezing, and this is generally accomplished by draining those water-containing components of the fountain which may be subjected to freezing temperatures following each use of the fountain. Such draining of a fountain is automatically accomplished by special valve mechanism designed for this purpose. In either instance the absence of water at the nozzle structure and in the conduits leading thereto has created a problem because it often results in the initial discharge of water being at a very high velocity which is uncomfortable to the eye if not actually harmful thereto.
In view of the foregoing, a general object of the present invention is to provide an improved eyewash fountain in which this undesirable result is obviated.
Further objects, among others, of the present invention are in the provision of an improved eyewash fountain and nozzle structure therefor of the character described in which the nozzle structure is effective to reduce the velocity and dissipate the momentum of any stream of water injected thereinto prior to premitting the water to discharge through its outlet; and in which the nozzle structure includes a casing defining a chamber therein having spaced apart inlet and outlet openings that are small relative to the capacity of the chamber, diffuser structure being disposed intermediate the inlet and outlet and in alignment with the latter to intercept any stream of water injected into the chamber through the inlet to reduce the momentum and velocity of such stream as aforesaid.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention, especially as concerns particular features and characteristics thereof, will become apparent as the specification continues.
An embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an eyewash fountain embodying the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged broken longitional sectional view of one of the nozzle structures taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view of the nozzle structure taken along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2.
The eyewash fountain illustrated in FIG. 1 is intended to be exemplary of various eyewash fountains with which the invention may be useful, and this illustrative fountain is designated in its entirety with the numeral 10. The fountain 10 includes a bowl or receptor 11 that is generally concave and defines a chamber 12 therewithin. The lowermost portion of the concave bowl l2 terminates in a bridge or spider 14 spanning a drain outlet 15 that empties into a waste conduit 16.
Also located within the chamber 12 are a pair of nozzle structures 17a and 171) respectively connected through branch flow conduits 18a and 18b with a T- shaped coupling 19 leading to a water supply conduit 20 that may extend through the waste conduit 16 or fitting associated therewith. It will be evident that there is no communication between the supply conduit 20 and interior of the waste conduit 16. The supply conduit 20 is provided with a valve 21 therealong operative to control the flow of water therethrough by being selectively movable between closed and open positions. Any conventional valve may be used along the supply line 20 to perform such control function, and the valve shown has an angularly displaceable stem 22 connected with operating mechanism 24 in the general form of a blade or plate which is conveniently located, especially by one momentarily blinded by an irritant, to move the valve stem 21 into the open position thereof and permit concurrent discharge of water through the nozzle structure 17a and 17b.
As previously indicated, the eyewash fountain 10 is exemplary of any generally suitable eyewash fountain, and should further details be desired respecting the particular fountain shown, reference may be made to my U.S. Pat. No. 3,599,251 which issued Aug. 17, 1971 and is entitled Covered Eyewash Fountain." The specific illustration of this fountain herein has been simplified since the overall geometric and functional characteristics thereof are not pertinent per se to the present invention.
In the event of the eyewash fountain 10 being a freeze-proof fountain, the valve controlling the flow of .water to the nozzle structures 17a and 17b will be located underground below the frost line rather than adjacent the bowl or receptor 11, as shown in FIG. 1. Selfdraining valves for freeze-proof fountains are conventional items and need not be further considered, but for more specific information concerning the same and fountains equipped therewith, reference may be made to my copending patent application Ser. No. 196,688, filed Nov. 8, 1971. Also in a freeze-proof fountain, the flow conduits 18a and 18b are respectively provided with drain apertures or weep openings 25a and 25b at the lowermost position therealong so that water in the nozzle structures 17a and 17b, in the conduits 18a and 18b, and in the coupling 19 and structure associated therewith may drain quickly therefrom and into the bowl 12 of the receptor.
Respectively associated with the flow conduits 18a and 18b adjacent their connections with the coupling 19 are flow control devices 260 and 26b effective to maintain the volumetric flow to the nozzle structures 17a and 17b relatively independent of supply line pressure and to prevent surging of the water discharge from the nozzle structures. These flow control devices 26 control the volumetric flow in response to supply line pressures which generally vary from about 15 to psig in accordance with the particular locality at which the fountain is used. Such flow regulators have been described in detail in my U.S. Pat. No. 3,642,031 which 3 issued Feb. 15, 1972 to which reference may be made for a detailed consideration of the flow regulators, and insofar as such details may be pertinent to the present invention, they are incorporated herein by this reference to such patent.
The nozzle structures 17a and 17b are substantially identical both in structure and function, and the details thereof are shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 to which reference will now be made. The nozzle structure 17a shown in these Figures includes a two-piece casing 27' (the suffix a being omitted in this discussion but used in the drawing) defining a chamber 28 therewithin. The chamber 28 has an inlet 29 in the form of a bore or passage having internal threads that receive the threaded end 30 of the associated flow conduit 18. Thus, the inlet 29 is connected to a valve-controlled supply of water under pressure, and water delivered therefrom to the chamber 28 exits therefrom via an outlet 31 spaced from the inlet and, in the particular nozzle structure being considered, is spaced axially therefrom. The chamber 28 is large relative to the inlet and outlet openings 29 and 31 and, as will be evident hereinafter, must be substantially filled before an eyewashing flow of water is discharged from the outlet 31.
Disposed within the chamber 28 intermediate the inlet 29 and outlet 31 and in substantial alignment with the former is a diffuser device 32a effective to intercept any stream of water ejected into the chamber through the inlet 29 to reduce the velocity of the water and dissipate substantial portions of the momentum thereof, thereby converting the discharge of water through the outlet 31 into a lower-energy reduced-velocity flow. The diffuser 32a is generally in the form of a concave cap facing the inlet 29 and spanning the same. Such cap-type diffuser is provided along the sides thereof with a plurality of flow ports 34 through which water enters the chamber 28. The openings 34 are transversely disposed with respect to the axis of the conduit 18 and flow of water therethrough into the nozzle structure, wherefore the water experiences a 90 change in direction before entering the chamber 28. There are four openings 34 in the structure shown, and
' the aggregate area thereof is at least as great as that of the inlet 29 so that no appreciable pressure drop occurs across the diffuser 32. j
The nozzle structure 17 and particularly the casing 27 thereof is curvilinear so as to prevent injury through impact with sharp objects by one using the fountain, and the casing shown has a compound curvature defining a generally ball-shaped or spherical configuration. The casing is also of two-piece construction, as previously noted, and it includes a base component 35 formed integrally with the diffuser 32, and a shell or superstructure 36 sweat-fitted or otherwise fixedly secured to the base 35. The ports 34 are disposed in aligned pairs, thereby enabling the same to be drilled through the cap-shaped diffuser in two separate drilling operations, and the hollowed interior of the cap may also be drilled through the lower surface of the base, as the configuration of the inner space 37 of the diffuser suggests. The nozzle structure 17 can be formed from any suitable material including metals such as brass, and any one of a number of synthetic plastic materials.
The fountain will be installed in the usual manner, and should be ready for use at any time so as to meet emergency situations as they arise. Use of the fountain will ordinarily be rather infrequent and sporadic, and for long periods no water may be discharged through the nozzle structures. As previously explained, the nozzle structures 17a and 17b and flow conduits 18a and 18b associated therewith will be dry prior to each use of the fountain either because of natural evaporation and/or because the fountain may be of the antifreeze type. As a consequence when the control valve is opened to supply water to the inlet of the coupling 19, the initial water flow into the flow control devices 26a and 26b leaves the same as a high-velocity stream containing substantial kinetic energy and considerable momentum as it impinges against each difi'user 32 provided by the respectively associated nozzle structure. Such impact of the water stream dissipates much of its momentum and kinetic energy, thereby reducing its velocity, all of which is supplemented by the requirement for the water to change its flow direction by in entering the chamber 28 through the ports 34. Essentially no water will issue from the outlet 31 until the chamber 28 is filled, and the water discharge from the outlet will be at low velocity and will not cause discomfort to eyes flooded therewith.
While in the foregoing specification an embodiment of the invention has been set forth in considerable detail for purposes of making a complete disclosure thereof, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous changes may be 'made in such details without departing from the spirit and principles of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. Nozzle structurefor an eyewash fountain or the like, comprising: a casing defining a chamber therein having an inlet adapted to be connected to a valvecontrolled supply of water under pressure and an'outlet spaced from said inlet and through which an eye washing flow of water is discharged; and a diffuser device opening Without substantial restriction into said chamber and disposed therewithin intermediate said outlet and inlet and in general alignment with the latter to intercept any stream of water injected into said chamber through said inlet; said outlet being substantially no smaller in cross-sectional area than said inlet and said chamber being large relative to said inlet, outlet, and diffuser device with the latter being spaced substantially from said outlet to provide large capacity unobstructed flow paths leading thereto; interception by said diffuser device of such stream of water being effective to reduce the momentum thereof and convert the discharge of water through said outlet into a lowerenergy reduced-velocityfiow without significant volumetric change.
2. The nozzle structure of claim 1 in which said diffuser device comprises a generally imperforate cap bridging said inlet and causing any such stream of water entering said chamber through said inlet to change its flow direction.
3. The nozzle structure of claim 2 in which said diffuser device is a generally concave cap'having a sidewall provided with ports therealong oriented at angles generally of the order of 90 to the axis of any such stream of water flowing through said inlet and through which water must enter said chamber, said outlet being disposed along the same flow axis as said inlet.
4. The nozzle structure of claim 1 in which said casing comprises an assemblage of a plurality of components, one of said components being a base integral with said diffuser and having said inlet therein.
5. The nozzle structure of claim 4 in which said diffuser device comprises a generally imperforate concave cap bridging said inlet and having a sidewall provided with ports therealong oriented at angles generally of the Q d t ipitqt ze 29.? 9f S tm of Wate" flowing through said inlet and to which water must enter said chamber, thereby causing any such stream of water entering said chamber through said inlet to change its direction of flow, said outlet being disposed along the same flow axis as said inlet.
6. The nozzle structure of claim 1 in combination with an eyewash fountain provided with a receptor and having a flow conduit connected with said inlet and provided with means adapted to drain the flow conduit at least in part between infrequent uses of the fountain, said fountain having further a flow control device interposed in said flow conduit for maintaining the volumetric flow of water therethrough relatively independent of supply line pressure.
7. The nozzle structure of claim 6 in which said dif- 8. The nozzle structure of claim 7 in which said eyewash fountain is equipped with a pair of flow conduits, flow control devices, and nozzle structures, all as aforesaid; said nozzle structures being oriented in spaced apart, generally oppositely facing relation so as to provide concurrent water discharges for flooding the two eyes of a workman; and in which the casing of each nozzle structure comprises an assemblage of a plurality of components, one of said components being a base integral with said diffuser and having said inlet therein.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1930060 *||Oct 15, 1930||Oct 10, 1933||Crane Co||Stream regulator|
|US2522928 *||Nov 18, 1947||Sep 19, 1950||Monarch Mfg Works Inc||Spraying nozzle|
|US3599251 *||Jun 6, 1969||Aug 17, 1971||Haws Drinking Faucet Co||Covered eyewash fountain|
|US3602436 *||Mar 20, 1969||Aug 31, 1971||Haws Drinking Faucet Co||Spray nozzle for an eyewash fountain|
|US3642031 *||Jan 22, 1970||Feb 15, 1972||Haws Drinking Faucet Co||Flow control device|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3925829 *||Aug 12, 1974||Dec 16, 1975||Bost Howard W||Emergency eye wash fountain apparatus|
|US4363146 *||Jul 6, 1980||Dec 14, 1982||Liautaud John R||Eye wash fountain|
|US4493119 *||Jan 7, 1983||Jan 15, 1985||Baumann Ludwig G||Device for the treatment of the eyes with a washing or bathing liquid|
|US4627845 *||Dec 4, 1984||Dec 9, 1986||Demotte Frank E||Eyes-bathing faucet-mateable structure|
|US4675924 *||Mar 6, 1986||Jun 30, 1987||Allison Gary D||Emergency eye wash fountain|
|US5265288 *||Aug 14, 1992||Nov 30, 1993||Gary Allison||Automatic emergency spray means|
|US5530972 *||Jan 31, 1995||Jul 2, 1996||Encon Safety Products||Emergency eyewash fountain|
|US6261275 *||Mar 25, 1999||Jul 17, 2001||Elberta Hayes||Eye and wound washing device|
|US6385794||May 8, 2001||May 14, 2002||Speakman Company||Integrated eye wash and sink faucet|
|US8591479||Nov 29, 2011||Nov 26, 2013||Honeywell International Inc.||Gravity-fed sterile eyewash station with float valve flow regulator|
|US8839468||Oct 24, 2013||Sep 23, 2014||Haws Corporation||Emergency eyewash unit|
|US20040207803 *||Apr 18, 2003||Oct 21, 2004||Paukovits Edward J.||Device to aid the self-administration of eye drops|
|US20110225725 *||Mar 17, 2011||Sep 22, 2011||Kersten Steven A||Portable Eyewash Assembly|
|US20120096639 *||Oct 18, 2011||Apr 26, 2012||Haws Corporation||Faucet mounted eyewash unit|
|DE2639449A1 *||Sep 2, 1976||Apr 7, 1977||John Robert Liautaud||Augenwaschgeraet|
|U.S. Classification||239/31, 239/590.3, 239/543, 239/542, 4/620|
|International Classification||A61H35/02, A61H35/00|