US 3810336 A
A geodesic-type dome structure having the structural elements connected in a pattern of great circle arcs and lesser circle arcs in a three-way grid defining isosceles triangles and including hexagon and pentagon modules.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
States atent [1 1 [111 3,810,336 Sadao May 14, 197% [5 GEODESIC PENTAGON AND HEXAGON D2l7,760 6/1970 Critchlow 52/81 ux STRUCTURE 3,114,176 12/1963 Miller  I t Sh S d B M 3,530,621 9/1970 Rutzebcck 52/8! t or a Os ass OTHER PUBLlCATlONS  Assignee: Fuller Sadao, Incorporated, Domebook 2 May 1971 pages 14 25 31.
22 Filed; May 9 1972 Primary Examiner- Henry C. Sutherland Assistant Examinerl-lenry Raduazo  Appl 251,803 Attorney, Agent, or Firm--Smythe & Moore 52 us. Cl. 52/81 ABSTRACT  Int. Cl E04b 1/32 A geodesic-type dome structure having the structural  Field of Search 52/80, 81, DIG. 10 elements connected in a pattern of great circle arcs and lesser circle arcs in a three-way grid defining isos-  References Cited celes triangles and including hexagon and pentagon UNITED STATES PATENTS modules- 2,9l8,992 12/1959 Gelsavage 52/81 5 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures mmmm 141914 3L8 10.336
sum 2 0F 3 cmm 0F GEODSBC SPHEE GEODESIC PENTAGON AND HEXAGON STRUCTURE This invention relates to building structures of the geodesic-type dome.
It is desirable in building structures and frames to obtain maximum strength and space with a minimum of materials. An example of such is described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,682,235 to R. Buckminister Fuller. Geodesic dome structures have been used extensively for various purposes, such as radomes, houses and shelters. Another example of a larger dome is the geodesic dome at the Montreal Expo 67" exposition.
It is desirable to simplify the structures as much as possible so that individuals can build the same or so as to reduce cost of the materials involved.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide an improved structural arrangement of the modules.
Another of the objects of the invention is to provide a structural arrangement that will not require special modules at the lower or supporting edge.
Still another of the objects is to provide an improved joint arrangement. I
In one aspect of the invention,'the building framework of generally spherical form has main structural elements connected in a pattern of great circle arcs and lesser circle arcs of at least three frequency. The arcs intersect to form a three-way grid of isosceles triangles, and the modules include hexagons and pentagons. The joints can be secured by using gusset plates that are perpendicular to the radial from the center of the sphere formed by the framework.
These and other objects, advantages and features of the invention should become apparent from the following description and drawings which are merely exemplary.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a structure utilizing the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an elevational view looking in the direction of line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows the joined struts for a pentagon module;
FIG. 4 is similar to FIG. except there is an additional pentagon adjacent the center;
FIG. 5 shows the joined struts of a hexagon module;
FIG. 6 is similar to FIG. 5 except that there is an additional hexagon adjacent the center; and
FIG.'7 is a schematic view showing an arrangement of the gusset plates relative to the struts and center of the dome.
Where appropriate, like parts will be given the same reference numerals in the various figures.
Referring to FIG. 1, a plurality of modules forms the surface of the structure. The elements or edges of the modules form a substantially spherical icosahedron form structure 10 or portion thereof. The pentagonshaped modules 11 are at the vertices of the icosahedron-like structure. The hexagon-shaped modules 12 fill in the space between the pentagons.
The hexagon modules 12 are composed of a plurality of isosceles triangles l3, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18.
As mentioned, the centerlines of some of the struts lie generally in a lesser circle plane such as 19, and others lie generally in a great circle plane 21.
If desired, windows 22 can be placed where needed in various of the modules. A door 23 also can be inserted in one of the modules.
By using great and lesser circle arcs, it is possible to have the bottom edge of the structure terminate in one of the planes as desired without requiring special edge or bottom module construction. As an example, the structure in FIG. 2 shows the cutoff being below the equator of the structure.
A strut framework for the pentagon modules is seen in FIG. 3 having struts 24 of suitable material, such as wood. The ends of the struts are joined by gusset plates 25, 26. As shown schematically in FIG. 7, the flat face or plane of gusset plate 26 is fitted and fastened into slots 27 cut into the ends of the struts 24 and at the angle needed, so that the struts are positioned properly relative to each other. The plane of the various gussets is arranged so as to be substantially perpendicular to the radial to the center of the sphere.
FIG. 4 illustrates a structure wherein there is an internal pentagon 28 to support the edges of the plywood or other covering material when the distance involved is such that one sheet of standard material is not wide enough and two sheets or pieces must be used.
FIG. 5 is similar to FIG. 3 except it shows the arrangement of struts 30 and gusset plates 31 for a hexagon module.
FIG. 6 is similar to FIG. 4 except it shows an internal hexagon 34 with struts 32 and gusset plates 33 for a hexagon module for usewhere more than one piece of covering material must be used for a facet.
The exterior or edge struts of the various modules can be assembled to appropriate hexagon or pentagon modules by bolts (not shown) or any desired means. The covering facet material may be plywood or a suitable plastic sheet. By employing the hexagon and pentagon as basic modules rather than triangles, fewer bolts and less strut material is needed.
It should be apparent that variations may be made in constructional details and configurations without departing from the spirit of the invention except as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A building framework structure of spherical form of at least three frequency in which the main structural elements are connected in a geodesic-type pattern of great circle arcs and lesser circle arcs intersecting to form three-way grids defining isosceles triangles, the
3. A building framework as claimed in claim 2 wherein the structural elements are joined by gusset plates perpendicular to the radial from the center of the sphere of the structure.
4. A building framework as claimed in claim 2 wherein the modules have struts, the ends of said struts being joined by gusset plates perpendicular to the radial from the center of the sphere of the structure.
5. A building framework as claimed in claim 4 wherein the struts of a module include an external array of struts and an internal array of struts parallel to the external array, there being struts from the external array to the center of the module and struts from an external strut of the outer array to the internal array.
UNMIED STATES PATENT OFFICE QER'MIFHQATE @F CQRRECTION 398109 33 2 "M m ...vMa3L lLL,.. l9-1lr r Patent No.
Inventofls) Shoji SQdBO It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Patent Front Page  Fuller & Sadao, Incorporated" should be ----Fuller and Sadao, Incw-o Signed and sealed this 24th day of September 1974.
C. MARSHALL DANN McCOY Mo GIBSON JR, Arresting Offieer Commissioner of Patents USCOMM-DC GOING-P69 1% us GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I989 0-366-33k FORM 1 0-1050 (10-69)