US 3810565 A
A manikin simulating at least the upper portion of the human anatomy, and having a separately formed head, and a neck that extends downwardly from the underside of the head to the torso. The upper end of the neck and the underside of the head have interfitting joint members which both key the head in a selected angular position and have matingly complementary opposed surfaces which determine the longitudinal position of the head and define a relatively inconspicuous parting line in the region of the juncture of the head and neck in the human anatomy. In one embodiment, the joint members are molded integrally with the head and the neck, as a non-circular socket in the head and a correspondingly shaped stub on the neck, surrounded by a non-planar shoulder for abutting against the underside of the head around the socket. In another embodiment, the joint members are formed by injection molded parts (a ring and a shaped cap) which fit or nest closely together. These parts are placed in the head and body molds, and are joined to the head and to the body as an incident to the molding thereof. In each embodiment, the joint is finished and concealed, after assembly of a selected head style on a selected body style, by filling the parting line with adhesive and coating the entire manikin with the usual finish. The position and nature of the joint make it possible to produce a wide variety of manikins with customized facial configurations, and different torso and neck configurations artistically simulating different body positions, without the necessity of providing a new body mold for each facial configuration.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1 Livingston [4 1 May 14, 1974 MANIKIN CONSTRUCTION  Inventor: Graydon C. Livingston, Los
 Assignee: Wolf & Vine, Inc., Los Angeles,
 Filed: Sept. 10, 1973 ] Appl. No.: 395,614
Related U.S. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 163,021, July 15,
197i, Pat. N0. 3,769,134.
Primary Examiner-Geo. V. Larkin [5 7] ABSTRACT A manikin simulating at least the upper portion of the human anatomy, and having a separately formed head,
and a neck that extends downwardly from the underside of the head to the torso. The upper end of the neck and the underside of the head have interfitting joint members which both key the head in a selected angular position and have matingly complementary opposed surfaces which determine the longitudinal position of the head and define a relatively inconspicuous parting line in the region of the juncture of the head and neck in the human anatomy. In one embodiment, the joint members are molded integrally with the head and the neck, as a non-circular socket in the head and a correspondingly shaped stub on the neck, surrounded by a non-planar shoulder for abutting against the underside of the head around the socket. In another embodiment, the joint members are formed by injection molded parts (a ring and a shaped cap) which fit or nest closely .together. These parts are placed in the head and body molds, and are joined to the head and to the body as an incident to the molding thereof. In each embodiment, the joint is finished ahd concealed, after assembly of a selected head style on a selected body style, by filling the parting line with adhesive'and coating the entire manikin with the usual finish. The position and nature of the joint make it possible to produce a wide variety of manikins with customized facial configurations, and different torso and neck configurations artistically simulating different body positions, without the necessity of providing a new body mold for each facial configuration.
16 Claims, 15 Drawing Figures CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This is a continuation-in-part of copending US. Pat. application Ser. No. 163,021, filed July 15, I971. entitled MANIKIN CONSTRUCTION, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,769,134.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the manufacture of clothing display manikins of the type formed with a head on the upper end ofa neck and a portion, at least, of a supporting torso, the final product being an apparently integral structure whose outer surface does not disclose any mold lines or the like and, thus, faithfully simulates the work of the sculptor in producing the original model.
In the prior art, in making manikins of this type, the sculptor formed a model having a head integrally joined to a neck and the neck integrally formed with such area of anatomy of a supporting torso as desired. For example, thesupporting torso may be only a bust, or may terminate at the waist line, or at the hips. In forming the original model, the sculptor imparts a particular facial configuration to the head which, in turn, is given a desired angular relationship to the longitudinal axis of the neck. In other words, the head may be pointing in any of the directions possible within the wide range of movement of the human head relative to the upper end of the spinal column. Depending on the overall attitude or posture desired to be imparted to the manikin, the sculptor may also form the model with more or less prominent surface features determined by the interaction of bones, ligaments and skeletal muscles. The longitudinal axis of the neck may assume a variety of attitudes with respect to the supporting torso and the torso itself may be asymmetrically disposed. Thus, in making a particular manikin model, the sculptor is involved in the interplay of skeletal and muscular structure which is very strongly surface-reflected throughout the length of the neck.
Once the model has been completed and, most particularly, the sculptor having determined a particular anatomical structure of the column of the neck, molds are made from the model for the manufacture of the manikins. The manikins are manufactured as hollow structures having relatively thin walls. While a variety of synthetic plastic materials may be used, the material generally employed is a chopped fiberglass filler in a polyester resin vehicle, a catalyst being added to induce a thermosetting reaction and these materials are generally applied by brush, spray, or rotational molding process to the mold cavities. As the head, almost invariably, is not arranged symmetrically with respect to the neck and/or torso, the manufacturing molds cannot consist merely of two full length half sections having a single parting plane running through the full length of the manikin mold cavity. The head must be made in molds with a parting line or lines lengthwise thereof offset from the plane of the parting lines of the molds for the torso. Accordingly, two sets of molds are required to be made from the model, mold cavities of the two sets having a common reference plane corresponding to a section through the models neck, substantially midway between the shoulders and the underside of the aw.
A first mold set is made for the manufacture of heads having neck stubs, i.e., a portion of the column of the neck formed integrally with the head. The other set of molds consists of a front side and a back side. The front side is made with a cavity corresponding to the full length of the front of the manikin, i.e., the total length between the top of the head and the lower edge of the manikin. This is necessary so that a completed head with its neck stub will seat firmly in the corresponding portion of the cavity of the torso mold. The head is thus properly indexed in the desired angular relationship relative to the torso and the neck stub thereon. The front half of the torso is then laid up in the mold cavity. The other side of the torso mold has a cavity for the back of the manikin of a length less than the full length of the manikin but longer than the distance between the lower end of the manikin and the upper edge of that portion of the neck stub to be formed integrally with the torso. When the back mold is closed on the front mold the neck stub of the head is then clamped securely between the two halves of the torso mold and the mold is, of course, held closed while the connecting resin or the like cures or hardens.
The resulting integral product has beads of flash material along all of the parting lines in the head and neck and, particularly, in a line girding the neck where the two neck stubs have been joined. The flash material is in a hardened state and must be ground away. While the lengthwise flash lines do not present any particular problem and may be ground or sanded away by unskilled help, the sculptural detail of the column of the neck is distorted unless a skilled person is employed to grind away the flash encircling the neck.
In the conventional process of manikin manufacture just described there must be a unique set of molds for each particular manikin which the manufacturer desires to offer for sale. On the other hand, manufacturers typically wish to offer manikins corresponding to several different age groups and, within each age group, it is desired to offer several different styles or lines, each expressing a different attitude or motif. The problem is further complicated in that many customers desire their line of manikins to have unique facial configurations so that their display manikins are readily distinguishable from those of competitors who may be customers of the same manikin manufacturer. Accordingly, with the prior art method of manufacture, taking these variables into account, a very large investment of sculptors time and in unique molds and in assembly time has been required, for the reason that each different combination of the variables involved required its own unique set of molds. As a consequence, it has heretofore been economically impractical for any given manufacturer to satisfy customers demands for unique manikins, and the customers, on the other hand, have had to employ more or less standardized manikins.
Furthermore, because of uncertainty in market demand for particular lines of manikins, it has been impractical for manufacturers to carry a large inventory of completed manikins. Typically, only the heads could be manufactured in advance and carried in inventory, the full manikin being made only on order. Accordingly, as the demand for manikins is somewhat seasonal, the manufacturer has been forced, in periods of high demand, to employ unskilled extra labor on a tem- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention resides in the location and configuration of a novel joint between the heads and the bodiesof manikins, which make it economically practical to provide a wider variety of manikins and to produce those manikins with neck and torso configurations more attractively and artistically simulating true configurations of the human anatomy in different poses. The result is a capability to supply a much better product with distinctive features for a particular customer, at a cost that is competitive with conventional manikins that are less attractive and more restricted as to variety.
In general, this is accomplished by locating the joint in the region of the juncture of the head and neck of the human anatomy, where the configuration of the upper end of the neck does not change materially in different positions of the head, and forming the joint with two joint members, on the underside of the head and the upper end of the neck, which interfit and cooperate both to locate the head on the end of the neck and to key the head in an angular position corresponding to that represented by the neck. The joint members have matingly complementary opposed surfaces which define a relatively inconspicuous and easily concealed parting line along the underside of the head, and also assist in locating the head in the proper position relative to the neck.
In the preferred joint configuration, the joint member on the underside of the head is a downwardly and rearwardly opening non-circular socket defined by an upwardly and inwardly tapering wall, and the joint member on the upper end of the neck has a short upwardly tapered stub of non-circular cross-section that is surrounded by a continuous upwardly facing, non-planar shoulder. The sidewall of the stub fits snugly in the socket, and the shoulder matingly engages the underside of the head around the socket, along a non-planar parting line that is positioned in an area of the human anatomy that does not change materially in different angular positions of the human head.
The joint members may be molded along with the heads and the bodies, or may be pre-formed by injection molding or the like and attached to the heads and to the bodies. The latter approach simplifies the molding of the head and the neck, and insures that the joint members will fit closely together.
Standard joint members are provided on the ends of the headless necks of a set of torsos, to receive neckless heads of any selected facial configuration. The body molds for the torsos are produced to form necks in different angular positions with realistic external neck configurations, and the bodies from one set of such molds can be used with a variety of different heads so that distinctiveness in a set of manikins for a particular customer can be achieved by providing a single distinctive head mold for that customer. Of course, wigs, complexions and other supplementary decorations also can be tailored to the desires of the customer, and different sets of manikins are provided for different age groups, sexes, and the like. The primary advantage results from the fact that artistic and attractive torsos from each set of body molds can be used for many different customers'without detracting from the apparent individuality of the manikins.
Other specific advantages are reduction in the level of skill required for the finishing operations, reduction in inventory volume required, and the capability of manufacturing standard torsos in off seasons prior to determination of individualized head designs.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of a first manikin embodying the novel features of the present invention and having a representative orientation of the head with respect to the neck, and of the neck with respect to the torso;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a second model of manikin in accordance with the invention, with another representative relationship of the orientation of the head with respect to the neck, and of the neck with respect to the torso;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a third model of manikin in accordance with the prior art, and comprising an integral head and torso, but in an unfinished state and illustrating the mold parting and flash lines resulting from the prior art process of manufacture. This model also illustrates yet another relationship of the angle of the head with respect to the neck and of the neck with respect to the torso;
FIG. 4 is a somewhat schematic illustration of steps in the prior art process of manufacturing manikins with heads integral with a torso or bust;
FIG. 5, is an exploded perspective view of the manikin parts of this invention utilized in the manufacture of the model of manikin illustrated in FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view of the manikin parts of this invention employed in the manufacture of the model of manikin of FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a partial profile view of portions of a manikin head and torso in accordance with this invention and, also, illustrating, in phantom outline, features of skull anatomy for purposes of reference;
FIG. 8 is an elevational view of a manikin head of the invention, as seen generally in the plane of the line 88 of FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is a partial perspective view of a torso of the invention, particularly illustrating the compound curvature of the seat on which the edge of the head opening is mounted and indexed;
FIG. 10 is a partial plan view taken normal to the direction of the arrows 10 of FIG. 9.
FIG. 11 is an enlarged perspective view of a joint member which may be injection-molded in advance for incorporation in a head;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged perspective view of a injection-molded joint member for a neck;
FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a head in a mold, showing the position of the joint member of FIG. 11;
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the neck portion of a body mold, showing the position of the joint member of FIG. 12; and
FIG. 15 is a fragmentary side elevation of the upper portion of a manikin, partially broken away to show the interfitting joint members.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate two different models of manikins 11 and 12, respectively. For clarity and simplicity of description they are depicted as hairless but it is to be understood that the manikins 11 and 12 are coated with a surface finish, each having a head joined with its torso. It will further be understood that the manikins 11 and 12 are of the types intended. to be provided with corresponding arms, for example, adjustable and/or detachable arms and, further, if desired, may be assembled with legs to make full length manikins. The features above-mentioned but not disclosed are merely exemplary, are well known in the art, form no part of the present invention, and, accordingly, are excluded from this description.
The manikins l1 and 12 are made with identical heads 13 but each is joined to a different model of torso. Thus, the manikin ll of FIG. 1 includes a torso 14 on which the head 13 is turned to the left, in a somewhat horizontal attitude, on a neck portion 15 which, while substantially erect with respect to the torso, is also twisted to the left. The manikin 12 of FIG. 2 is formed with a torso 17 in which the head 13 is turned to the right, in a somewhat downwardly directed attitude, on a neck portion 18 which is correspondingly turned and with its longitudinal axis inclined somewhat forwardly.
Both manikins 11 and 12 are formed with pronounced surface reflections of the bone structure and skeletal muscles of the original model. Thus, in each case, there occurs a depression in the throat area above the sternum and between the pair of sterno-cleidomastoid muscles extending from the clavicles toward the mastoid process of the temporal bone in the skull. Other depressions are apparent outwardly of this pair of muscles, the clavicles being prominently displayed as between the two models and asymmetrically in each model. Similarly, referring to FIGS. 5 and 6 representing the torsos l7 and 14, respectively, the contours of the backs differently reflect the presence of the shoulder blades, i.e., differently as between the two models and asymmetrically with respect to each model. As is indicated by the shading, due to the difference in the two poses the overall surface contours are markedly different due to the action of the trapezius and pectoral muscles, the configuration of the former also reflecting the hollow of the spinal column in FIGS. 5 and 6.
It will of course be understood that the two poses of the models 11 and 12 are merely exemplary of the very wide range of possible postures of manikins, all of which involve different co-relationships of the skeletal muscles and bones throughout the area of anatomy under consideration and invariably reflecting differences in surface configuration throughout the column of the neck and the shoulder structure. In the prior art, in the case of each different pose or manikin model, it was necessary to provide a unique set of molds for each particular model. Thus, in the case of the manikins 11 and 12, notwithstanding the identity of the heads 13, for each model it was necessary to provide a unique set of molds for that particular model in order to preserve the anatomical integrity of the form originally devised by the sculptor. The reasons for the prior art requirement of one unique set of molds for each model of manikin can best be understood by a consideration of FIGS. 3 and 4.
Referring to FIG. 3, another model of manikin 20 comprises a torso 21 integrally joined to a head 22. It will be noted that the pose of the manikin 20 is different from those of the manikins 11 and 12 of FIGS. 1
. throat approximately midway between the clavicles and the underside of the jaw.
It will further be noted that the torso 21 and itsassociated neck portion 23 are made of separate back and front shells 26 and 27, respectively, that are joined on each of the opposite sides of the torso along lines of joinder 28. In like fashion, the head 22, with its integral neck stub portion 24, is formed of front and back portions 29 and 30, respectively, secured together along a line of joinder 31.
Using the prior art method, the sculptor first makes a model to serve as the matrix from which the molds for the four separate shell-like parts 26, 27, 29 and 30 can be made. From the original model a base mold 33, FIG. 4, is made having a cavity length between a base end wall 34 and a head end wall 35 substantially the same as the overall length of the model 20. It will, of course, be understood, as indicated in FIG. 4, that the base mold 33 constitutes a negative impression of the entire front of the model 20. Another mold 36 is formed with a negative impression (not shown) of a portion only of the overall length of the back side of the model 20. As is shown in FIG. 4, the length of the internal cavity of the mold 36 exceeds the distance between the lower end of the model 20 and the line ofjoinder 25 between the two neck stubs 23 and 24.
Another set of molds (not shown) is employed in the prior art to make the head 22 with its integral neck stub portion 24 so that the head with itsassociated stub neck is made first and separately from the torso 21 with its associated neck stub. This is necessary in view of the difference in the planes of the parting lines 28 and 31 of the torso and head, respectively.
After the head 22 with its associated neck stub 24 has been formed, the completed head is then laid in the base mold 33. As has been indicated, the base mold is formed with a negative impression in one end portion of the cavity thereof whereby the completed head and its stub are matingly received therein in properly indexed relationship with respect to the remainder of the cavity of the base mold 33. Thereafter, the front half portion 26 of the torso, and its associated stub portion 23 of the neck, are laid up in the bed mold 33.
The backside portion 27 of the torso is laid up in the cavity of the mold 36. As will be apparent, when the mold 36 is closed upon the base mold 33, no access can be had to the interior of the mold cavities. Accordingly, prior to closing the mold 36 upon the mold 33 a connecting resin, sticking gel, adhesive or the like is applied to all exposed edges of the manikin shell material, i.e., corresponding to the lines of joinder 28 for the front and rear portions 26 and 27 of the torso and the line of joinder 25. The mold halves 36 and 33 are then closed together bringing the edges of the back portion 27 into contact with the corresponding edges of the front portion 26 and the neck stub 24. At the same time, the mold halves upon being closed securely clamp the neck stub 25.
The mold halves 36 and 33 being held together during setting of the resin or adhesive, the connecting resin or gel is extruded outwardly at practically all points along the lines of joinder. This extrusion of the sticking material is most pronounced along the back of the line of joinder 25 for the reason that an excess of the sticking gel or cementing resin is applied at this point to insure that the joinder is effected without any perforations. After the material has hardened, the molds are open and the manikin removed.
It will be understood that in order to give the model 20 the finished appearance of the models .11 and 12, the excess of flash along the lines of joinder 25, 28 and 31, now being in the hardened state, is ground or polished away. In this connection, a skilled worker must be employed to clean away the flash at the line of joinder 25 in an attempt to at least approximate the original anatomical contour of the original model.
From the foregoing, it will now be understood why the prior art method employed a unique set of molds for each different model of manikin. In all cases, in assembling the head to the torso, a bedmold was provided having a negative impression of the face and a portion of the neck, both being of a detailed sculptured configuration, in order to preserve the proper angularly indexed relationship of the head with respect to the torso and to properly align the neck stubs. This procedure was believed essential in order to try to reproduce the sculptors original model without distortion as was, also, the step of final grinding away by a skilled workman of the excess flash around the line of joinder 25.
With the present invention, the three different torsos of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 (or any desired number of different torsos) can each be employed with the same head 13 (or with any desired number of different models of head). In every case the resulting manikin truly simulates, without distortion, the anatomical features incorporated in the original models of head and torso by the sculptor.
Referring to FIG. 7, a head in accordance with the present invention, in this case the head 13, is shown mounted on a torso in accordance with the invention,
in this case on the neck 15 of the torso 14. Preferably, I
member including an endless, generally annular, shoulder 4] and an integrally formed upstanding sidewall 42 surrounded by the shoulder 41. If desired, the stublike projection defined bythe endless wall 42 may be closed by a top end wall 43. Again, as shown in the drawings, the sidewall 42 preferably has an upward taper.
The outer margin of the edge 40 of the head opening, and the shoulder 41 of the neck are, in effect, faying surfaces of compound curvature. They are, thus,
adapted for mating engagement along an endless line of joinder, indicated on the surface of the manikin at 44 in FIG. 7. When so engaged, it will be seen that the stub sidewall 42 is matingly received within the head opening 40 whereby the head is, in effect, self-indexing in the proper orientation with respect to the neck 15. In other words, any head of the invention, when placed -upon any .torso incorporating the invention, upon bringing the surfaces 40 and 41 into engagement, assumes a fixed relationship with respect to the neck, being keyed both against the rotation and bending.
It will be understood that when the head 13 is joined to the neck 15, a suitable adhesive, in the plastic state, is applied to the mating surfaces 40 and 41 in order to permanently join the parts. While the adhesive is still soft, the excess material may be cleaned off smoothly by an unskilled worker without disturbing the desired fixed relationship of the head and neck stub, which are keyed together. After the adhesive has set, the rigidly interconnected parts are given a finish coating to conceal the line of joinder 44.
Referring to FIG. -7, the compound curvature of the line of joinder 44 (and accordingly of the faying surfaces 40 and 41) may conveniently be defined with ref erence to the structure of a skull. Thus, as points of reference there are shown in FIG. 7 the external occipital protuberance 46 at the base of the skull, the mastoid process 47 of the temporal bone, and the mandible 49, as well as the body 50 of the hyoid bone in the median section of the head. As is indicated in FIGS. 7 and 10, the occipital protuberance 46 and the median section of the body 50 of the hyoid bone define an axis of symmetry 51 for the generally ovoid shaped line of joinder 44. Referring to FIG. 7, the line 88 may be considered as essentially the same as the axis of symmetry 51 of FIG. 10, the axis of symmetry also being the major axis of the generally ovoid endless compound curve. As is best seen in FIG. 8, this axis is disposed in the plane including the median section of the head.
Empirically, I have determined that the optimum location for the axis 51 to produce the least amount of distortion of manikin anatomy, no matter what the position of the head in relation to the neck, is as indicated in FIG. 7. Thus, the axis 51 preferably intersects the back of the neck at a location slightly spaced beneath the external occipital protuberance 46. At the front of the neck, the axis 51 intersects the middle line of the front of the neck at or above the laryngeal prominence, preferably through or closely adjacent to an intersection with the body of the hyoid bone. According, heads of the invention, such as the head 13, are formed with a contour of the opening edge 40 such that when viewed in profile (or nearly so) as in FIG. 7, the major portion of the profile towards the rear of the neck is downwardly concave, being substantially uniformly spaced beneath the protuberance 46 and the mastoid process 47, thence curving under the angle 48 approximately the same distance. The profile of the edge 40 in the forwardmost portion, i.e., as it girdles the front of the neck has a slightly upwardly concave appearance.
With the axis 51 so located, the column of the neck 15 may be sculpted in any desired angular and twisted relationship with respect to its torso withthe anatomical features of the neck and torso correspondingly displayed in greater or lesser prominence, as desired. In every case, irrespective of the angle of the axis 51 with respect to a horizontal plane, and irrespective of the angularity of the median plane of the head with respect to a vertical plane, any head of the invention may be successfully joined to any body of the invention with a minimum of anatomical distortion in the resulting manikin. This results from the locus of the line of joinder 44 which, in terms of reference to the skeletal muscles of the neck, is so located as to intersect only upper end portions of the supraspinous ligament, the sternocleido-mastoid muscles, thyreo-hyoid muscles, omohyoid muscles, and sterno-hyoid muscles.
An alternative to the molding of the two joint members as integral parts of the head and the neck is shown in FIGS. 11 through 15. In this embodiment, the joint members are pre-formed parts which can be produced in carefully controlled sizes and shapes by techniques such as injection molding, for attachment to a head 52 and a neck 53 in the proper positions. This not only simplifies the largely manual operations in the molding of the heads and the bodies, but also insures a close, nesting fit between the two joint members in the finished product, thereby minimizing the amount of initial looseness and subsequent filling and finishing needed.
More specifically, the joint member for the head 52 is a specially shaped ring 54, having an upwardly extending annular wall with an inner side 55 which defines the socket and corresponds to the edge 40 in FIG. 8. The socket tapers upwardly to some extent, in the same manner as the socket defined by the edge 40.
Along the lower edge of the ring 54, a continuous flange 56 extends outwardly and somewhat downwardly, with an underside which surrounds the socket and corresponds to the underside of the head around the socket in the first embodiment. The upper side 57 of this flange cooperates with the outer side 58 of the upwardly extending wall to define a shallow groove of V-shaped cross-section around the ring, for receiving the fiberglass material of the head 52, in the manner illustrated in FIG. 13.
When a head 13 has been laid up in a two-part mold 59, except for the installation of the ring 54, the latter can be placed in the bottom opening 60 of the mold, as shown in FIG. 13, and the fiberglass can be pressed firmly into the outside groove, to become bonded to the ring as the fiberglass sets, the plastic of the joint members being selected so as to be suitable in this respect. Access to the inside of the mold is available through the ring.
After joinder of the ring 54 to the head 13, the peripheral edge of the flange 56 remains exposed, the fiberglass being formed flush with this edge by the positioning of the ring in the mold opening 60. It should be noted that a similar ring, with a top wall (not shown) closing the upper end of the socket, can be used in the rotational casting of heads.
The joint member for the neck 53 is a cap 61 which may be an exact duplicate of the upper end of the neck in FIG. 9, having a sidewall 62 in the upwardly tapered shape of the wall 42, a top wall 63 in the shape of the top wall 43, and a flange 64 around the lower edge of the sidewall, with an upper side 65 in the shape of the shoulder 41. A vent hole 66 is shown in the top wall 63, and may be used in locating the cap in a body mold 67, partially shown in FIG. 14.
In attaching this joint member to a neck 53 as an incident to the molding of the neck, the cap 61 is inserted in the proper position in the mold 67, preferably in the front half 67a thereof, and suitably located for engagement with the material that forms the neck. For example, the upper end of the neck mold may be shaped to receive the cap, against a cover plate 68 shown in FIG. 14, and a fastener (not shown) can be used to attach the cap releasably to this plate. The fiberglass in the mold parts is pressed tightly against the underside of the flange 64, flush with the outer edge thereof, and becomes bonded to the cap in setting.
The configuration of the neck mold 67, of course, dotermines the position of the cap 61 on the finished neck 53, just as the position of the opening 60 in the head mold 59 locates the ring 54 in the head 52. In the case of heads, the position of the ring is always the same, independent of the configuration of the neck on which it will be mounted. Because the shapeof the two joint members may be made uniform in every part, it can be assured that the socket wall and the sidewall 62 will telescope together with a snug fit, and that the parting line between the two joint members will be uniformly fine and regular. In fact, with matingly complementary tapers on the telescoping parts, proper longitudinal positioning of the head on the neck could be effected by the tapers alone, without need for additional longitudinally opposed surfaces.
It will be apparent that the joint members could be attached to the upper end of the neck and set in the underside of the head in other ways. It also is to be understood that the finishing operations will be basically the same in both embodiments, although the joint in the second embodiment should require no additional filling after an adhesive is applied to the mating surfaces and any excess is wiped off around the parting line. The surface finish applied to the manikins will completely conceal the edges of the flanges 56 and 64 of the joint members.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that the location and configurations of the joint members provide a universal means for joining any manikin head to any manikin torso, regardless of the angle of the axis 51. By way of example, with reference to FIGS. 5 and 6, it will be apparent, upon inspection and by comparison to FIGS. 1 and 2, that the axes 51 thereof are differently angularly disposed with reference to a horizontal plane. At the same time, as is particularly apparent by comparison of FIGS. 1 and 2, the heads-l3 thereof are inclined to different degrees of angularity of the planes of the median sections thereof with respect to a vertical plane. Nevertheless, in both cases the finished manikins of FIGS. 1 and 2 faithfully reproduce the anatomical features incorporated into the original model by the sculptor, with minimal distortion.
The invention enables a manufacturer, with a substantially constant number of employees, to build and maintain an inventory of several models of heads and several models of torsos, within each size, which can be readily assembled in any desired combination. The manufacturer thus has the ability to offer a great number of different models of full manikins in different sizes and styles with a minimum of investment in molds and sculptors time and without regard to seasonal fluctuations in demand.
1. In a manikin simulating at least the upper portion of the human anatomy, and having a separately formed head, and a neck extending downwardly from the underside of the head and representing a human neck in a predetermined angular position, an improved joint between said head and said neck, comprising:
means in the underside of said head defining a noncircular downwardly and rearwardly facing-socket surrounded by a peripheral non-planar surface;
a stub of non-circular cross-section on the upper end head and said neck, joining the same permanently together and concealing said joint.
7. A manikin as defined in claim in which said first joint member is a downwardly and rearwardly facing,
of said neck, shaped to fit into said socket with a 5 non-circular socket in the underside of said head, and
close fit, and to key the head non-rotatably on the neck in a preselected angular position corresponding to the angular position represented by said neck;
a generally annular shoulder extending around said stub and engaging said peripheral surface around said socket, said shoulder also being non-planar and shaped for matingly complementary engagement with said peripheral surface along the underside of said head when the latter is in said preselected angular position;
adhesive material between said peripheral surface and said shoulder securing the head to said neck;
and a surface coating concealing said joint.
2. A manikin as defined in claim 1 in which said neck is twisted to one side, said stub and said shoulder being positioned on said neck to receive and support said head in an angular position in which said head is correspondingly turned to one side.
3. A manikin as defined in claim 1 in which said means in the underside of the head defining a socket is a specially shaped pre-formed ring secured to said head and having an upwardly extending annular wall with an inner side defining said socket, and a flange along the lower edge of the ring forming said non-planar periph' eral surface.
4. A manikin as defined in claim 1 in which said stub and said annular shoulder are formed by a pre-formed cap secured to the upper end of the neck.
5. In a manikin simulating at least the upper portion of the human anatomy, and having a separately formed head, and a neck extending downwardly from the underside of the head and representing a human neck in a predetermined angular position, an improved joint between said head and said neck, comprising:
a first joint member on the underside of said head in the region of the juncture of the head and neck of the human anatomy, and having a downwardly facing peripheral surface;
and a second joint member on the upper end of said neck, also in the region of the juncture of the head and neck of the human anatomy, interfitting with said first joint member and having an upwardly facing peripheral surface, opposing said downwardly facing surface on said head;
said joint members having interfitting portions of non-circular cross-sectional shapes, transversely of the neck, keying said head non-rotatably on the neck in a preselected angular position corresponding to the predetermined angular position represented by said neck;
and said peripheral surfaces having matingly complementary shapes fitting together to position said head a preselected position longitudinally of said neck, and defining a relatively inconspicuous parting line between said joint members around the juncture of the head and the neck.
6. A manikin as defined in claim 5 in which said improved joint further includes a filling of adhesive material between said opposed surfaces and covering said parting line flush with the adjacent portions of said said second joint member includes a non-circular stub smaller in outside shape than the upper end of said neck, and fitting snugly into said socket, said downwardly facing surface extending around the outside of said socket, and said upwardly facing surface being a continuous shoulder extending around said stub.
8. A manikin as defined in claim 5 in which said surfaces are complementarily non-planar, to follow the juncture of the head and neck of the human anatomy.
9. In a manikin simulating at least the upper portion of the human anatomy, and having a separately formed head, and a neck extending downwardly from the underside of the head and representing a human neck in a predetermined angular position, an improved joint between said head and said neck, comprising:
first and second joint-forming means on the underside of said head and on the upper'end of said neck, respectively, fitting together and mounting said head on said neck, said joint-forming means including matingly complementary opposed surfaces for fitting together in abutting relation in the region of the juncture of the head and neck of the human anatomy, and both positioning said head longitudinally of said neck and keying said head in a preselected angular position on said neck corresponding to the predetermined angular position represented by said neck.
10. A manikin as defined in claim 9 in which said joint forming means comprise:
means defining a downwardly and rearwardly facing non-circular socket in the underside of said head, including a continuous wall tapering upwardly and inwardly into said head;
and means forming a stub on the upper end of said neck, having a sidewall of non-circular crosssectional shape that is matingly complementary with said socket, said sidewall being tapered upwardly to fit snugly and non-rotatably in said socket.
11. A manikin as defined in claim 10 in which said joint-forming means include opposed peripheral surfaces around said socket and around said stub abutting against each other and positioning said head longitudinally of said neck, said peripheral surfaces having nonplanar shapes that are matingly complementary when said head is in the angular position corresponding to that represented by said neck.
12. A manikin as defined in claim 9 further'including a filling of adhesive between said joint members securing the same together and filling the joint, and a surface coating concealing the joint.
13. A manikin as defined in claim 10 in which said means defining a socket is a first pre-formed joint member that is set into the underside of the head in a predetermined position, and the means forming the stub on the neck is a second pre-formed joint member that is attached to the neck in a predetermined position.
14. A manikin as defined in claim 13 in which said joint members-are injection-molded plastic parts of matingly complementary shapes for nesting together in close fitting relation, and said head and said neck are separately molded parts to which the joint members are secured as an incident to the molding of the head and the neck 15. In a manikin simulating at least the upper portion of the human anatomy, and having a separately formed head, and a neck extending downwardly from the underside of the head and representing a human neck in a predetermined angular position, an improved joint between said head and said neck comprising:
a first pre-formed joint member set into the underside of said head in the region of the juncture of the head and neck of the human anatomy;
a second pre-formed joint member attached to the upper end of said neck, also in the region of the juncture of the head and the neck of the human anatomy;
bonds joining said first and second joint members to the head and to the neck, respectively, as separately formed but securely attached pieces of the head and neck, respectively;
and matingly complementary, non-circular opposed surfaces on said joint members fitting together in abutting relation, and both positioning the head longitudinally of said neck and keying the head in a preselected angular position corresponding to the predetermined angular position represented by said neck, and also defining a relatively inconspicuous parting line between said head and said neck along the underside of said head.
16. A manikin as defined in claim 15 in which said first joint member is an injection-molded ring having an inside surface defining a non-circular socket, and said second joint member is an injection-molded cap having an outside surface forming a stub for fitting closely in said socket and a shoulder for fitting closely against the lower side of said ring to form said parting line.