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Publication numberUS3811222 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 21, 1974
Filing dateDec 8, 1971
Priority dateJan 26, 1971
Publication numberUS 3811222 A, US 3811222A, US-A-3811222, US3811222 A, US3811222A
InventorsG Economou
Original AssigneeG Economou
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Swinging doors
US 3811222 A
Abstract
A swinging door comprising a vane supported about an axis, wherein the vane comprises a first portion of predetermined width and a second portion of greater predetermined width. The first portion is attached to the second portion so as to make a predetermined angle therewith of between 90 DEG and 175 DEG and the axis is adjoined within the first portion or is in the region of the plane of the second portion.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Economon May 21, 1974 [5 SWINGING DOORS 2,549,451 I 4/1951 Gossling 49/42 x 2,309,893 2/1943 Gersbach.... 49/46 [76] Invemm- 332g: g:"3' 8 5 2,939,527 6/1960 Cann 49/371 x 8 7 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS [22] l9 1 1,093,256 11/1960 Germany 49/460 21 1 N 205,947 813,693 9/1951 Germany 49/460 i Application Data Primary Examiner-Kenneth Downey [63] Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 109,788, Jan. 26, Attorney, Agent Fi Ri h -d P C l y 1971, Pat, No. 3,726,044.

52 us. c1 49/9, 49/34, 49/49 [57] 51 1111.01 E0lf 13/00 A swmgmg q comprlsmg a t supported about [58] Field of Search 49/9, 34, 42, 49, 46, 386, an ax1s, wherein the vane compnses a first portion of 49/460, 462 160/37 predetermined width and a second portion of greater predetermined width. The first portion is attached to [56] References Cited the second portion so as to make a predetermined UNITED STATES PATENTS angle therewith of between 90 and 175 and the axis 3 380 19] 4 1968 N ff 1 49 49 is adjoined within the first portion or is in the region 3,09l.8I8 6x963 I Cleaerk et a X of the plane of the second portion 2:688:164 9/1954 Nelson mm: 49/386 x 25 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures PATENTEMM 2 1 m4 SHEET 1 OF 4 PRIOR ART (CLOSED) FIG I PRIOR ART (OPEN) A SHiET 2 OF 4 f 42 I/ \Q/ 42 CLOSED OPEN ns 5 B CLOSED OPEN 44 44 PRIOR ART TRAFFIC FLOW 72 TRAFFIC FLOW PATENTEBIAYZI m 381 1 222- SWINGING DOORS This application is a continuation-impart of U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 109,788, filed Jan. 26, 1971 (now U.S. Pat. No. 3,726,044, issued Apr. 10, 1973).

This invention relates to improvements in vanes such as used in doors and similar mechanisms in buildings, structures or vehicles. It relates generally to movable partitions connecting or separating two or several regions. In particular, the invention relates to a vane construction to be used as replacement of conventional swinging doors.

Principal objects of the invention include the provision of an improved vane construction which, without substantially increasing the expense of manufacture or the difficulty of installation, makes for a door which is more comfortable to operate and more efficient in the management of traffic flow. As used herein door will be understood to include various kinds of portals whether designed to accept human, animal, .or conveyed inanimate traffic. Furthermore, it is intended to include vanes supported about axes which are other than vertical.

To achieve these ends, one aspect of the invention contemplates a door including a vane extending outward from the longitudinal axis of a vertical set of hinges. The primary characteristic feature of construction is the L-shaped conjunction at an angle A of two or more portions or partial folding of one member to comprise each vane. While preferably planar, these vane portions may be curved surfaces. The angle A of attachment (or of the fold of one member) of two such portions is presently preferred to be an obtuse angle of approximately 140 but may be set at any predetermined value between 90 and 175 dependingupon selected operating conditions. The criteria of vane design are chiefly the intersection and attachment of two' portions where one portion is the same or greater in width and having the same or different height. These L- shaped doors may be radially or tangentially hinged or pivot-mounted either singly or as double doors in any conventional manner to a door casing or wall.

More particularly, according to the invention, the vane itself is supported aboutan axis and comprises a first portion of predetermined width which is attached at an angle A to a second portion of a greater predetermined width, the predetermined angle A of attachment being between 90 and 175. The axis is either in the plane of the second portion or adjoined with the first portion. In one preferred embodiment L-shaped double doors are provided with the second predetermined width being greater than the first predetermined width and each having an impact receiving means mounted thereupon in the region of attachment of the two vane portions.

Other objects, features and advantages will be apparent from the following description of preferred embodiments of the invention. In the drawings:

FIG. I is a diagrammatic illustration of a prior art emergency exit access door to a stairway enclosure containing stairs and landing;

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of a door constructed according to the invention and employed as an emergency exit access door to a stairway enclosure containing stairs and landing;

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of another door constructed according to the invention and employed also as an emergency exit access door to a stairway enclosure containing stairs and landing;

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of a door constructed according to the invention and installed with a panic pushbar safety release, the door being employed as an emergency access exit door from a stairway enclosure containing terminal stairs and landing;

FIG. 5 is a generalized diagrammatic illustration of L-shaped swinging single doors according to the invention;

FIG. 6 is a generalized diagrammatic illustration of L-shaped swinging double doors according to the invention;

FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic illustration of a passageway containing an array of L-shaped swinging single doors;

FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic illustration of a passageway containing a different array of L-shaped swinging single doors;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view of double doors constructed according to the invention and adapted as impact doors;

FIG. 10 is a diagrammatic view of prior art impact doors;

FIG. 11A is a diagrammaticview of impact doors such as shown in FIG. 9 in a closed configuration;

FIG. 11B is a diagrammatic view of the doors of FIG. A with a vehicle passing therethrough;

FIGS. 12A, 12B, and 12C illustrate various impact receiving means for impact doors constructed according to the invention;

FIG. 13 illustrates diagrammatically a modified L- shaped impact door constructed according to the invention;

FIG. 14 is a diagrammatic plan view of double-sided L-shaped impact doors mounted in a double door configuration;

FIG. 15 is a perspective view ofa pair of doors illustrating alternative embodiments of double-sided impact doors;

FIGS. 16A and 16B illustrate doors constructed according to the invention and mounted to swing about a horizontal support axis at the rear of a vehicle.

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a typical prior artemergency exit access door leading to a stairway enclosure containing stairs 102 and 104 and landing as used for emergency egress in multi-story buildings.

The door 106 is vertically side-hinged at hinge 108 adjacent a corner of the landing and swings directly into Vmulti-line traffic descending stairs 104 from the landing above. Persons inthe line of traffic descending stairs 104 nearest the inner wall of the stairway enclosure must when door 106 swings abruptly and without forewaming reduce their speed and change direction in order to merge as required to stairs 1 02 descending to the landing below. The individual or persons adjacent the door at the unexpected moment of opening may initially incur frontal injuries as the edge of door 106 is thrust directly into his or their path. The possible injury, restriction of passageway, and resultant congestion of merging traffic may cause one person to stumble and fall on stairs 102 thus obstructing traffic which may precipitate a panic condition. It is well recognized that the probability of serious panic is greatest when there is stoppage of emergency traffic and when large numbers of people are confined in a restricted area such as a stairway enclosure.

In this invention egress comprises, both horizontal and vertical passage which in an emergency is a continuous and unobstructed .way of exit from within a building, structure, or vehicle to a safe and remote shelter. Exit access swinging fire doors are designed to restrict the spread of fire and are kept normally closed, that is,

self-closing upon release, and generally swing in the direction of exit traffic.

As seen in the doors of FIGS. 2 and 3 the vane portions intersect with an obtuse angle A of attachment. While a single member may be bent to produce the two portions of each vane, the vanes may also constitute separate pieces maintained at an obtuse angle A by any conventional means. I

In F IG. 2 the axis of hinge I 14 is adjoined with or adjacent to the narrower vane portion of door 112 while in FIG. 3 the axis of hinge l 18 is adjoined with or adjacent to the wider vane portion of door 116. In either case, it will be apparent that the doors swing in the direction of exiting traffic and that the flow of horizontal traffic through the opening of door 112 or 116 is guided to the left of the down stairway 102 and flow of downward traffic from the upper landing is guided to the right of stairway 102. In no position of its swing does either door block the stairs or landing. When these doors are closed the flow of vertical traffic is unaltered.

In their normally closed position visual sighting of these L-shaped doors among their immediate surroundings is easily achieved and will prevent uncertainty of locating a sufficient means of egress under conditions of anxiety. Exit markings on the vertical panel of the vane portion facing the expected predominant flow of traffic along with conventional illumination will constitute an effective display. Small vision panels of wired glass installed in the vane portions are in different planes with respect to the adjacent walls; persons approaching are made more aware of the door and the visual field of view for persons passing through the door opening provides a more useful and obvious perspective for avoiding collisions with persons who may otherwise be struck by the door. I

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of a door constructed according to the invention and employed as an exit access door leading from a stairway enclosure containing terminal stairs and landing. Also illustrated is a panic pushbar safety release 62 hinged or pivotmounted at one end on the portion of door 120 remote from hinge 122. When pressure is applied the angular movement of this access pushbar in the direction of traffic flow will unlatch and enable the door to swing to its full opening.

All the aforedescribed L-shaped emergency exit access doors have been depicted optimally as one-way doors; however in other embodiments they may be selfclosing double-acting doors. Also, all doors may be left or right-hand mounted.

Further embodiments of this L-shaped vane configuration include its incorporation as replacement of conventional doors which swing on pivots or hinges generally along one side. Typical implementations as single and double door systems are shown in FIGS. -8.

A prior art single planar door is shown in FIG. 5A where the door 40 is mounted to swing about axis 42 defined by the location of the mechanisms by which the door is attached to the wall 44. My angled vane door 46 is shown in FIGS. 53 and 5C. FIG. 6 illustrates a double door configuration. In both single and double L-shaped door configurations, but chiefly in the double door construction, the vanes 46 when opened may serve as guides for channeling traffic through each unit. (Conventional apparatus to restrict the swing of the single or double door units and a spring, or similar, return mechanism for closure may be provided.) Under some wind conditions larger forces would be necessary to open conventional swinging doors than my angled vane doors.

These doors may serve as exits only or also for admittance. Most effective transit is achieved at directions oblique to the primary wall which may. additionally be parallel or convergent with respect to another wall with a passageway of any form between these walls. A situation is illustrated in FIG. 7 where the direction of traffic flow in corridor 50 is indicated. (The traffic may be humans or animals walking or being conveyed.) The doors 54, 56, S8, and 60 illustrate different angles A of attachment between intersecting vane portions of different dimensions. Easier and more comfortable transit is attained by designing these L-shaped doors with an optimum angle Aof attachment and proper scaling and sizing of vane portions, considering expected predominant directions and magnitudes of traffic flow. A conventional swinging door in the plane-of corridor wall 52 would not be as efficient to open and pass therethrough since thedirection of approach is perpendicular to the indicated direction of travel. Another situation is indicated in FIG. 8 where secondary traffic from rooms, (e.g., defined by walls 82, 83) etc., merge into existing traffic in passageway through doors 71-74.

The horizontally swinging pushbar safety release 62 previously shown inFIG. 4 and typically illustrated again as item 62 in door 58 of FIG. 7 anddoor 73 of FIG. 8 may be hinged or pivot-mounted and constructed to actuate a locking mechanism (not shown) in any conventional manner and to provide a platform for applying forces to open all doors of FIGS. 2-8. Alternatively, the pushbar may be mounted in a fixed position relative to the door.

While a single member. may be bent to produce the two portions of each vane, the vanes may also constitute separate pieces maintained rigidly or releasable at an obtuse angle A by any conventional means, e.g., firm or reflex angle ties. The ties provide for achieving an angular relationship of inner and outer vane portions which may be selectively varied and set at any predetermined value between 90 and In door assemblies in which the top portion of the casing is configured to accept a specific door (or doors) of selected angle A of attachment and predetermined widths of vane portions, a superior weather or airlock seal may be effected due to the sealing action of the L-shaped outline when the door opening is closed. Better sound reducing properties may also result. It should also be noted that the provision of a flexible extension (not shown) at the edge most distal from the vertical supporting hinge facilitates adjustment of angle A of attachment, since as angle A is made smaller the outer vane portion will retract somewhat from the casing. Fine adjustment of angle A would be useful to maintain a desired degree of seal.

In addition to conventional Weatherstripping, windows, oil seals, locking mechanisms, handles, etc., a canopy and sill along with reinforcing ties between vaneportions may also be provided.

Metering devices or coin stops for counting single persons or platoons of people or objects or for maintaining or changing traffic flow rates are all compatible with these doors. Depending upon anticipated or experienced capacities, the number of vane portions may be changed and corresponding heights varied. Variation of width of the vane portions for passage of single or multiple entities through separate door enclosures installed in any optimum distribution pattern (consecutive, staggered, etc.,) is also assumed. These L-shaped swinging doors may be left or right-hand mounted in any conventional manner.

FIG. 9 illustrates another embodiment of a pair of doors constructed in accordance with the present invention as impact doors. Each door 10 is side mounted to vertical support 11 along one edge by a series of jointed or flexible hinges 12 (or, alternatively, one continuous hinge) and comprises a first vane portion 13 adjacent the axis of these hinges and a second vane portion 14 rigidly attached to the first portion making an obtuse angle A of attachment. While angle A is preferably set at 130 any fixed value between 90 and 175 may be employed. Impact receiving means for absorbing energy imparted by the striking body (sharpcornered pallet vehicles, etc.) may be provided in the form of vertically disposed bumpers 17 mounted on door 10 along the line of attachment of vane portions 13 and 14. An overhanging canopy (not shown) may be used to cover one or both of the triangular openings above each door assembly. These canopies may be configured to the particular openings or extend beyond the doors and preferably be separately attached for ventilation pusposes. Widows 15, 16 are also provided.

A typical prior art impact double door is shown in FIG. 10 where the striking faces 24 of each door 22 are or are not covered with resilient material to serve as cushioned nosing.

As shown in FIG. 11A L-shaped impact doors effectively provide a constricted impact region for encountering striking forces which will result in more direct opening of the doors. FIG. 11B is a diagrammatic view of the doors of FIG. 11A with a vehicle passing therethrough.

The L-shaped configuration of impact doors constructed according to the invention inherently provides a small region for impact thus making it more feasible to incorporate a local control actuator for automatic opening of the door using conventional mechanisms. The actuator may be installed as an integral part of the impact bumper.

Shown in FIG. 12 are details of three different impact bumpers which may typically be utilized as units 17 in FIGS. 9 and 11. A resilient impact unit is diagrammatic-ally shown in FIG. 12A where resilient material 84 is used to deaden the impact and is shielded with a loop 86 of spring steel or synthetic material. FIG. 12B illustrates a roller construction where impact cylindrical roller 88 is positioned vertically along the line of attachment of the two vane portions adjacent to which is resilient material 84 surrounded by a follower strip 89 on vane portion 13. These impact rollers would reduce frictional contact with the passing vehicle and may be of resilient material. FIG. 12C shows -a somewhat triangular region of resilient material 84 shielded by a contoured strip 90 and formed as an integral part of the door within the region of angle A of attachment of vane portions 13 and 14. These configurations continue to exhibit a constricted impact region for encountering and absorbing energy from the striking body so as to reduce fatigue and ultimate destruction of the side hinges and door. Reactive forces to the vehicle in transit would also be reduced.

A further embodiment is diagrammatically illustrated in FIG. 13 where the impact unit of FIG. 12A is used and the two vane portions 13 and 14 are hinged along their line of attachment. While the predetermined angle A of attachment obtains in the rest position of portions 13 and 14, the portions may swing relative to each other. Portions l3 and 14 are additionally joined by a shock absorber 97 and compression spring 98. The principle of construction is that the vane portions 13 and 14 of each side door tend to swing apart upon impact but that their displacement is clamped as energy is absorbed by unit 97 and as spring 98 tends to return the vane portions to their predetermined angular positions. The flexible outer flap 99 along the edge most distal from the hinge axis will be compressed somewhat against the flap of its conjugate door when, upon impact, the angle A of attachment will temporarily increase.

FIG. 14 is a diagrammatic illustration of a form of L- shaped double-acting impact door which may more easily accept traffic from either direction of approach and it is contemplated that selected impact means for the same door assembly would, in fact, be of identical construction. The inner space 25 of each door may be used as an advertising, decorative display, or exhibit case in applications other than as impact doors (e.g., as in doors of commercial buildings or museums.)

FIG. 15 is a drawing of a modification of FIG. 9 in the dual-approach aspect of FIG. 14. The left door 30 comprises a front section which is virtually identical to the left door 10 of FIG. 9. Door 30, however, is constructed with an asymmetric section facing in the opposite direction and rigidly joined to the front section. Items in this second section of door 30 have been correspondingly numbered but including letter a subscripts.

The right door 32 of FIG. 15 has a rear section similar to that of door 30 with vane portions 13a and 14a having windows 15a and 16a, respectively. Instead of having a full front section as door 30, the front striking face of door 32 has a first panel 33 and a second panel 34 which are of reduced height and are attached with the same angle A on vane portions 13a and 14a. It will be apparent that the unit 36 composed of panels 33 and 34 and impact bumper 35 or any of the bumpers illustrated in FIG. 12 may be mounted on conventional planar doors. All of the herein described angled vane impact double doors may also be separately installed as single-section impact doors with perimeter weather seals and return closure mechanisms FIG. 16 is an embodiment of L-shaped doors constructed according to the present invention as utilized in vehicles such as tractor trailers, railroad freight cars, gravel trucks, etc. FIG. 16A depicts a rear tailgate aspect of the body of a gravel truck where an L-shaped gate 127 is horizontally pivoted at points 130 along the line of attachment of vane portions 132 and 134. When the truck is fully laden the load would tend to help upper portion 132 to maintain the tailgate in closed position until mechanically disengaged and the body is inclined for dumping. An alternate configuration is indicated in FIG. 168 where the wider vane portion 134 is horizontally pivoted. These L-shaped doors may additionally be mounted along the sides or ends of-vehicles.

While particular embodiments of doors constructed 7 according to the invention have been described in deaha doorframe comprising upright and transverse members defining a'doorway;

b. a vertically disposed axis comprising a vertical axis support member disposed between the upright members of the doorframe;

c. a door vane member which comprises a first and second vane portion, and which is adapted to swing about the vertically disposed axis;

d. the first portion adjoined to thevertically disposed axis for movement of the door vane member about said axis;

e. each side of the first and second portions being in a continuous plan;

f. the first portion-adjoined to the second portion;

g. the outermost part of the second portion adapted to be placed in a closed-door relationship with the doorframe;

h. each side of the second portion making an angle with the first portion of between 90 and 175;

. the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions directed toward the flow of impact traffic through the doorway; and I j. the angular adjoinment of the first and second vane portions positioned aside the center of and within the doorway when the door vane member is in a closed-door position with the doorframe.

2. The door of claim I wherein the angle is approximately 140.

7. The door of claim 1 which includes a resilient material positioned within the somewhat triangular region defined by the adjoinment of the first and second portions.

8. The door of claim I which includes restraining means to prevent each side of the second portion from making an angle with the first portion greater than the predetermined angle. I

9. The door of claim 8 wherein the restraining means comprises a reflex angle tie.

10. A swinging door which comprises in combination:

a. a doorframe comprising upright and transverse members defining a doorway; b. a vertically disposed axis comprising a vertical axis support member disposed between the upright members of the doorframe;

c. a first door vane member which comprises a first and second vane portion, and which is adapted to swing about the vertically disposed axis,

i. the first portion adjoined to the vertically dis posed axis for movement of the door vane member about said axis,

ii. each side of the first and second portions being in a continuous plane,

iii. the first portion adjoined to the second portion,

iv. the outermost part of the second portion adapted to be placed in a closed-door relationship with the doorframe,

v. each side of the second portion making an angle with the firt portion of between and d. a second door vane member comprising a first and second vane portion,

i. the first portion of the second door vane member adjoined to the vertically disposed axis for movement of the second door vane member with the first door vane member about said axis,

ii. each side of the first and second portions of the second door vane member being in a continuous plane,

iii. the first portion of the second door vane member adjoined to the second portion of the second door vane member,

iv. the outermost part of the second portion of the second door vane member in a closed-door relationship with the doorframe, and in a close relationship with the outermost part of the second portion of the first door vane member, so as to define a somewhat diamond-like space between the first and second door vane members,

v. each side of the second portion of the second door vane member making an angle with the first portion of the second door vane member of between 90 and 175; and

e. the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions of the second door vane member directed away from the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions of the first door vane member.

11, The door of claim 10 wherein each side of the second portion is adjoined with the first portion at an angle of approximately l40 for each first and second door vane member, and-the first and second portions of each first and second door vane member are of essentially uniform thickness.

- 12. A double-impact door which comprises in combination:

a. a doorframe comprising upright and transverse members defining a doorway;

b. a first and second vertically disposed axis, each comprising a vertical axis support member disposed between the upright members of the doorframe;

c. a first and second door vane member, each comprising a first and'second portion, the first door vane member adapted to swing about the first vertically disposed axis, and the second door vane member adapted to swing about the second verticaliy disposed axis;

d. the first portion of each first and second door vane member is adjoined to the first and second vertically disposed axes respectively for separate movement of the first and second door vane members about said axes;

e. each side of the first and second portions of each first and second door vane member being in a continuous plane;

f. the first portion of each first and second door vane member adjoined to the second portion of each first and second door vane member, respectively;

g. the outermost part of the second portion of each first and second door vane member in a close proximity relationship with each other when each door vane member is in a closed-door position;

h. each side of the second portion of each first and second door vane member making an angle between 90 and 175 with the first portion of each first and second door vane member, respectively;

. the first and second door vane members in a nonplanar relationship when the outermost portions of the vane .members are in a closed-door relationship within the doorway; and

j. the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions of each door vane member defining a some-- what triangular impact region extending outwardly towards the flow of traffic, whereby trafiic approachingthe doorway strikes firstly said impact region, resulting in more direct opening of the door. 13. The double door of claim 12 wherein each side of the first portion of each first and second door vane member extends for a horizontal distance greater than the adjoined second portion of each first and second door vane member.

14. The double door of claim 12 wherein each side of the first portion of each first and second door vane member extends for a horizontal distance less than the adjoined second portion of each first and second door vane member.

15. Thedouble door of claim 12 which includes restraining means to prevent each side of the second portion from making an angle with the first portion of each first and second door vane member greater than thepredetermined angle.

16. The double door of claim 15 wherein said restraining means comprises a reflex angle tie.

17. The double door of claim 12 which includes a resilient material about the outer region of angular adjoinment of the first and second portions of each first and second door vane member.

18. The double door of claim 12 which includes about the outer region of the impact region a resilient material to attenuate impact energy, and an outer shielding material on said resilient material.

19. The double door of claim 12 which includes cylindrical impact rollers of resilient material vertically disposed along the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions of each first and second door vane member.

20. The double door of claim 12 which includes resilient material adjacent the cylindrical impact rollers about the impact region, the resilient material 'surrounded by a follower strip member.

21. The double door of claim 12 which includes a resilient material disposed within the somewhat triangular region defined by the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions of each first and second door vane member.

22. The double door of claim 12 wherein the first and second portions of each first and second door vane member are adjoined in a manner to swing relative to each other, and includes means within the angular adjoinment of such portions of a shock-absorbing means and a compression means.

23. The double door of claim 12 wherein each side of the second portion is adjoined to the first portion of each first and second door vane member at the same angular adjoinment, and the first portion of the first and second door vane members is essentially the same and greater in width than the width of the second portion of the first and second door vane members.

24. A double-impact swinging door which comprises:

a.- a first and second diamond-like door of claim 10;

b. a first and second vertically disposed axis, each comprising a vertical axis support member disposed between the upright members of the doorframe;

c. the first and second diamond-like doors adjoining at innermost parts thereof and adapted to swing about the first and second axis members; and

cl. the outermost parts of each diamond-like door adapted to be in a close proximate relationship with each other when the first and second doors are in a closed-door relationship in the doorframe.

25. The swinging door of claim 10 which includes an impact-receiving.resilient means about the outer region of the angular adjoinment of the first and second portions.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3919809 *Mar 22, 1974Nov 18, 1975Merseyside Passenger TransportPower operated door assemblies for passenger transport vehicles
US4218104 *Feb 16, 1979Aug 19, 1980Anderson Arnold NRefrigeration insulation panel and structure
US8540007 *Apr 13, 2012Sep 24, 2013Rite-Hite Holding CorporationDoor element
US20120255685 *Apr 13, 2012Oct 11, 2012Leif KnieseDoor element
USRE31328 *Jan 29, 1981Aug 2, 1983 Refrigeration insulation panel and structure
Classifications
U.S. Classification49/9, 49/49, 49/34
International ClassificationE06B3/70, E06B3/80, E06B3/90, E06B3/02
Cooperative ClassificationE06B3/90, E05Y2900/132, E06B3/02, E06B3/7007, E06B3/80
European ClassificationE06B3/90, E06B3/02, E06B3/70C, E06B3/80