US 3811600 A
There is disclosed a dispenser for storing and dispensing treating agent in an automatic washing machine. The dispenser is designed to position the treating agent container in a sealed storage position regardless of variations in the device caused by manufacturing and assembly tolerances.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 Allison et al. t '1  3,811,600 1451 May 21, 1974 I TREATING AGENT DISPENSER FOR AUTOMATIC WASHING MACHINE  Inventors: James E. Allison, Jeffersontown;
Bob F.'Boecker, Louisville, both of Ky.  Assignee: General Electric Company, 1 Louisville, Ky.  Filed: Oct. 11, 1972  App]. No.: 296,618
 US. Cl. 222/70, 222/166  Int. Cl B67d 5/08  FieldofSearch ..'.....'222/70,166,167,168,
[ 56] "1 References Cited I UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,419,192 lat/196s W rightenberry 222/70 x illllia.
Stribling 16/146 Duncan et al. 222/l66 X Primary Examiner-Stanley H. Tollberg Assistant Examiner-Larry Martin Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Francis H. Boos, Jr.
' [5 7] ABSTRACT There is disclosed a dispenser for storing and dispensing treating agent in an automatic washing machine. The dispenser is designed to position the treating agent container in a'sealed storage position regardless of variations in the device caused by manufacturing.
and assembly tolerances.
11 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures PATENTEDIIAY 21 I974 SHEEI 1 3F 3 FIG. I
PATENWDMYU m4 3.81 1 500 saw a D? a 3,419,192 and 3,426,944.
, This invention relates to treating agent dispensing devices and more particularly to such devices which are particularly adapted for use in automatic washing machines. It is well known to provide means for automatically dispensing treating agents such as detergents, rinse aids, pre-soak materials, and the like, into the wash chamber of an automatic washing machine. Typical devices of this type known in the'prior art are disclosed in U.S. ,Pat. Nos. 3,212,675; 3,233,782;
Treating agent dispensers of the type used in automatic washing machines are typically located on the door of the machine. By opening the door, access is provided to the dispenser container for filling the same. When the door is closed against the machine, the dispenser container is generally vertical. The dispenser holds the treating agent in a storage position and, typically in response to a timer mechanism, moves the container to a dispensing position; All treating agent dispensers of this type purport to provide a sealed storage position to prevent washing liquids from entering the treating agent container..This in necessary since typically granular treating agents, such as detergents, will cake onto the treating agent container if they become moist or damp. It will be readily apparent that an imperfect seal between the container and its closure will act to retain a substantial portion of the treating agent in the container and may accordingly detract from the washing efficiency of the machine.
When perfectly made or when made to rather small tolerances, the devices in the prior art function accepttween a plurality of latching stations operative in the first position.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. I is a fragmentary cross sectional view of a door for an automatic dishwasher having mounted thereon the dispenser of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the dispenser of this invention illustrating the container in the dispensing position;
FIG. 3 is an exploded view of the dispenser of this invention;
FIG. 4 is a partial cross sectional view of the dispenser of this invention illustrating the relation between the container and housing immediately prior to sealing;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4 illustrating the container in' the sealed storage position;
FIG.-6 is a back view of the dispenser of FIGS. 1-5 illustrating the latch means holding the container in the sealed storage position;
' FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6 illustrating the position' of the latch means when the container is in the dispensing position; and
FIG. 8 is a back view of another embodiment of this invention and illustrating the latch means thereof holding the container in the sealed storage position.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT pivotally secured to a dishwasher cabinet (not shown) ably to seal the treating agent container in the storage position. It is inevitable in the mass production of auto,- matic washing machines that the treating agent dispenser is subject to manufacturing tolerances of each component thereof as well as assembly tolerances. It will accordingly be apparent that in the mass production of automatic washing machines, manufacturing tolerances can cause inoperative or partially inoperative seals in a sizeable percentage of dispensers.
The dispenser of this invention is designed to accommodate large tolerances and produce fully operative sealing of the treating agent container.
It is an object of thisinvention to providea dispenser I having a dispensing position and a storage position, and
means for sealing a treating agent container in the storage position.
In summary, this invention comprises a device for dispensing treating agent into the wash chamber of an automatic washing machine including as assemblage comprising a container component and a closure component. means mounting the components for relative movement between storage and dispensing positions, and seal means operative between the components in the storage position for sealing the container; and means for holding the assemblage in the sealed storage position and for releasing the same movement toward the dispensing position including latch means including first and second latching members, means mounting the first and second latching members for movement between first and second positions corresponding respectively to the storageanddi'spensing positions, the first and second latching members defining therebefor movement between a generally vertical closed position and a generally horizontal open position. A typical door of this type is described in greater detail in U.S. Pat. No. 3,125,249 to which reference is made for a more complete description thereof. The door 10 comprises an outer panel 12 and an inner panel, 14 defining therebetween a chamber 16 for receiving a timer l8, electrical wiring (not shown), switches (not shown), part of the dispenser of this invention and the like.
The timer 18 may be of any suitable type providing a tripping arm 20 which is typically made of wire having a hook 22 on thelower end thereof. Timers of this basic type have been in production by the assignee of this invention for some time. The timer 18 also includes a control shaft 24 projecting through the front door panel 12 and having a.knob 26 thereon for controlling the inner mechanism of the timer 18.
In accordance with this invention, a dispenser 28 is provided to store and dispense treating agent into the wash chamber djacent the door 10 in response to control of the timer 18. As shown best in FIG. 3, the dispenser 28 comprises as major components a housing 30 having a container receiving opening 32 therein, a container 34, means 36 mounting the container for movement into and out of the opening 32 and means 38 for holding the container 34 in a storage position inside the opening 32 and for releasing the same for movement to a dispensing position out of the opening 32.
As shown best in FIGS. 2 and 3, the housing 30 comprises an outer wall 40 having therein a cup-shaped depression 42 for receiving a charge of treating agent for use in the first wash cycle of the automatic dishwasher. The outer wall 40 is spaced from the inner panel 14 of the door 10 by a plurality of bosses 44 and screwwa'sher assemblies 46. A partition wall 48 extends from the outer wall 40 to the inner door panel 14 thus providing an enclosure for the container 34. A suitable peripheral wall 50 extends about the housing 30 and generally merges with the configuration presented by the inner panel 14. A generally triangular member 52 extends along the bottom of the opening 32 for purposes more fully explained hereinafter.
In cooperation with the container 34, the housing 30 provides sealing functions..As shown best in FIGS. 3-5, a shoulder 54 and the leading edge 56 of the member 52 provide sealing surfaces for the upper and lower edges of the container 34. The leading surface 58 of a shoulder 60 provides a sealing surface for one end of the container 34. As will be more fully apparent hereinaafter, the leading edge 62 of an arcuate arm 64 acts to seal part of the opposite end of the container 34. It will be apparent that the shoulder 54, the edge 56, the surface 58 and the edge 62 reside in a common plane for sealably engaging a planar member.
The treating agent container 34 is of generally triangular shape comprising a bottom wall 66, generally perpendicular side walls 68, 70 and an arcuate side wall 72. The side walls 68, 70-, 72 may present graduated shoulders 74 providing a measuring capability for the container 34. A pair of ears 76, 78, having respective apertures 77 and 79, project from adjacent the juncture of the side walls 68, 70 in order to mount the container 34 for pivoting movement into and out of the container receiving opening 32 as will be more fully apparent hereinafter. A shouldered arm 80 extends from adjacent the juncture of the sidewalls 68, 72 and is disposed for cooperation with the shoulder 60 providing a limit of pivotal movement of the container 34.
A sealing wall 82 is spaced from the container sidewall 70 and is rigidly connected between the ears 76, 78 and an extension 84 of the container sidewall 72. A non-sealing wall 86 generally perpendicularly projects from the upper end of the sealing wall 82. As will be seen most clearly in FIGS.'4 and 5, the wall 82 abuts the shoulder 54 and the edge 56 and forms part of the seal for the container 34. It will be apparent that the outer end of the wall 82 sealably engages the surface 58. The inner end of the wall 82, between the ears 76, 78 sealably engages the surface 62. It will accordingly be apparent that the container 34 is sealed throughout substantially the entire periphery thereof. 7
The housing 30 is also provided with an overhang 88 overlying an closely spaced from the non-sealing wall 86. When the dishwasher is in use, the wall 86 and overhand 88 extend generally downwardly. In order for water to get into the container 34, it necessarily has to pass between the overhang 88 and the wall 86 and past the point of contact between the sealing wall 82 and the housing 30. It will accordingly be seen that the housing 30 and container 34 define therebetween seal means operative in the storage position for sealing the container 34.
Moveable with the container 34 and moveable relative thereto is a door 90. The door 90 comprises a generally flat section 92 providing an ear 94 positioned between the ears 76, 78. The door 90 also provides a handle 96 which may be grasped by the user for purposes more fully explained hereinafter. A spring 98 biases the door 90 away from the wall 82. As shown most clearly in FIGS. 4 and 5, the spring 98 is positioned between recesses provided by the wall 92 and a boss 100 extending between the walls 70, 82. A cathc 102 rigid with the sealing wall 82 extends through an opening 104 in the door 90. The catch 102 and opening 104 act to prevent overtravel of the door relative to the sealing wall 82 and to transmit outward pulling forces, imposed on the door 90, to the wall 82 as will be explained more fully hereinafter.
The mounting means 36 acts to pivotally mount the container 34 for movement between storage and dispensing positions and also acts to transmit forces created by the holding and releasing means 38 to the container 34. To these ends, the mounting means 36 comprises a shaft 106 having spaced aligned keys or pins 108, 110 thereon. As shown in FIG. 3, the housing 30 comprises spaced openings 112, 114. I
As may be seen in FIG. 3, the ears 78, 94 provide keyways for passing the shaft key 110. In the assembled condition, the shaft key 110 resides wholly within the ear 94 such that the door 90 and the shaft 106 are interconnected for directly transmitting rotational movement therebetween. The upper end 116 of the shaft 106 is dimensioned to fit snugly within the housing opening 114 while the upper end of the key 110 acts to prevent over-insertion of the shaft 106 into the openings 112, 114. A shoulder 118 is provided on the shaft 106 between the key 110 and the upper end 116 to snap into a reduced diameter portion of the opening in ear 76 as suggested in FIG. 1. A cap 120 may be insertably adapted for utilization in the assembled position for insertion into the upper end ofthe shaft 106 for substantially sealing the opening 114. A shaft seal 122 is passed along the shaft 106 and over the key 108 for sealing between the inner door panel 14 and the bottom of the housing 30 adjacent the opening 112.
The releasing and holding means 38 comprises as major components a cam member 124, a first latch member 126, means 128 imparting a predetermined bias between the members 124, 126, a second latch member 130 and means 132 for biasing the members 124, 126 toward a position placing the container 34 in the dispensing position.
The cam member 124 provides an aperture 134 therein having a keyway for receiving the shaft key 108. The keyway does not extend entirely through the opening 134 such that, in the assembled condition, the shaft 106 projects through the member 124 as may be seen in FIG. 1. It will accordingly be seen that the cam member 124 and the door 90 are interconnected for transmitting rotational movement therebetween. The cam member 124 includes a plurality of camming surfaces 136, 138, for cooperation with the second latch member 130 as will be more fully explained hereinafter. A pin 142 projects from the cam member 124 for cooperation with the first latch member 126 as will be more fully explained hereinafter. As shown best in FIG. 1, the cam member 124 comprises a recess 144 for receiving part of the biasing means 128.
The first latch member 126 provides an aperture 146 extending therethrough and receiving the end of the shaft 106. A keeper 148 retains the first latch member 126 on the shaft 106. The first latch member 126 is accordingly rotatable about the shaft 106. The first latch member 126 provides a recess 150 for receiving part of the biasing means 128 as will be apparent in FIG. 1. An arcuate slot 152 is provided in the first latch member 126 for receiving the pin 142 and thereby placing the members 124, 126 in driving connection. Providing an important part of the first latch member 126 are a first latching tooth 154 and a plurality of similar adjacent latching teeth 156 which cooperate with the second latch member 130 to provide a plurality of latching stations operative in the storage position of the container 34 to assure that the sealing means therefor is fully operative. The first latch member 126 also includes a tooth camming surface l58 and an alignment camming surface 160.
The biasing means 128 conveniently comprises a conventional helical spring 162 having one arm 164 in driving connection with the cam member 124 and another arm 166 in driving connection with the first latch member 126. It will be seen that the spring 162 biases the members-124, 126 apart thereby placing the pin 142 adjacent one end of the slot 152 as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7.
The second latch member 130 comprises a latch arm I68 having an aperture 170 at one end thereof for receiving a boss 172. A screw 174 and washer 176 are conveniently used to secure the boss 172 to the boss 44 on the housing 30 and thereby mount the latch arm 168 for pivotal movement. The latch arm 168, comprises one or more latching teeth 178 for engaging the latching teeth 154, 156 of the first latch member 126. The latching teeth 178 provides a camming surface 180 as is conventional. The second latching member 130 also comprises a cam 182 and cam arm 184 for cooperation with the cam member 124 as will be explained more fully hereinafter. Also provided on the second latch arm 130 is a slotted extension 186 for receiving the hook22 of the timer trip arm 20.
The biasing means 132 conveniently includes ahelical tension spring 188 connected at one end to an opening 190 on the latch arm 168 spaced from the axis of rotation thereof. The other end of the spring 188 is connected to an opening 192 onthe first latch member 126 at a location spaced from the axis of rotation thereof as may be afforded by a crank arm 194.
As will be apparent to those skilled in the art. the door 10 is opened from the vertical position shown in FIG. I to a generally horizontal position or filling the container 34. After the user has placed treating agent in the container 34, the door 10 is closed and the washing cycle is commenced by manipulation of the control knob 26. When the timer 18 trips the dispenser 28, the container 34 moves out of the housing 30 and the material therein is discharged into the wash chamber.
AS will be seen..the dispenser 28 has three modes of operation: (1) timer operated movement from te storage position of FIGS. 5 and 6 to the open position of FIGS. 2 and 7 for dispensing the material in the container 34; (2) manually operated movement from the storage position of FIGS. 5 and 6 to the open position of FIGS. 2 and 7 in order to load the container 34; and (3) manually operated movement from the open position of FIGS. 2 and 7 to the storage'position of FIGS. 5 and 6. v g
Assuming that the container 34 has been filled and placed in the storage position of FIGS. 2 and 7, the door 10 is closed and the wash cycle of the dishwasher commenced, the timer 18 will ultimately pull upwardly on the trip arm 20 thereby pulling. upwardly-on the second latch member 130 to disengage the latching teeth 178, 156. This release of the first latch member 130 allows th spring 188 to contract thereby moving the container '34 from the storage position illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 to the dispensingposition illustrated in. FIGS.
2 and 7. It will accordingly be seen that the treating agent in the container 34 is discharged into the wash chamber by gravity. It will also be seen that the spray of water in the wash chamber will act to clean the container 34 and thereby place substantially all of the treating agent in the washing chamber during a timed washing cycle.
It often happens that a housewise will close the container 34 after the end of a washing cycle. Manual movement of the container 34 to the. storage position is discussed more fully hereinafter. It is sufficient to note that it is often desirable to manually move the container 34 from the storage position of FIG. 6 to the open position of FIG. 7, usually to load the container 34. In this circumstance. the door 10 is necessarily open. The user grasps the handle 96 and pulls thereon away from the housing 30. Since the door is in rotation transmitting relation to the cam member 124, the cam member 124 also commences rotation, which is :clockwise as viewed in FIG. 6. The slot 152 in the first latch member 126 allows relative rotation between the members 124, 126.
The cam 182 accordinglycomes into engagement with the camming surface l40 thereby moving the latch arm 168 in a generally counterclockwise direction. As the cam 182 passes the apex defined by the camming surfaces 138, 140, the latching teeth 178, 156 disengage thereby allowing the spring 188 to move the latch member 126, the cam member 124 and the container 34 toward the loading position of FIG. 7.
To move the container 34 from the loading or dispensing position of FIG. 7 to the storage position of FIG. 6, the door 10 is obviously open and usually in a horizontal position. The user presses against the door 90 resulting in counterclockwise movement of the container 34 as viewed in FIGS. 5 and 6. The cam 182 on the second latch member 126 engages the camming surface 136 thereby elevating the latch arm 168 in preparation for latching engagement. As the cam I82 passes onto the camming surface 138, upward movement of the latch arm I68 ceases. AS the cam 182 passes onto the camming surface 142, the latch arm 168 is depressed by the spring 188 such that the camming face 180 adjacent the latch tooth 178 engages the camming surface 158 on the first latch member 126. It is accordingly apparent that the latching members 126, are, at this location, conditioned for imminent latching. Ideally, the position of imminent latching occurs when the container 34 is slightly ajar for purposes more fully explained hereinafter.
Continued pressing by the user on the door 90 causes the camming surfaces 158, to slightly elevate the latch arm 168 and thereby place the latching tooth 178 in latching engagement with the first latching tooth I54 carried by the first latch member 126.
At this instant. the container 34 is latched in the storage position but is not necessarily sealed since the sealing wall 82 may or may not be in engagement with the sealing elements afforded by the housing-30, as suggested in FIG. 4. Continued pressing by the user on the door 90 may cause continued rotation of the cam member 124 and thereby cause continued rotation of the first latch member 126. As the latch member 126 continues to rotate, the latching tooth 178 is latched with succeeding ones of the latching teeth 156. As the door 90 approaches the closed position, the sealing wall 82 engages the sealing elements of the housing 30. After the sealing wall 82 is placed in sealing engagement with the housing 30, the door 90 may continue movemement toward the wall 82 as allowed by compression of the spring 98, as shown in FIG. 5. Since the door 90 is driveably connected to the cam member 124 which is in turn driveably connected to the first latch member 126, the door 90 effectively places the latching tooth 178 in latching engagement with the tooth 156 that affords the tightest sealing engagement between the wall 82 and the sealing elements of the housing 30.
In the event the cam arm 184 becomes warped toward camming engagement with the first latch member 126, the alignment camming surface 160 becomes operative. As may be visualized from FIGS. 1 and 3, the camming surface 160 tends to move the cam 182 toward engagement with the cam member 124.
Also promoting a seal between the housing 30 and the container 34 is the slight oval configuration of the openings or apertures 77 and 79 in the ears 76 an 78. In the latched position, spring 98 pushes against container 34. Slight eccentricity on the apertures 77 and 79 allows the sealing wall 82 to shift in the direction of the sealing plane. This allows the sealing wall 82 to seek its closest position to the sealing elements of the container 30.
As mentioned previously, one difficulty with prior art dispensers of the type used in automatic washing machines is that the seal afforded thereby is subject to the vagaries of production tolerances. In contrast, the dispenser 28 of this invention accommodates such tolerances since the plurality of latching teeth 1'54, 156 allows positioning of the sealing wall 82 in sealing engagement with the housing 30in a pluralityof different positions of the holding and releasing means 38. In another sense. the plurality of latching teeth 154, 156 constitutes a lost motion connection between the second latch member 130 and the first latch member 126.
Referring to FIG. 8, there is illustrated another embodiment of the invention. For purposes of brevity, substantially identical components are referenced by analogous reference characters with only the differences between the embodiments being specifically discussed. The major difference between the embodiment of FIG. 8 and the previously discussed embodiment resides in the members 324, 326, 330. In operation, the major distinction between the dispenser 228 and th dispenser 28 resides in the manual opening of the container 234. In the dispenser 28, manual opening of the container 34 causes unlatching of the latch members 126, 130. In contrast, manual opening of the container 234 leaves the latch members 326, 330 in latched position with a lost motion connection between the members 324. 326 accommodating outward movement of the container 234.
To this end, the member 324 has been modified to remove the camming surfaces that cause unlatching movement in response to rotation of the member 324. The surface corresponding to surfaces 138, 140 describe a circular are about the axis of rotation of the member 324. The slot 352 in the first latch member 326 has been elongated to allow at least 90 rotation between the members 324., 326.
With the container 234 in the storage position of FIG. 8, the user may grasp the handle 296 and pull outwardly thereon. Since the container234 is directly connected to the member 324, the member 324 also rotates thereby moving the pin 342 through the slot 352. It will be apparent that the pin 342 clears the slot 352 without unlatching of the members 326, 330. The user may pull the container 234 fully open in order to place treating agent therein. Upon release of the handle 236 by the user, the biasing means 328 forces the member 324 in a counterclockwise direction toward the position shown in FIG. 8 thereby moving the container 232 back to the sealed storage position.
1. A device for dispensing treating agent into a wash chamber of an automatic washing machine comprising an assemblage including a container component and a closure component, means mounting one of the components for relative movement to the other components movement between storage and dispensing positions, and sealing elements carried by the components for sealing engagement in the storage position; and
means for biasing the sealing elements together in the storage position, for holding the assemblage in the storage position and for releasing the same for movement toward the dispensing position including a handle and means mounting thehandle for movement with the movable component and for movement relative thereto for transmitting holding and closing forces to the movable component;
a first latching member and means drivably connecting the handle to the first latching member independently of the movable component;
a second latching member defining with the first latching member a plurality of different latching stations operative at the storage position; and
means operative between the handle and the movable component at the storage position for biasing the movable component toward the stationary component for placing the sealing elements in sealing engagement.
2. The device of claim 1 wherein the closure component comprises a stationary housing having a container receiving opening therein and the mounting means comprises means mounting the container for movement into and out of the housing for respectively storing and dispensing the agent.
3. The device of claim 1 further comprising means fir biasing the movable component toward the dispensing position upon release of the latching members.
4. The device of claim 1 including means operative in response to manually operated movement of the handle toward the dispensing position for uncoupling the driving connection between the first latch member and the handle.
5. The device of claim I wherein the sealing elements define a sealing plane. the component mounting means comprise means pivotally mounting the components about an axis and means allowing relative movement to the components transverse of the axis along the sealing plane.
6. The device of claim 1 wherein the closure component comprises a stationary housing having a container receiving opening therein, the component mounting means comprises a shaft journalled in the housing for rotation relative thereto and means mounting the container on the shaft for rotation thereabout, the connecting means including a first member fixed to the shaft comprise means pivotally mounting the components 7 about an axis including a shaft journalled in the stationary component for rotation relative thereto, the movable component component comprising spaced openings received about the shaft, the spaced openings being oval having a long axis parallel to the sealing plane when the components are in the storage position.
8. The device of claim 1 wherein the connecting means include a lost-motion connection between the first latching member and the handle allowing manually driven handle and movable component movement toward the-dispensing position. i
9. A device. for dispensing treating agent into a washer chamber of an automatic washing machine comprising an assemblage including a container component and a closure component, means mounting one of the components for relative to the other component movement between the storage and dispensing positions, and sealing elements carried by the components for sealing engagement in the storage position; and i means for holding the assemblage in the storage posi-.
tion and for releasing the same for movement toward the dispensing position in response to a first control signal from a timing mechanism and in response to a second control signal from manual movement of the movable component away from the storage position, the holding and releasing means comprising a first latching member and means drivably connecting the movable component to the first latching member;
a second latching member defining with the first latching member a plurality of different latching stations operative at the storage position;
means responsive to a timer signal for moving one of the latching members to an unlatched position for releasing the movable component; and
means operatively connected to the movable component for movement independently of the first latching member for releasing the movable component in response to manual movement of the-movable component away from the storage position.
10. The device of claim 9 wherein the last mentioned means includes a cam member for uncoupling the latching members during manually driven movement of the movable component away from the storage position.
11. The device of claim 10 wherein the last mentioned, means comprise a handle, means mounting the handle for movement with the movable component and for movement relative thereto for transmitting holding and opening forces to the movable component, means mounting the cam member for movement with the handle for movement away from the storage position independently of the first latching member.
UNIT D STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 811,600 Dated May 21, 1974 n n fl James E. Allison/Bob F. Boecker It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Claim 1, lines 16 and 17, "relative movement to the other components movement" should read movement relative to the other component "Claim 3, line 47, "fir" should be for Claim 7, line 13, after "component" delete "component" Claim 9, line 24, "washer" should b e wash signed and es-aha this 29th day of October 1974.
McCOY M GIBSON JR. C. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents F ORM PC3-1050 (10-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 u,s. GOVERNMEN PRINTING OFFICE: 1969 o-ass-su