US 3813835 A
A modular multiple story structure which utilizes, as its principal component, a module formed of an elongated reinforced precast slab of concrete having an integral single leg or column at one end only, the leg having a haunch or shoulder at one side to support the end of another module in axial alignment; the modules being arranged for placement side-by-side as well as end-to-end and capable of being stacked with the legs in vertical alignment to form vertical columns of a multiple story structure. Removable legs are provided for each module, at its end opposite from the integral leg, to facilitate installation. The modules may be spaced laterally to receive and support leg free slab modules which may be cast in place or precast. The modules forming each floor are provided with a set of tendon guideways extending in one horizontal direction and may include a second set of guideways disposed in alignment. The horizontal and vertical guideways receive tendons which are capable of being tensioned then secured under tension to place the concrete modules under compression. Selected modules may be modified, such as disposing their slabs at an incline and changing their legs or columns to form ramps for connecting the floors formed by the other modules.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Unite- States Patent 1191 Rice 1 MODULAR MULTIPLE STORY STRUCTURE AND MODULE THEREFOR ward K. Rice, 14656 Oxnard St., Van Nuys, Calif. 91401 [51 1 int. CL... E041) 1/343, 1504c 3/20. E04b 1/348  Field of Search 52/79, 236, 227, 228, 229,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,886,945 11/1932 Hamy 52/79 3226,1194 1/1966 Barchardt. 52/236 3.432.978 3/1969 Erickson 52/227 3.466.823 9/1969 Dowling 1 52/227 3.526 ,067- 9/1970 Furtcr 1 1 1 52/236 3.631.831 1/1972 Sutherland... 52/227 3.635.354 1/1972 Martin 52/79 3,642,339 2/1972 Raderfer 52/79 3,708,933 1/1973 Yang 52/236 3,710,534 1/1973 McNamara... 52/236 3,724,141 4/1973 Kelleher 52/236 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,937,365 1/1970 Germany 52/79 1.194.372 6/1970 Great Britain 52/610 1.158.708 7/1969 Great Britain 52/79 1.511.084 1/1968 France 52/610 431.023 8/1967 Switzerland 52/236 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Q ad Newsletter, Spring 1972, by Conrad Associates.
Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant ExaminerH. E. Raduazo Attorney, Agenn-or Firm-Lyon & Lyon 1571 scr A modular multiple story structure which utilizes, as its principal component, a module formed of an elongated reinforced precast slab of concrete having an integral single leg or column at one end only, the leg having a haunch or shoulder at one side to support the end of another module in axial alignment; the modules being arranged for placement side-by-side as well as end-to-end and capable of being stacked with the legs in vertical alignment to form vertical columns of a multiple story structure. Removable legs are provided for each module, at its end opposite from the integral leg, to facilitate installation. The modules may be spaced laterally to receive and support leg free slab modules which may be cast in place or precast. The modules forming each floor are provided with a set of tendon guideways extending in one horizontal direc- I tion and may include a second set of guideways disposed in alignment. The horizontal and vertical guideways receive tendons which are capable of being tensioned then secured under tension to place the concrete modules under compression. Selected modules may be modified, such as disposing their slabs at an 5 incline and changing their legs or columns to form ramps for connecting the floors formed by the other modules.
11 Claims, 22 Drawing Figures PATENTEUJUH 4191 v 33313335 sum s or 5 FIG /8 FIG /7 F/G. 20 H6. /9
F/GiZ/ MODULAR MULTIPLE STORY STRUCTURE AND MODULE THEREFOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention is related to my copending applications identified as follows:
Ser. No. 837,986 filed June 2, 1969, now US. Pat. No. 3,744,200, for PRECAST CONCRETE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION and Ser. No. 93,097 filed Nov. 11, 1970, now abandoned, for DEMOUNTABLE MULTIPLE LEVEL BUILD ING STRUCTURE.
Both of the above inventions involve the use of precast concrete supporting modules having supporting legs at each end. These are placed side-by-side and end-to-end, and also stacked to form several levels. In some cases intervening supported slab modules are placed between the supporting modules. Finally, the supporting modules and intervening supported slabs, if any, are secured together by horizontal tendons and vertical tendons.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to a modular multiple story structure which is more versatile than the previously mentioned inventions, but retains the advantages thereof. The present invention is summarized in the following objects:
First, to provide a modular multiple story structure which incorporates a novelly arranged principal or supporting module formed of an elongated, reinforced, precast slab of concrete having an integral single leg or column at one end only; the leg having a haunch or shoulder at its outer side to support a second module in end-to-end relation to the previous module.
Second, to provide a modular multiple story structure, as indicated in the previous object, wherein each module is provided with temporary or removable legs at its normally leg free end to provide self-support for the module until installed in place, the temporary legs being adjustable in height to assist in leveling the module and being vertically removable upwardly therefrom when no longer needed.
Third, to provide a modular multiple story structure as indicated in the other objects wherein the supporting modules may be joined side-by-side, or may be spaced various selected distances, and supported modules in the form of precast slabs may be placed between the supporting modules or, alternatively, the supported modules may be cast in place.
Fourth, to provide a modular multiple story structure, as indicated in the preceding objects, which by reason of use of supporting modules, each in the form of a slab with a single leg permits multiple story construction with a minimum of intervening columns and thus permits the building of a wide variety of structures.
Fifth, to provide a modular multiple story structure wherein the modules are joined by horizontal and vertical tendons which maintain the concrete comprising the modules in compression, the tendons being removable to permit disassembly and re-erection at another site; also the selected tendons may be removed to permit rearrangement or substitution of different modules if it is desired to change the intended use of the structure; or modules may be added to expand the dimensions of the building structure.
Sixth, to provide a modular multiple story structure, wherein selected modules may be modified to form ramps either transversely or longitudinally of the modules for vehicle traffic between floors, permitting use as a multiple story parking structure.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a fragmentary plan view of the modular multiple story structure.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary side view thereof taken from 22 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken through 3-3 of FIG. I; indicating two modes of securing modules in end-to-end relation;
FIG. 3A is a fragmentary sectional view corresponding to FIG. 3 showing a third mode of securing modules in end-to-end relation;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary partial elevational partial sectional view taken through 4-4 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a plan view of the main or primary module used in the construction of the multiple story structure.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of the multiple story structure showing a ramp.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view thereof taken through 77 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is another fragmentary sectional view taken through 8-8 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 9 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken through 99 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view corresponding to the right side of FIG. 9 and illustrating a modifcation.
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary side view showing the manner in which a ramp may be arranged longitudinally of the modules.
FIG. 12 is an enlarged fragmentary side view illustrating a modified form of the main or primary module.
FIG. 13 is a transverse sectional view thereof taken through 13-13 of FIG. 12.
FIG. I4 is a transverse sectional view taken through 14l4 of FIG. 5 showing a pair of temporary supporting legs.
FIG. 15 is a perspective view of the primary or supporting module.
FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a supporting slab module.
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary perspective view of a modified module employed at one end of a row of modules.
FIG. 18 is a perspective view of a modified module employed at the opposite end of a row of modules.
FIG. 19 is a fragmentary perspective view of a module modified to support a ramp.
FIG. 20 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the supporting end of a ramp module.
FIG. 21 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the supporting end of a modified ramp module.
The multiple story structure includes a primary supporting module 1. This module includes an elongated slab 2 bordered by longitudinal beams 3 joined by end beams 4 and 5. The longitudinal margins of the slab 2 are bordered by longitudinal offset ledges 6. Extending downwardly from the end beam 4 is a single supporting leg 7 having a haunch or shoulder 8 adapted to support the end beam 5 of an adjacent module 1 when the modules are disposed in end-to-end relation.
The supporting module 1 is formed of reinforced concrete. The longitudinal beams 3 are provided with conventional tendons, not shown, which are intended to be post-tensioned; for example, by anchors such as shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,408,783 issued Nov. 5, 1968.
in order to secure the supporting modules 1 in endto-end relation the leg 7 may be provided with up- 4 wardly directed slab end connecting tendons 9 which extend upwardly through the adjacent end beam 5 as suggested in the upper portion of FIG. 3 and anchored in the manner disclosed in the abovementioned patent. Alternatively, the haunch 8 may be provided with a metal plate 10 secured anchoring bars ill and provided with one or more upwardly directed bolts lia received in corresponding bores provided in the end beam 5 and capped by appropriate nuts, as shown in the lower portion of FIG. 3.
Each leg 7 is provided with one or more vertical tendon guideways l2. it is intended that the modules be stacked with their legs 7 in vertical alignment so that the guideways 12 are continuous from the bottom to the top of the sturcture. These guideways receive vertical tendons 13 the vertical tendons and the manner in which they are threaded through the guideways anchored at their lower ends and tensioned to hold a stack of modules is more fully described in my previous listed patent applications now copending, Ser. No. 837,986 and 93,097.
Referring to FIG. 3A, the portion of the leg 7 underlying the haunch 8 may extend vertically, as indicated by 7a, so as to overly the slab 2. Guideways 12a and 12b may be provided in the portions 7a and the slabs 2 to receive continuous vertical tendons 13a.
Longitudinal rows of the primary supporting modules may be placed side-by-side, in which case the offset ledges 6 may be omitted or provided on one side only. This arrangement would, however, place the supporting legs closer than is desired or require the slab 2 to be cast with a greater width. This too would be impractical as it is intended that the modules be cast at a manufacturing site and be hauled by truck to the job site.
As a consequence, it is preferred to position the endto-end rows of modules l in spaced parallel relation and provide supported slab modules i4. These modules may be of uniform thickness as illustrated or may be provided with appropriate ribs depending upon their size as disclosed in my copending application, Ser. No. 93,097. The side margins of the modules 14 rest on the offset ledges 6.
The slabs 2 and the supported slab modules 14 are provided with horizontal transverse tendon guideways l5 and 16 respectively which are arranged in alignment and receive tendons 17 as more fully described in my copending applications. The slab modules 14 may also be provided with horizontal longitudinally extending guideways 18 which receive tendons 19. While the slabs 2 may be provided with similar longitudinal tendon guideways, in most structures these are unnecessary. As in most cases the tendons 19 are adequate for this purpose.
in order to finish the ends of a row of modules 1 an vided with a lag 7. if it is desired to enclose the modular multi-story structure, non-supporting walls may be pro vided between the margins of the remote slabs 2 and between the end modules 20 at one end of the building and the end modules 21 at the other end thereof.
To aid in installing the modules l, the end of each slab 2 opposite from the leg 7 may be provided with a pair of leg receiving bores 22 which receive temporary legs 23 preferably formed of cylindrical tubing. The temporary legs receive retainer members 24 in the form of collars or washers which bear against the upper and lower sides of the end beam 5 and are temporarily held in place by retainer pins 25. The temporary legs may be provided with turnbuckles 26 so as to permit adjustment. The legs not only serve a useful purpose in the course of assembly but enable the slabs to be selfsupporting while being stored prior to use.
if it is desired to provide ramps connecting the various floors of the structure, special ramp supporting modules 27 may be provided as shown in the upper portion of H6. 6 and in FIG. 7, the left portion of FIG. 9 and in H6. 19. These modules are the same as the primary module 1 except that the haunch 8 is located at different levels. The ramp supporting modules are used in conjunction with ramp modules 28 in which the slabs 2 are inclined with respect to their legs. Also, the ramp modules are provided with modified legs 29 projecting above as well as below the slab, as shown in FlG. 20 and at the right side of FIG. 9. Alternatively, ramp modules 30 may be employed in which its upper mounting surface 31 is flat or horizontal rather than inclined and its portion above the haunch 8 may be recessed as indicated by 32. The modified module 3t) is indicated in FlGS. l0 and 21.
The ramp modules 27 or 30 are joined by supported slab modules l4 and the modules are secured by tendons 17 in the manner of the primary modules 1. While the special modules have been shown as ramp modules, they may be used as floor modules if their slabs are disposed horizontally. This permits the building structure to have floors disposed in offset relation.
The ramp structure thus far described are arranged transverse to the end-to-end rows of modules. By sloping the slabs longitudinally, special longitudinal ramp modules 33 may be formed. The legs remain vertically and correspond to the legs 7 of the primary module 1, or may be shortened as indicated by 34 in FlG. 11 depending upon the relationship of the ramp to adjacent floors. Each longitudinal ramp is preferably formed by a pair of modules 33 and an intervening supported slab module 14.
Reference is made to FIGS. 12 and 13 which illustrates a modified fonn of the primary module designated 35. This module includes a slab 36 having a central longitudinal beam 37 which may converge toward the margins of the slab as indicated by solid lines 38 in FIG. 13 or may join abruptly as indicated by broken lines 39 in FIG. 13.
It is apparent that the multiple story building structure herein shown and described is extremely versatile; that is, with minor change the modules may be adapted to any type of multiple story structure whether it be intended as an office building, a multiple story parking structure, or a combination of both structures. Also, the location of the supporting columns formed by the legs 7 may vary in spacing and location to accommodate to the variety of uses for which building structures are designed. All of this is obtained while retaining the benefits of modular construction and the ease of assembly or disassembly should this be required as accomplished in the building structures shown in the previously mentioned copending applications.
It should be noted that either or both the vertical and been shown and described, it is not intended to limit the same to the details of the constructions set forth, but instead, the invention embraces such changes modifications and equivalents of the various parts and their relationships as come within the purview of the appended claims.
1. In a building structure including a plurality of modules arranged in sets disposed in end-to-end and sideby-side relation and stacked to form multiple levels, each of selected modules comprising:
a. an elongated slab;
b. at least one integral reinforcing beam thereunder extending the length thereof;
c. one end of each slab having only a single integral supporting column centered at said end and said column including a downwardly directed supported end and an upwardly directed supporting surface;
(1. the opposite end of the slab having thereunder a centrally located downwardly directed supported surface resting on the supporting surface of the column of a second module disposed in end-to-end relation;
e. the slab having cantilever disposed side margins;
f. means connecting the side margins of the slabs of a plurality of modules disposed in side-by-side relatron;
g. the column having vertical tendon guideways disposed in vertical alignment with guideways of the columns of other modules disposed in stacked relation;
h. the slab having transverse horizontal tendon guideways in horizontal alignment with the guideways of the slabs of other modules disposed in side-by-side relation;
i. and tensioned vertical and horizontal tendons in said vertical and horizontal tendon guideways holding said modules in compressed abutting relationship.
2. A building structure module, as defined in claim 1,
a. the reinforcing beam is centered under the slab in coplanar relation to the supporting column.
3. A building structure module, as defined in claim 1,
a. a pair of reinforcing beams are disposed along the side margins of the slab;
b. a first cross beam extends transversely to the column and joins the longitudinal beams;
c. and a second cross beam joining the longitudinal beams is disposed at the other end of the slab and includes the downwardly supported surface at said end.
4. A building structure module, as defined in claim 1,
a. the connecting means include interconnected longitudinal shoulders at the side margins of side-byside related slabs.
5. A building structure module, as defined in claim 1,
a. the connecting means includes longitudinal supporting shoulders at the side margins of side-byside related slabs and an intervening legless slab supported between the supporting shoulders.
6. A building structure, comprising:
a. a plurality of slabs disposed in end-to-end and sideby-side relation;
h. each slab having one end supported by only a single supporting column element centered in said one end, each said supporting column having a downwardly directed supported end, an upwardly directed supporting surface, and vertically extending tendon guideways;
c. each slab having at its end opposite from its column element a downwardly directed supported surface resting on the supporting surface of a corresponding underlying column element to dispose selected slabs in end-to-end relation;
d. the column elements of selected slabs being stacked to form column structures disposing the slabs in multiple levels, the guideways of the column elements of each column structure being in vertical alignment;
e. vertical tendons received in the guideways of each column structure to secure the building structure in a vertical direction.
f. each slab having cantilever disposed side margins projecting laterally of its column element; and having transversely disposed tendon guideways;
g. and means connecting the side margins of the slabs to dispose selected slabs in side-by-side relation with their transverse guideways in alignment;
h. and transverse tendons received in the transverse guideways to secure the building structure in a transverse. direction.
7. A building structure as defined in claim 6, wherein:
a. the supporting and supported surfaces of a first set of end-to-end related slabs also dispose pairs of the first set of slabs in coplanar relation;
b. and the supporting and supported surfaces of a second set of end-to-end related slabs also dispose pairs of the second set of slabs in offset relation.
8. A building structure as defined in claim 6, wherein:
a. selected groups of slabs are side-by-side related to define a horizontal plane;
b. and selected other groups of slabs are side-by-side related to define an inclined plane.
9. A building structure as defined in claim 6, wherein:
a. selected groups of slabs are end-to-end related to define a horizontal plane; b. and selected groups of slabs are end-to-end related to define an inclined plane. 10. A building structure as defined in claim 6, wherein:
7 8 a. the side margin connecting means include longituing elements formed along the longitudinal margins dinally extending marginal elements directly conof side to side related Siabs;
necting side-to-side related slabs. n. A building structure as defined in claim 6, b. and an intervening legless slab oining the supportwherein: ing elements.
a. the side margin connecting means include support-