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Publication numberUS3814067 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 4, 1974
Filing dateJan 31, 1972
Priority dateFeb 8, 1971
Also published asCA955482A1, DE2205554A1, DE2205554C2
Publication numberUS 3814067 A, US 3814067A, US-A-3814067, US3814067 A, US3814067A
InventorsDe La Fuente M Guadalajara
Original AssigneeGuadalajara De La Fuente
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Internal combustion engine combustion chamber design and air/fuel mixture supply means
US 3814067 A
An internal combustion engine combustion chamber design and air/fuel mixture supply means comprising a piston means, a principal combustion chamber defined in part by said piston means and communicating with a precombustion chamber by way of an aerodynamic section nozzle, a carburetor adapted to provide individual qualitative control of separate air/fuel mixtures for said principal chamber and said precombustion chamber, the supply of mixture to said precombustion chamber being by way of a feeder means which controls mixture flow to spray located in said precombustion chamber.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 De La Fuente i 1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER DESIGN AND AIR/FUEL MIXTURE SUPPLY MEANS [76] Inventor: Manuel Guadalajara De La Fuente.

Hcrmosilla 87. Madrid. Spain [22] Filed: .Ian.3l. I972 {211 Appl. No.: 221.949

[301 Foreign Appleation Priority Data Feb. It. W71 Spain mun: Jan. 24. I972 Spain J'WISZ [52] US. Cl Ill/32 ST. I23/32 C. l23/32 SP. 123/32 SA [51] Int. Cl. I-OZb l7/00 [58] Field 0! Search l23/32 R. 32 C. 32 ST. I23/32 SP. 32 SA. I43 R. I43 A [56] Reierenees Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS .7tl 4/19. Ricardo. 123/32 3,300.71 i2II9-l2 Joalyn. [23/32 SP 2.75X.$7b llll ifib Schlamann 3153mm WW5! Hockel III/32 June 4, 1974 2.9.043 II/IUI NuL' ncr I23/32 3.092.088 6/]953 ouoxuk ct all II 2 3.102.52i 9/1963 Slemmom l2. /J2 3.2lI3.7$I Il/IMb Consult ct .tiv 123/32 3.406.667 Ill/I968 Evans et al...... 123/32 ST 3.439.658 l/I'Ni) Simonet I21: ST

3.541.736 I2/l97il Suluki t 4. I231 ST Primary Examiner-Laurence M. Goodridge Attorney. Agent. or Firm-Ladas. Parry. Von Gehr. Goldsmith 6r Deschamps I ABSTRACT I Claim. 2i Drawing Figures PAIENIEDM 41914 SHKUIBFT FIG-1 I INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE C().\lIIUSTI()N (IHMBI'IR DESIGN AND AIR/FUEL \IIXTURE SUI'ILY HANS This invention relates to an ignition system to be utiltled in internal combustion engines having two compression chambers. a main and a secondary or precomhustion chamber. The system enables air/fuel ratio to val) depending on engine speed.

In an engine propelled under said minimum speed control. the stated air/fuel ratio must necessarily be on the order of 5 to 8 times above the stoichiometric or chemically appropriate ratio (a factor coinciding with excess air coefficient) employed in quantitative control. That is. at minimum speed only a fraction of the total of compressed air participate in combustion or. similarly. it can burn mixtures extremely poor in fuel as is the case in Dr. Rudolf Diesel's reduced load fuel cyclc.

In the small secondary or precombustion chamber located in the cylinder head in certain qualitative control engines. fuel was injected at the end of the comprcssion cycle. The high pressure occasioned by combustion in the preeombustion chamber impelled the hunting gases through a constricted neck to the interior of the cylinder where combustion ignites the mixture in the principal chamber.

However. despite the fact that provision of the precombustion chamber caused a more perfect burning of the mixture in the principal chamber. there were difliculties insofar as synchronizing and cost. In other words. synchronization of the mixtures to the principal and precombustion chambers is LIIfl ICLIII to resolve since engines having a chamber and precombustion chamber generally have carburetor and airless fuel inector per combustion chamber and this presupposes a markedly higher cost insofar as manufacture and maintenance of said devices. Further. as has been stated. mechanisms for synchronizing movement of the dcvices which are two per cylinder. in themselves constitute an insurmountable barrier.

For the above reasons these engines have not been industrially commercialized to date. serving merely for laboratory tests and research.

Another of the handicaps affecting said engine was the preeombustion chamber which suffered from a number of technical drawbacks with regard to comprcssion. since the shapes in which they were constructed were inadequate and did not enable close air/fuel mixing nor the necessary turbulence for ultrarapid combustion.

This invention resolves both drawbacks. since one only special effect dual carburetor feeds the chamber and precombustion chamber. In the latter a close airlfucl mixture takes place. precisely due to its revolving type torus provided with an aerodynamic nozzle section. there being located in the torus and nozzle axle a hollow truncated cone deflector with concave generators to produce dual fluid circulation and practically perfect mixture in the precombustion chamber.

The description of the invention under discussion is made with the help of the attached plans. on the basis of which the construction and operation of the system is stated. the aforementioned drawings are by way of non-restrictive example and complementary in order to establish the manner for adapting and operating the mentioned ignition system III IN THE MENTIONED PLANS:

FIG. I. is a section of a single cylinder engine commencing its intake phase. according to the invention.

FIG. 2. Section similar to that in the preceding section. with the piston in position approaching end of intake phase.

FIG. 3. Section similar to the preceding ones with the piston in the position it occupies in the upward cornpression stroke near end of this phase.

FIG. 4. Section similar to that in the foregoing figures showing engine at moment at which ignition of fuel mixture is initiated.

FIGS. I to 4 are taken from plan C-D in FIG. I0.

FIG. 5. Longitudinal section of the device for feeding the mixture having an engine according to the invention. This will act in combination with the carburetor and is shown in a position corresponding to intake phase in FIG. I.

FIG. 6. Feeder section in FIG. 5 with non-sectioned elevation of internal parts in the combined position they will assume in the phase shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 7. Longitudinal section view of the device in FIGS. 5 and 6 during operational phase shown in FIG. I

FIG. 8. Feeder in sections 5. 6 and 7. operating during cycle shown in FIG. 4.

FIG. 9. Lower plan of cylinder head at stage corrcsponding to intake phase shown in FIG. I (according to A-B. FIG. 2).

FIG. I0. Cylinder head also in plan view according to operational phase in FIG. 2. This FIG. I0 shows section to which FIGS; I to 4 correspond.

FIG. II. Plan of cylinder head at moment of compression shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. I2. View similar to that in FIGS. 9. I0 and II. in which the cylinder head is shown at moment at which combustion phase begins.

FIG. I3. Represents a stage analogous to that of combustion shown in FIG. 3 illustrating on an enlarged scale the arrangement of the more characteristic features of the ignition system. Specifically. this involves the precombustion chamber and its preferred manner of execution.

FIG. I4. Corresponding view when sectioning cylinder head according to plans E-F in the preceding figure.

FIG. I5. Schematic elevation view of the deflector.

FIG. I6. schematically shows a plan view of the deflector.

FIG. I7. Elevation taken from sectioned G-H plan in FIG. 18 corresponding to the carburetor which will distribute the fuel to the principal and precombustion chambers in a synchronized manner.

FIG. l8. Plan view of carburetor.

FIG. I9. Elevation of carburetor showing conduits to feeders in the various compression preeombustion chambers for the different cylinders in an engine which in this case are four.

FIG. 20. Longitudinal section of construction of mixture sprayer for compression precombustion chamber in each cylinder.

FIG. 2!. Partial section of intake collector for principal compression chambers in the various cylinders on which the carburetor will be placed. Shown in this section are means for heating the fuel mixture prior to passing to the various cylinders; for example. for use during cold weather or when starting the engine.

With respect to said figures and references designatmg parts and details of the components shown in connection with the purposes of the report. the explanations for the system are as follows:

The comprcsion chamber is subdivided into two parts.

Principal c'iamber -land precombustion chamber -2- which combustion commences. both joined by a gas nozzle -3- aerodynamic nozzle section.

The initial combustion is controlled by the following parts: Precombustion chamber -2- which is its principal part. nozzle -3-. deflector A spray -5- and spark plug .(y.

Precombustion chamber -2- has a volume such that its percentage respecting principal chamber -lrepresents a fraction thereof with power development equi alent to low engine speed or minimum load. e.g.. sulTicicnt to overcome mechanical friction.

The stated precombustion chamber -2- is cleansed of the gases from previous combustion by spraying air/fucl mixture rich in the latter. pressure injected by feeder -7- during exhaust or intake cycle having a flow approximately equi alent to the volume of precombustion chamber -2-.

For purposes thereof it has sprayer in the shape shown (it can be shaped otherwise and situated at different points of the precombustion chamber) located at the extreme of the precombustion chamber -2- axis. On its nozzle -8- a sprayer -5- has a spherical retention valve -9- joined to a shaft -l0- on the rear control nut -l lof which a spring -l2- pushes in the direction of closing the valve.

With regard to the shape of the principal chamber -I- it having optimum operation. this is a dual or lt-shaped lobe into the middle section and on the side of which the inclined extreme of nozzle -3- ofthe precombustion chamber. Further. piston -13 has a salient -l4- shaped like an inclined plane which enters adapting to the principal chamber 4- when piston -l3- occupies top dead center. This shape is for the purpose of maintaining rotation of two counterturning whirlwinds in both lobes -l5- even after piston 43- partially descends.

For mixture intake into the engine there is a carburetor 46- which lacks the Conventional gas choke valve utilized in quantitative control for. in the system under consideration. the free intake of air or mixture must be allowed without same becoming rarit'ied. In other words. the engine cylinder shall efTect loading practically at atmospheric pressure at all engine speeds.

Carburetor -l6- feeds two devices for mixture control which will be independent but synchronized to each other. depending on desired engine speed. The former feeds the principal engine intake lacking the stated choke valve. and the latter supplies feeder -7- through conduit -l7-.

The devices are synchronized in such a way that when the principal carburetor tends to enrich the mixture (increased speed). the auxiliary carburetor device governing the feeder automatically weakens same and vice versa. as will be explained later. Construction and operation of the carburetor will be explained in detail below.

As regards feeder -7-. this has a cylinder 48- closed at one end and inside of which there is a piston -19- having one or more segments -20- to seal same. and a driving spring -2l-.

Piston 49 is displaced by driving rod 22- which in turn connects to control beam J} of intake valves 44- or exhaust -24'- or any of the other drive mechanisms.

Cylinder -l8- of feeder -7- ha two vents. one -25- for intake. and another -26- for exhaust. The former opens in its entirety when piston -l9- occupies top dead center; the latter. when piston -l9- almost reaches midstroke remains open until its lower dead center and even when the piston again ascends to its former symmetric position.

At time of ignition. piston -t9- is always at top dead center. 46- being closed and -25- open.

in order to complete the description of the ignition we may add that:

The most appropriate shape for the precombustion chamber is that of a revolution torus originated by a circle which turns on an axis in the plane thereof and situated at a distance approximately equal to one half of its radius. Nozzle as a constituent part of precombustion chamber -2- is located at the extreme of the stated axis which is common to both At the entrance to precombustion chamber -2- and immediately behind nozzle -3- there is a deflector -4- shaped like an inverted cone occupying the same axis of symmetry as precombustion chamber -2- and so situated that at time of compression (FIG. 3) intake of the mixture is diverted into two approximately equal flows one passes concentrically between the deflector and the wall. brushing the entire precombustion chamber. and there consequently occurring a torus-type whirlwind. The other passes through the center of the dc llector 4- which. without being diverted. flows according to the torus shaft. colliding against spray cone -S-. diverting it and giving rise to another torus shaped vortex but turning counter to the previous one.

Collision of these two torus-shaped vortexes which turn counter. originates neutralizing thereof and creation of new whirlwinds having. however. a small radius. and these turn in all directions.

This effect is extremely important since it prevents centrifugation of the mixture and consequent separation of the fuel from the air due to its greater specific weight. to the precombustion chamber walls. This factor would greatly hamper total combustion.

Let us now observe operation of the described arrangement in the four stages corresponding to FIGS. 1 to 4. bearing in mind that FIGS. 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 represent. respectively. what transpires in the feeder and cylinder head at time of the corresponding stage.

FIG. I shows the engine at intake. when lever -27- in mid-course acts on intake control beam 43-: intake valve -24- and feeder -7- are in similar position by means of rod 42-.

At the same time (FIG. 5). piston 49- is in compression and injection position because exhaust vent -26- commences to open. The compreaed mixture passes to the sprayer and once at the extreme of the nozzle -8- pushes the automatic retention valve -9- where the mixture is atomized and distributed to the inside of the precombustion chamber -2-. cleansing previous combustion gases.

In order to have piston 49- at all time: pressing toward lever -27-, spring 41- is 49 at which rests on the upper end of the piston.

Insofar as cylinder head in FIG. 9. we have already made reference to intake valve -24- and exhaust -24 and to dual lobe shape -l5- of the principal chamber -l-. in which one end of nozzle -3- of the ignition exists from the center of one of its sides.

la the stage shown in FIG. 2. the engine. still at intake. lever -27- is already at maximum and piston -l9- of feeder -7- at its lower dead center (FIG. 6) where it has just injected the remaining mixture and prepares to ascend and close valve- 9- by the depression formed.

FIG. 3 shows the engine at time of compression as it finalires; lever -27- is displaced. intake valve -24- is closed. and piston -l)- of feeder -7- at top dead center (FIG. 7). rests on hood -28-.

It will be noted in the cylinder head in FIGS. 3. II and I3. that for purposes of compression the mixture is partially displaced to its precombustion chamber where deflector -4- separates the stream in two. an outer one to the funnel and another which passes through the opening of same.

At time of ignition by spark of the mixture in precombustion chamber -2- (FIG. 4). ignition is almost instantaneous. a flame emerging from nozzle 3- to the principal chamber -l- (FIG. l2) which because of its discharge power originates rotation of two counterhurning whirlwinds in two lobes -l5- of the stated shape in chamber -l-.

FIG. (I shows piston -l9- of feeder -7- in the same position as the previous stage. with safety vent -26- closed.

The features of construction of the various parts of the engine and its objectives having been stated. we will now discuss the assembly in operation: once the mixture is injected into the precombustion chamber. right after the compression stroke effect takes place (FIG. 3 part of the air or air/fuel mixture. depending on status of the engine. respectively at minimum speed or charging. then flows from the principal chamber to the precombustion chamber. causing its rapid entry into same through nozzle -3-. which is provided for communication between them until pressure balance is achieved.

This strong turbulence originated by partial intake of air (low speed) dilutes the original rich mixture injected previously into the precombustion chamber to such a point that final air/fuel ratio must be that of maximum or stiochiometric combustion or even slightl in excess of same.

Passage from variability of low engine speed to maximum load is effected by enrichment of principal engine intake by carburetor 46'. air intake into the precomhustion chamber through nozzle -3- is no longer air only. but is progressively enriched in fuel to a maximum which can be equal to stiochiometric ratio. this point coinciding with quantitative control.

Specifically. this progressive fuel enrichment of air intake is synchronized by continuous weakening in fuel mixture governed by an auxiliary device from carburetor -l6- to the feeder. in order to achieve in the precombustion chamber and at all times during control. a mixture resulting from maximum combustibility. Carburetor -l6- and its auxiliary devices will be explained below.

This occurs practically at time of maximum compression or top dead center of piston -l3- (FIG. 4). when due to prevailing turbulence. ignition spark -6- in the precombustion chamber causes its very rapid ignition.

6 pressure rising immediately. almost instantaneously. in the entire precombustion chamber -2-. This is when the burning gases seek pressure balances; they are ejected at supersonic speed to principal chamber -lby nozzle -3 joining both.

The aforesaid effect being fundamental. it gives rise to the difficult ignition of poor fuel mixtures in the principal chamber. since the burning gases. ejected at se eral Mach speeds. originate a strong burst of flame which. given its high temperature. heavy ionization and hrusque turbulence. evidence increased temperatures in the entire principal chamber. enough to originate its ignition and complete combustion. the combustion period ending at the beginning of the expansion or working stroke.

Operation of the feeder is as follows: In its upward stroke piston 49-. impelled by spring -2loriginates a depression in its interior; it then opens the mixture intake vent -25- which enters until it is equal to atmt spherie pressure (HG. 7).

When beam 43- or its control again functions FltiS l and 5). piston -l9- descends. the compression stroke begins. and at mid-stroke. exhaust vent -26- contacts. giving rise to a sudden release of the mixture which. passing through the pertinent conduit. reaches sprayer -5- where it opens the automatic retention valve 9- and is immediately sprayed by the interior nozzle -8- to the precombustion chamber. in turn sweeping away pre\ tously burned gases. until the piston completes its stroke at lower dead center (FIG. 6).

When piston -l9- again ascends. the depression formed inside the cylinder closes the automatic relention valve -9-. preventing return of the mixture and later. high compression pressures. A new cycle is then begun.

In event of damage to this valve -9- a safety vent -2( closing has been provided when the piston occupies top dead center (FIGS. 7 or 8). any return of high pressures to the interior of the feeder being impossible.

Structure and operation of carburetor -l( is as fol lows:

Bearing in mind that shown in FIGS. )7 to I). there is described the carburetor which. differing from those currently known. is based on control of the air/fuel mixture insofar as quality of same. That is to say. by changing the air/fuel proportion. of said quantitative control rather than is usually done by maintaining said comburent-fuel proportion. As has already been stated. it is the function of this carburetor to send mixtures toward the principal and auxiliary compression chambers in a synchronized manner as regards engine revolutiorts.

Carburetor -I6- has float chamber 48- in which as is customary. there is a float 47- governing valve -60 for blocking the fuel reaching said tank through conduit -61- located on cover 46- of the tank. As is known. when the liquid inside tank 48- reaches a certain level. inlet -61- is sealed. Attached to said tank there is the economizer which will control amount of fuel to reach the diffusers through a main noule. The mixture is at omized by means of graded arrangement of a group fonned preferably by three diffusers referenced -$2-. -SI- and 60-. in order ot performance.

These diffusers treat the fuel from the time same reaches the first diffuser -52- which distributes it through its crown -$3-. sending the fuel peripherally and thus effecting the first atomiration. since it mixe with atmospheric air from the outside as indicated by the arrow in FIG. 17. this effect being completed upon passage through the other two diffusers -land -50- from where the air/fuel mixture travels through collector -68- (FIG. Zl) toward the principal chamber in the various cylinders. By virtue of the foregoing it is evident that this carburetor functions without the customary choke or throttle valvev in such circumstances it is logical to suppose that there must be means for controlling fuel reaching the diffusers and said means are clustered in a monobloc generically referenced -32-. coupled in the aforesaid economizer. These regulating means detailed below ensure the necessary synchronization and quality of mistures sent to principal chamber land auxiliary or precombustion chamber -2- of each cylinder respectively. whichever the engine speed. in other words. means arranged in the tank simultaneously control principal and secondary carburation.

As noted in H0. body -32- is axially crossed at its lower li'aif'tiy ifneedie -38- the conical or pointed end -38A- of which plays in the calibrated jet -45- screwed to the bottom of the tank. to which jet the fuel arrives from tank 48- by canal 49-. On top ofjet 45- there is a part 44- which becomes a guide for needle 48-. Note that the fuel which extreme of said needle -38A- allows through will go to the tank through passages formed between 44- and 45- in a radial direction. as long as said parts 44- and -85- are'peripherally separated from the interior walls of the tank.

The body 42- which is hollow in its upper half. receives a valve composed of a cylinder -34 which after an annular slot is continued as an inverted truncated eone referenced -$4A- through which there is varied the passage of air indirectly controlling. when the depression varies. the quality of the mixture for the feeder of the auxiliary chamber. that is to say. secondary car buration. This is also due to the fact that atmospheric air absorbed by a depression sound -54- the extreme of which is situated between diffusors -50- and -$lheight being controllable. exits at a vent -36- facing body -34- or. rather. to the neck defined by part -34A-. constituting the device in inactive position.

It is pertinent to note at this point that needle -38- is affixed to valve -34- and axial thereto. so that vertical movements of this valve are necessarily accompanied by said needle 48-. In order to effect said movements upward and downward. a cable -29- has been provided encased in -30- which. crossing a stopper -3lscrewed to the opening of body -32-. the extreme of said cable -29- is held in place by a screw or any other similar part capable of holding the cable. Between the stopper -3land valve -34- there is an expansion spring -33- which endeavors to keep valve -34- and. inconsequence. needle -38- permanently downward. as shown in FIG. [7. Naturally. in order to change that position which might be defined as corresponding to idling or low speed of the engine. it is necessary to overpower the spring -33- pulling cable -29-.

Underneath the seat for part -34A- forming body -32-, sealed joints -37- have been provided which impede communication of the upper semipart of the assembly with the lower semipart. Behind said separating area the shape of a tube can be seen; needle -38- is inside. The tube has along its side a number of calibrated openings 41- on top of which an annular piston -.W of an ela tic nature hugs tube 40-. The piston has two annular and concentric lips in its upper part for obturation. and two others. also annular and concentric. their purpose being likewise to obturate and they are in a direction opposite to those already stated. Between the inner lips there are tubes 42- that underneath become part of component -43- aff'txed to needle -38-. In these circumstances it is clear that when the stated needle descends it will be accompanied by the piston -39- which has a radial passage joining the depression and deformation of the upper internal annular lip and tubes -42- to the area remaining above. the selfsame elastic piston becoming filled with fuel; when movement is reversed this area expels the fuel to the first diffusor -5"- through a conduit when opened by valve -56-.

On the other hand. note that tube 40- bends at the top. opening out on a passage which has its opening in an air jet -55- exposed to the effects of dynamic pressure of the air current.

From the construction and arrangement of the piston -39 it is clear that this part performs a dual function. that is. in its upper part it will act as an acceleration pump when raised by cable -29- traction. while at its lower part it performs as an obturating means when accelerator control furnishes the position of lowest engine speed. there thus being obtained a rapid decelera tion or reduction in revolutions.

In combination with the structure stated abo e. which will impel fuel through the diffusers -50-. -51- and -52- to the main chamber of the various cylinders. the means sending mixture to the feeders in the respective precombustion chamber through conduits -b-twill act. Said means for feeding to the secondary carburation are constituted starting from the sound -54- proper which transmits the air it absorbs toward filter 69- accessible through cover -58-. where said air. passing through valve -3-& regulating the depression by reason of its position. Passes -36- (see FIG. 18) toward the passage which later is divided into conduits -64. On this course the air encounters small tube -63- from which it suctions fuel. since said small tube -63- is linked to conduit -67- emerging from the bottom of the tank -48- as noted in H0. l9. Said fuel suction is controlled by jet -62- interposed between 67- and -63- as noted in FIG. 19. What might be defined as a tuning operation for an idling engine is effected by acting on screw -65- which shunts air from filter -59- in a greater or lesser volume without suctioning from conduit -63-. the mixture for secondary carburation thus becoming poorer or enriched. always qualitatively.

It is simple to envisage operation of the assembly of organs constituting carburetor -l6- under discussion for synchronized transmission of mixture to main chamber -land secondary chamber 2- of the various cylinders of an engine; bearing in mind the structure outlined. said operation can be summarized as follows:

Starting from the inclined position in FIG. 17 which corresponds to idling of the engine. it is deduced that when the annular slot of valve -34- faces unloading vent -36- of depression probe -54 the mixture will be poor in fuel. If we now raise valve -34- pulling cable -29-. said vent -36- w1'll become partly closed. causing enrichment of the secondary mixture sent through -63- at a time prior to opening of the fuel toward main carburation via jet -45-.

When the elastic piston -39- rises. it pumps fuel which forces valve -56- to open. injecting same to diffusct -S2- at the same time that needle -38-. or rather its sharp extreme -38A-. allows passage of the liquid through jet 45 When the fuel level descends inside tube 40-. some of the calibrated openings on the side thereof which are underneath piston -39- remain visible and allow passage of air. thus depression diminishes and thereby passage of fuel to main atomizer -$2-. when ring piston -39- descends. it originates a depression which compels deformation of the upper internal lip of the ring. The ring furnishes intake of fuel from the bottom of the tank through tubes 42-.

The depression sound -54- synchronizes quality of the mixture and engine speed naturally in combination with valve -34 e.g.. richness of the mixture is automatically selected. Let us suppose. for example. a reduction in the number of engine revolutions resulting from an increased load and without moving accelerator control; rate of main fuel will decrease and with it there will be an increase in the level of the economizer tank. thus originating a richer mixture in the principal carburation. This increases engine turning torque.

Lastly it is pertinent to state that insofar as engine carburation in order to tune synchronizing of the main and secondary feeding systems. this is accomplished by acting on body 42-. raising or lowering same and leaving it at optimum position. for example by means of a screw not shown.

Application of the qualitative control system for combustion engines affords the following improvements in efficiency with respect to quantitative control:

intake of each engine cylinder is effected practically at atmospheric pressure. therefore. real engine compression ratio is constant at any speed control scheme. a factor which increases thermal yield notably'.

when combustion is possible in the area where there is excess air or mixtures poor in fuel. final combustion temperature will be lower than for rich mixtures. causing a higher thermal yield by approximation to the Carnot cycle and there being a lower degrading of heat energy;

ignition advance is less in all engine speeds with a maximum of 10 due in part to real constant compression pressure and on the other to a speedier ignition due to sudden turbulence occasioned by the gases in combustion at supersonic speeds proceeding from the ignition. The lower ignition advance originates a shorter negative idling time for pressures which detracts from effective operation;

the very notable cleansing of exhaust fumes which occurs due to three basic causes and results in less atmospheric contamination:

a. When combustion occurs in the excess air zone.

yield thereof is increased. originating exhaust practically free of smoke and carbon oxide (0. this latter being between 0.5 and 0.06 percent.

h. in qualitative control and for same power produced. average thermal yteldof speed is greater as a direct result of less fuel consumption. estimated on the approximate order of 40 percent less and pollution is therefore reduced.

c. Elimination of metallic lead vapors in exhaust fumes. When operation occurs in the excess air zone. the lead tetraethyl as an antiltnock is never reduced to metallic lead and rendered volatile at high combustion temperatures characteristic of quantitative speed control. but rather the final product is lead monoxide Pbo. or litharge. a product which emanates in large particles of dust but which. fortunately. due to its specific weight. 5 quickly decants on the ground. suspension in the air being elimirated as is the case with lead fumes.

When both speed controls are compared. maintaining in both cases equal maximum effective power and feeding having the same fuel octane rating. qualitative control offers greater turbulence which. together with the property of burning poor mixtures in optimum conditions. without speed irregularities. the favorable result is obtained of notably removing the detonation area of the mixture. the improved detonation qualities being utilized in mixtures in the excess air zone. This quality entails for a same compression ratio. the use of low octane content fuel or vice-versa. whichever is preferred. for one and the same octane rating a greater compression ratio ofcylinder capacity. giving rise to an increase in effective engine power. This increase in power as a principle for comparison presupposes that it is equal to loss of power through use of a mixture slightly poor in fuel. which effect significantly reduces specific consumption of the fuel and this in the area of maximum effective engine power which is the most unfavorable point in consumption of qualitative control but always less than in the quantitative.

Exhaust fumes in the new control system have lower average temperatures with a heavier flow similar in this sense to those of the Rudolf Diesel combustion cycle. it then being possible to utilize exhaust impulses by means of a turbine and to be expanded at atmospheric pressure. a factor which raises even higher the thermal performance of the engine.

Higher thermal performance of the cycle originates improved use of heat energy of the fuel in mechanical energy. a basic reason for less engine heating and in consequence longer duration.

The characteristics of the invention having becn stated in a general manner and with reference to an example of execution. it is recorded that the engine to which same are applied can be manufactured in the manner. sizes and materials considered adequate to the specific use to which they will be put. Said variations. as also those which may be made to features in appearance and organization which affect the essentiality claimed. whereupon uses made of this patent within the stated characteristics with any of said modifications will be none but variations. equally are contained and protected in this registration.

Among these possible variations within the generality of the patent there can be established varied shapes in the principal chamber or precombustion chamber. The sprayer may be situated at other points and the feeder can be replaced by a system for airless fuel injection. although this would entail poorer performance and higher cost.

In other words: the auxiliary carburetor device and feeder may be replaced by any airless fuel injection system. maintaining the amount of same to be injected synchronized in every case to the principal carburetor. e.g.. fulfilling the same conditions in the auxiliary carburetor system.

The principal carburetor may likewise be replaced by any of the direct injection systems into the principal or indirect injection into the intake collector of the engine.

The new qualitative control system for ignition and firing is applicable to all four-cycle and two-cycle internal combustion engines. and to all variations of socalled rotary engines.

l claim. 1. An internal combustion engine combustion chamber and air/fuel mixture supply means comprising:

at a radius approximately equal to one-halt of the radius of the circle;

a convergent-divergent nozzle interconnecting said principal and precombustion chambers and located on said axis;

a hollow deflector supported in said precombustion chamber on said axis having the shape of a truncated cone with concave generatrix'.

means for providing separate supplies of air/fuel mixture to said principal and preeombustion chambers and to provide individual qualitative control of the air/fuel mixture of each said supply;

a spray means for spraying said supply of air/fuel mixture for said precombustion chamber into said precombustion chamber on said axis;

a feeder means for controlling supply of said precombustion chambers air/fuel mixture. to said spray means; and

an ignition plug extending into said precombustion chamber for igniting air/fuel mixture in said precombustion chamber.

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U.S. Classification123/275, 261/23.2, 123/266, 123/286, 261/71, 123/508
International ClassificationF02B19/10, F02M7/00
Cooperative ClassificationF02B19/109, F02B2275/14, F02M7/00, Y02T10/125, F02B19/1004
European ClassificationF02B19/10B3, F02B19/10A, F02M7/00