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Publication numberUS3814106 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 4, 1974
Filing dateApr 14, 1972
Priority dateApr 14, 1972
Also published asDE2314315A1, DE2314315C2
Publication numberUS 3814106 A, US 3814106A, US-A-3814106, US3814106 A, US3814106A
InventorsBerkovits B
Original AssigneeAmerican Optical Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Atrial and ventricular pacer having independent rate controls and means to maintain a constant av delay
US 3814106 A
Abstract
There is disclosed an atrial and ventricular pacer having independent rate and AV delay controls. An adjustable timing circuit is provided to control the rate of the ventricular stimulating pulses. The occurrence of each ventricular beat triggers an atrial pulse generating circuit, an atrial stimulating pulse being generated following a variable time interval. The ventricular rate control circuit includes one potentiometer, and the atrial pulse generating circuit includes two potentiometers connected in series, one of which is ganged to the ventricular rate potentiometer. If the impedance of the ventricular rate potentiometer is increased to increase the ventricular escape interval, then as a result of the ganging of the two potentiometers the atrial pulse delay is similarly increased; thus the AV delay remains constant even as the pacer rate is varied. The second potentiometer in the atrial pulsing circuit is used to vary the AV delay.
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United States Patent n91 llerltovits June 4. 1974 AV DELAY Primary Examiner-William E. Kamrn Atmmey. Agent. or Firm-Joel Wall; William C. Nealon [75] Inventor: Barouh V. Berkovit. Newton ABSTRACT Hi h| d M dttacdlosed In atrgtlAac ddveirtrlcular pace; hat; tn; t pe ertt rate a e y comm s. n a I I Amgncc' ovum justable timing circuit is provided to control the rate ol' the ventricular stimulating pulse. The occurrence l 1: Fil d; A [4 m7) of each ventricular beat triggers an atrial pulse gener- I ttting circuit. an atrial stimulating pulse being gener- 1 ated followingtt variable time interval. The ventricular rate control circuit includea one potentiometer. and :52] 0.5. CI mil-tn P. l28/42l will P t s circuit include Mi p f s l 1 Int. Cl Main use wflmtrd in one of which is ranged in {SM Ftdd r SQQ -h n t 10, 2.05 105 R. the ventricular rate potentiometer. II the impedance g t p. 3 1. 22 of the ventricular rate potentiometer is increased to increase the ventricular ercape interval. then as a re 1 5 Rdmnm m sult of the pnging of the two otentiometers the atrial UNITED STATES PATENTS pulce delay is similarly increased: thus the AV delay 7 my 8 remains constant even as the pacer rate is varied The "JR-. I rtr second potentiometer in the atrial pulsing circuit i.- Ennis; 2mm arm iii WU 12mm 1' Av 4 Dallas. 2 Dnwln; Figures 1 1| a? a; s x 8-4- 2.:|'

9 Ho R I ai l D I "we; gf q-n 3P1:

a .M; u 1' a i4? 0. i I I 271' T r P. T a i I L PATENIEU JUN 4 I914 SHEEIIUFZ ATRlAl. AND VENTRICULAR PACER HAVING lVDEPENDENT RATE CONTROIS AND MEANS TO MAINTAIN A CONSTANT AV DELAY This invention relates to atrial and ventricular dentand pacers. and more particularly to such pacers ln which the rate and AV delay controls are Independent of each other.

In prior art atrial and ventricular pacers. two separate pulse generating circuits are provided to generate stimulating pulses at respective predetermined time inter- \allS following the last ventricular heat. The ventricular escape interval (the time period between succeaive entricular beats) is longer than the atrial escape interml (the time period between successive ventricular and atrial heats) so that an atrial stimulating pulse is gener- .tlctl before a ventricular stimulating pulse. Each detected spontaneous ventricular beat controls the resetttng of both pulse generating circuits.

Each ofthc pulse generating circuits in some prior art paccrs is free-running; respective atrial or ventricular slllflulitllllx pulses are generated at fixed intervals in the absence of the resetting of the pulse generating circuit. the pacer timing is synchronized to the natural heartbeats by controlling the resetting of the two circuits u on the detection of each ventricular beat. While systents of this type are satisfactory for implantable pacera. a problem has been encountered when they are used in connection with external pacers. that is. pacers which are external to the patient except for electrical leads.

in an atrial and ventricular demand pacer. each of the pulse generating circuits includes a potentiometer which can be adjusted for setting the respective escape interval. Since the pulse generating circuits are frcerun' ning in the absence of a resetting pulse. it is apparent that if the atrial escape interval is less than 50 percent of the ventricular escape interval. then two or more atrial stimulating pulses may be generated between each pair of ventricular stimulating pulses. The detectinn of a ventricular beat. or the generation of a ventricular stimulating pulse. causes both pulse generating circuits to be reset. If the ventricular escape interval is N milliseconds and the atrial escape interval is less than .V/2 milliseconds. since both pulse generating circuits are free-running. it is apparent that if a spontaneous ventricular beat is not detected prior to the espiration or the ventricular escape interval. then at least two atrial stimulating pulses will be generated. That is because atrial stimulating pulses are generated continunutty and at fixed time intervals in the absence of the detection of a spontaneous ventricular beat or the generalion of a ventricular stimulating pulse. Multiple atrial stimulating pulses. of course. can only produce deleterious effects since the atria should not be stimulured too close in time to a ventricular beat.

in the case of implantable pacers. where the potentlomctcr settings are established on the production line and are not suhieet to change. the problem is not severe because satisfactory production procedures can be employed for crtsuring that multiple stimulating pulses are not generated. However. in the case of an external pacer. medical and hospital personnel adjust the various control ltnobs to vary the two escape intervals. Especially with poorly trained personnel. the atrial escape interval can be set to be less than 50 percent of the ventrlcular escape interval. in which case multiple atrial stimulations are possible.

In the improved atrial and ventricular pacer disclosed in my application Ser. No. ZJJJJS. tiled on Mar. 9. i972. now U.S. Pat. No. 3.708.486. and entitled "Atrial and Ventricular Demand Pacer Having Wide Range Atrial Escape Interval" (which application is hereby incorporated by reference). multiple atrial stimulations are precluded even with very short atrial cscape intervals. The ventricular pulse generator is freerunning as in prior art pacers. However. the atrial pulse generating circuit is not; instead. it includes a one-shot multivibrator. The detection of a spontaneous ventricular beat. or the generation of a ventricular stimulating pulse. triggers an atrial timing circuit. At the end of the prc-sct atrial escape interval. the multivibt'atot is fired and an atrial stimulating pulse is generated. Thereafter. the multivibrator returns to the quiescent state. no further atrial stimulating pulses are generated. In order for the multivibrator to be triggered once again. a new timing period must be initiated. and this takes place only when the nest spontaneous ventricular beat is detected or the neat ventricular stimulating pulse is generated. Even if the atrial escape interval is set to be less than percent of the ventricular escape interval. the multivibrator is triggered only once for each ventricular beat. Consequently. it is not possible for there to be multiple atrial stimulations between ventricular beats.

The ventricular pulse generator includes a potentiometer for varying the ventricular escape interval; the atrial pulse generator includes a potentiometer for varying the atrial escape interval. This latter interval is the timeperiod between a ventricular beat and the rotlowing atrial stimulating pulse and is referred to herein as the VA interval. The interval between each atrial stimulating pulse and the following ventricular stimulaling pulse is known as the AV delay. Also. the term VV interval as used herein refers to the time interval between successive ventricular stimulating pulses. in the pacer disclosed in my aforesaid application. it is apparent that adjustment of the ventricular pulse generator entiometcr controls not only the VV interval. but also the AV delay. if the VV interval is increased. for esample. and the atrial pulse generator potentiometer setting is not changed so that the VA interval rcmalns the same. it is apparent that the AV delay in creases as well. Very often. however. it is necessary for a physician to vary the VV interval without changing the AV delay. In the pacer disclosed in my aforesaid application. after the physician adjustt the pacer rate. he must necessarily adjust the atrial pulse generator po- :entiomelcr if he desires to maintain the same Av de- It is a general object of my invention to provide an atrial and ventricular pacer in which two independent controls are provided for adjusting the pacer rate and the AV delay. With the pacer of my invention. the physician can make one adjustment to the pacer rate without affecting the AV delay. and/or he can make an other adjustment to change the AV delay without affecting the pacer rate.

In accordance with the principles of my invention. the ventricular pulse generator includes a single potentiometer; the larger the impedance setting. the longer the VV interval. The alrall pulse generator includes two serially connected potentlometers: the larger the series impedance. the longer the VA interval. One of the atrial pulse generators potentiometers is ganged to the ventricular pulse generator potentiometer; as the latter potentiometer is turned to increase its impedance. the ganged potentiometer in the atrial pulse generator is similarly turned to increase its impedance.

Suppose. for example. that the physiclan desires to increase the VV interval. By taming the shaft which gangs the two potentiometer: together. the W interval is extended as a result of the increase in the impedance of the ventricular pulse generator potentiometer. But. at the same time. because the ganged atrial pulse generator potentiometer is turned so that its impedance increases as well. the VA interval also increases. The two ganged potentiometers have the same maximum impedances and function so that the same change in impedance in each potentiometer affects the VV interval or the VA interval to the same degree. Consequently. it the VV interval is increased by turning the shaft which gangs the two potentiomctcrs together. then the \A interval increases to the same extent. Since the AV delay is equal to the difference between the VV interval and the VA interval. it is apparent that the AV delay remains constant. In order to adjust the AV dclit). all that is necessary is to change the setting of the other (independent) potentiometer in the atrial pulse generator. This potentiometer affects only the VA interval. and thus the AV delay can be adjusted independently.

it is a feature of my invention to provide two potentiometers in the atrial pulse generator. and one potentiometer in the ventricular pulse generator which is ganged to one of the atrial pulse generator potentiomt.'ll.l.\.

Further objects. features and advantages of my in- \cntit'm will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description in conjunction with the drawing in which:

FIG. I is the same as FIG. 2 in my above-identified application and depicts an atrial and ventricular pacer in which the rate and AV delay controls are not independent of each other; and

FIG. 2 depicts the illustrative embodiment of my invention in which independent rate and AV delay adjustments may be made.

Only those parts of the circuit of FIG. I will be explaincd which are required for an understanding of the present invention. The pacer includes a pair of electrodes El and E2. which are used for ventricular stimulotion and spontaneous beat detection. and a pair of electrodes. E3 and E4. which are used for atrial stimulaliott. A spontaneous ventricular beat causes a signal to appear on electrodes El and E2. and this signal is processed and results in a pulse being applied through capacitor 53 to the base of transistor T6 and through capacitor 54 to the base of transistor TtO. (lt switch 5 is closed. then the pacer operates in a continuous mode and no pulses are extended to the bases of transistors T6 and T10. Similarly. in the presence of 604i: noise. transistor! T3 and T4 function to prevent the applicalinrt of pulses to the bases of transistors T6 and T10 so that the pacer can operate in the continuous mode.)

Capacitor $7 normally charges from batteries 1-5 through potentiometer J3. potentiometer J7. and reststors 6t and 63. When the voltage across the capacitor l\ sull'tcient to fire transistors T7 and TH. these transistors conduct and a large eun'ent lions through them to raise the potential across resistor 63. At this time transistor T9 fires and capacitor 65 discharges through the transistor. the electrodes and the heart tissue to stimu' late the ventricles. After transistor T9 turns off. capacitor 65 recharges in preparation for the generation or another stimulating pulse. The setting of potentiometer 35 determines the magnitude of the charging current for capacitor 57. This. in turn. determines the ventricular escape interval. Each time that the voltage across capacitor 57 is high enough to cause transistors T7 and T8 to fire. the capacitor discharges through them so that another timing cycle can begin. The duration of the discharge is determined by the setting of potentiometer 37. Since a large current flows through resistor 63 whenever transistors T7 and T8 conduct. it is apparent that the setting of potentiometer 37 determines the width of the ventricular stimulating pulse.

if a spontaneous ventricular beat is detected before the expiration of the ventricular escape interval. then transistor T6 conducts and capacitor 57 discharges through it. in such an event. the ventricular stimulating pulse which would otherwise have been generated when the voltage acrou capacitor 57 would have reached the firing level is not generated. instead. a new timing cycle begins. with a ventricular stimulating pulse being generated only it the ventricular escape interval elapses before the detection of another spontaneous ventricular beat.

The atrial pulse generating circuit similarly includes a timing capacitor 58 and a potentiometer 62 which is used to control the VA interval. The detection of a spontaneous beat or the detection of a ventricular stimulating pulse results in the pulsing of the base of transistor T10. At this time capacitor 58 fully discharges through the transistor. Thereafter. the capacitor charges through potentiometer 62. When the charge across the capacitor is sufficient to control the firing of transistors TH and T12. a pulse. whose duration is detcrmincd by the setting of potentiometer 95. appears across atrial stimulating electrodes E3 and E4. Even after the atrial stimulating pulse is generated. transistors TI] and Ti hoth remain on. and capacitor 58 remains charged. it is only the nest firing of transistor Tl0 that controls the discharge of capacitor 58. the turning off of transistors TI! and T12. and the start of a new VA timing interval. Since an atrial stimulating pulse can only be generated after capacitor 58 is first discharged through transistor TN). and transistor Tl0 is only turned on when a spontaneous ventricular beat is detected or an atrial stimulating pulse is generated. it is apparent that only one atrial stimulating pulse can be generated following each ventricular beat.

It is possible with the pacer of FIG. I to change the AV delay without changing the pacer rate. if the setting of potentiometer 62 is increased. for example. the VA interval is increased (and the AV delay is thus decreased) but this has no effect on the ventricular pulse generating circuit and therefore the pacer rate remains the same. However. it is not posible to change the pacer rate without changing the AV delay. If the setting of potentiometer 35 is increased. for example. and no adjustment is made in the setting of potentiometer 62. it is apparent that the VV interval increases while the VA interval remains the same. This. in turn. results in an Increase in the AV delay together with the decre use in the pacer rate.

with the pacer of FIG. 2. it is possible to change the pacer rate without affecting the AV delay. Potentiometer 35 in H0. l is replaced by a fixed resistor 35b and a potentiometer 35a. Potentiometer 62 of FIG. I is replaced by two serially connected potentiometers 62a and 62b. The dotted lines 35a-62a represents a single shaft which gangs potentiomctcrs 35a and 62a together. The settings of these two potentiometers are changed in the same way when the pacer rate adjusting shaft is turned. In all other respects the pacer of FIG. 2 operates as does the pacer of HG. I.

It is apparent that ifthe setting of potentiometer 62b ts changed. the VA interval (and therefore the AV dein} l is changed without affecting the pacer rate in any via This is because potentiometer 62b affects the charging of only capacitor 58 in the atrial pulse generating circuit. (This is true also ofthe pacer of FIG. I in hich a change in the setting of potentiometer 62 changes the AV delay without affecting the pacer rate. as described above.) But. unlike the pacer of FIG. I. the pacer of FIG. 2 allows a change to be made in the pacer rate without any change being effected in the AV delay. When shaft 3511-6211 is turned so as to increase the impedance of potentiometer 35a (and therefore the selling of potentiometer 620 as well]. it takes longer for capacitor 57 to charge to the firing level of transistors f7 and Tll. This results in an increase in the VV interval. llut because the impedance of potentiometer 62a is also increased. it also takes longer for capacitor 58 to charge to the firing level of transistors TI! and T12 following its initial discharge through transistor T10. lf hoth RC charging circuits are linear. and potentiomelcrs 35a and 62a are identical. any increase or decrease in the VV interval results in an identical increase or decrease in the VA interval. Since the AV delay is e ual to the difference between these two intervals. it is apparent that the AV delay is not affected by a change in the pacer rate.

Resistor 35h in the ventricular pulse generator is proitled to insure a minimum VV interval. no matter how low the setting of potentiometer 350. A similar fixed re istor can be included in series with potentiometer: b2 and 62h if desired. Similarly. it is possible to pro- \itlr: another potentiometer in series with potentiometer 35a. although an adjustment to the setting of this potentiometer would necessarily affect the AV delay alon with the pacer rate. It is the ganging of at least one potentiometer in the ventricular pulse generating circuit to at least one potentiometer in the atrial pulse generating circuit that allows the pacer rate to be changed without affecting the AV delay.

Although the invention has been described with refcrencc to a particular embodiment. it is to be understood that this embodiment is merely illustrative of the application of the principles of the invention. Numerous modifications may be made therein and other artangcmcnts may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What lclalm is:

I. An atrial and ventricular eer comprising ventricular pulse generating means or generating a ventricu- In stimulating pulse for extension to a patients heart following the expiration of a ventricular escape timing interval. first potentiometer means for varying said ventricular escape timing interval. means for detecting a spontaneous ventricular beat ofa patient's heart or the generation of a ventricular stimulating pulse for synchronizing said ventricular pulse generating means to the beating action of the patients heart. timing means responsive to the operation of said detecting means for measuring an atrial escape timing interval. second potentiometer means for adjusting the width of said atrial escape timing interval. means responsive to the espiration of said atrial escape timing interval for generating an atrial stimulating pulse for extension to said paticnts heart. means for controlling the automatic adjustment of said second potentiometer means when said first potentiometer means is adjusted. wherein said controlling means includes a shaft which is ganged to said first and second potentiometer means. and wherein said ventricular escape timing interval is a linear function of the setting of said first potentiometer means and the width of said atrial escape timing interval is a linear function ofthe setting of said second potentiometer means. and said controlling means functions to maintain a constant difference between said ventricular escape timing interval and said atrial escape timing interval.

2. An atrial and ventricular pacer in accordance with claim I further including third potentiometer means for adjusting the width of said atrial escape timing interval independent of the width of said ventricular escape timing interval.

3. An atrial and ventricular pacer comprising ventricular pulse generating means for generating ventricular stimulating pulses for extension to a patients heart. first means for varying the rate at which ventricular stimulating pulses are generated. means for synchronizing said ventricular pulse generating means to the beating action ofa patients heart. timing means for operating in synchronisrn with the beating action ofa patient's heart for measuring an atrial escape timing interval. second means for adjusting the width ofsaid atrial escape timing interval. means responsive to the espiration of said atrial escape timing interval for generating an atrial stimulating pulse for extension to said patient s heart. means for controlling the automatic adjustment of said second means when said first means is adjusted. and wherein the rate at which ventricular stimulating pulses are generated is a linear function of the setting of said first means and the width of said atrial escape timing interval is a linear function of the setting of said second means. and said controlling means is operative to maintain constant the time interval between the generation of an atrial stimulating pulse and the generation of the next ventricular stimulating pulse independent of the setting of the said first means.

4. An atrial and ventricular pacer in accordance with claim 3 further including third means for varying the width of said atrial escape timing interval independent of said controlling means 0 Q Q 0 O

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3426748 *Nov 23, 1965Feb 11, 1969Gen ElectricStimulator analyzer and locater
US3595242 *Mar 26, 1969Jul 27, 1971American Optical CorpAtrial and ventricular demand pacer
US3717153 *Oct 19, 1970Feb 20, 1973Gen ElectricStandby external rate control and implanted standby heart pacer
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4386610 *May 27, 1980Jun 7, 1983Cordis CorporationVentricular-inhibited cardiac pacer
US4390023 *Apr 30, 1981Jun 28, 1983Medtronic, Inc.Patterned electrical tissue stimulator
US4453547 *Apr 6, 1981Jun 12, 1984Physio Technology, Inc.T-Wave inhibiting system
US4856525 *Feb 16, 1988Aug 15, 1989Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyMultichannel electrical stimulator with improved channel isolation
US6711437Jul 30, 2001Mar 23, 2004Medtronic, Inc.Pacing channel isolation in multi-site cardiac pacing systems
US7231249Jul 24, 2003Jun 12, 2007Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Methods, apparatus, and systems for multiple stimulation from a single stimulator
US8086315Jun 10, 2008Dec 27, 2011Asap Medical, Inc.Cardiac stimulation apparatus and method for the control of hypertension
US8249725May 8, 2007Aug 21, 2012Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Methods, apparatus, and systems for multiple stimulation from a single stimulator
US8428729Oct 26, 2011Apr 23, 2013Backbeat Medical, Inc.Cardiac stimulation apparatus and method for the control of hypertension
US8718750 *May 2, 2012May 6, 2014Biotronik Se & Co. KgHeart stimulator and method for A-V delay optimization
US8744558Mar 27, 2007Jun 3, 2014Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Method and apparatus for providing ipselateral therapy
US8761905Jun 4, 2012Jun 24, 2014Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Methods, apparatus, and systems for multiple stimulation from a single stimulator
US9008769Mar 14, 2013Apr 14, 2015Backbeat Medical, Inc.Methods and systems for lowering blood pressure through reduction of ventricle filling
US9320903Apr 1, 2013Apr 26, 2016Backbeat Medical, Inc.Cardiac stimulation apparatus and method for the control of hypertension
US9333352Mar 10, 2015May 10, 2016Backbeat Medical, Inc.Methods and systems for lowering blood pressure through reduction of ventricle filling
US9370662Jun 17, 2014Jun 21, 2016Backbeat Medical, Inc.Methods and systems for controlling blood pressure by controlling atrial pressure
US9526900Mar 25, 2015Dec 27, 2016Backbeat Medical, Inc.Methods and systems for controlling blood pressure by controlling atrial pressure
US9566444May 8, 2014Feb 14, 2017Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Methods, apparatus, and systems for multiple stimulation from a single stimulator
US20050021096 *Jul 24, 2003Jan 27, 2005Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Methods, apparatus, and systems for multiple stimulation from a single stimulator
US20050055057 *Sep 5, 2003Mar 10, 2005Mirowski Famliy Ventures, L.L.C.Method and apparatus for providing ipselateral therapy
US20050055058 *Sep 8, 2003Mar 10, 2005Mower Morton M.Method and apparatus for intrachamber resynchronization
US20070191893 *Mar 27, 2007Aug 16, 2007Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Method and apparatus for providing ipselateral therapy background
US20070208387 *May 8, 2007Sep 6, 2007Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Methods, apparatus, and systems for multiple stimulation from a single stimulator
US20090018608 *Jun 10, 2008Jan 15, 2009Schwartz Robert SCardiac stimulation apparatus and method for the control of hypertension
US20120302904 *May 2, 2012Nov 29, 2012Jie LianHeart stimulator and method for a-v delay optimization
USRE39897Aug 8, 2002Oct 23, 2007Mirowski Family Ventures, L.L.C.Method and apparatus for treating hemodynamic disfunction
Classifications
U.S. Classification607/9
International ClassificationA61N1/368, A61N1/365
Cooperative ClassificationA61N1/368
European ClassificationA61N1/368
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 9, 1985AS99Other assignments
Free format text: TELECTRONICS PTY. LIMITED * HONEYWELL MEDICAL ELECTRONICS B.V. : 19850306 OTHER CASES: NONE; CONFIRMS THE GRANTING OF LICENSE AGREEMENT DATED JULY 1, 197
Apr 9, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: TELECTRONICS PTY. LIMITED
Free format text: CONFIRMS THE GRANTING OF LICENSE AGREEMENT DATED JULY 1, 1973 SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS IN AGREEMENT DATED JANUARY 16, 1984;ASSIGNOR:HONEYWELL MEDICAL ELECTRONICS B.V.;REEL/FRAME:004436/0297
Effective date: 19850306
Apr 3, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: COOK PACEMAKER CORPORATION, P.O. BOX 99, BLOOMINGT
Free format text: LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:ATLANTIC RICHFIELD COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:003852/0285
Effective date: 19810327
Owner name: COOK PACEMAKER CORPORATION, INDIANA