US 3814526 A
Relates to a construction of marking instruments (including a reservoir for colored liquid and a frontal portion in which a marking element is carried) whereby the marking element is firmly held and the instrument resists sabotage and impairment resulting from application of excessive force axially to the exposed end of the marking element. Provides marking elements in carrying means for anchoring them in marking instruments to resist displacement without deleterious changes in operating characteristics.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1 3,814,526 Lotfallah [451 June 4, 1974 [5 SABOTAGE-PROOF MARKING 3.231.924 2/1966 Lofgren 401/198 INSTRUMENTS AND ELEMENTS 3.446.563 S/l969 Burnhum 40l/l99 THEREFOR  inventor: Lotti H. Lotfallah, Hollywood, Calif.
 Assignee: The Gillette Company, Santa Monica, Calif.
 Filed: Sept. 13, 1971 [2!] Appl. No: 179,771
 US. Cl. 40l/l99  Int. Cl B43k 5/00  Field of Search 401/198, 199, 102, 109,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS l ,607,()23 1 H1926 Teshimu 40l/202 2,899,697 8/1959 Kohorn et al 401/199 Primary ExaminerLawrencc Charles Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Miketta, Glenny, Poms & Smith l 5 7 ABSTRACT Relates to a construction of marking instruments (including a reservoir for colored liquid and a frontal portion in which a marking element is carried) whereby the marking element is firmly held and the instrument resists sabotage and impairment resulting from application of excessive force axially to the exposed end of the marking element. Provides marking elements in carrying means for anchoring them in marking instruments to resist displacement without deleterious changes in operating characteristics.
7 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures SABOTAGE-PROOF MARKING INSTRUMENTS AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR The terms marking instruments and marking pens as used herein refer to instruments using an absorbent porous marking element (usually of felt or other fibrous material) which conveys ink from the barrel (whose interior constitutes or contains a reservoir of ink or other colored liquid) to the end or tip of the writing element and permits a mark or trace to be deposited, as in writing, such trace being broad in comparison with that deposited by a metal-nibbed or ball point pen. As shown by prior patents such as U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,392,840, 2,416,596 and 2,593,599, the forward end of the main body, barrel or reservoir was provided with a holder for a writing element which was frictionally held in the holder with one end extending forwardly and the rear end in feeding contact or relation to the liquid in the reservoir section. It is desirable to provide an air vent past the marking element into the reservoir (as shown by U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,416,596, 2,713,176, 3,057,000 and 3,22l,360) the bore of the holder was often circular and the marking element made rectangular in crosssection in order that it could be frictionally held in the holder and still provide air passageways between it and the holder.
As the use of marking instruments expanded due to improvements in the inks or colored liquids employed, and the care taken in making marking elements which have ink, conveying channels of controlled size and distribution, longer life, freedom from brushout, ability to deposit a trace of uniform width without squeaking, etc. the distribution and sale of marker instruments became highly competitive and some sales groups have resorted to cutthroat tactics in attempting to discredit their opponents products. One tactic (which appears to impress unthinking prospective buyers) is to uncover an opponent's marker to examine the upstanding marker point. then invert the marker and smash it against a table top with sufficient force to cause it to compress and shift inwardly into the tip holder; the utility of the market is thus destroyed, since it does not protrude sufficiently to permit its normal use and air vent channels have been blocked.
The present invention is directed to a construction which resists unfair mishandling of the above described type. It is an object of the present invention to disclose and provide an inexpensive construction of marking instruments whereby the marking element is firmly held and the instrument resists sabotage and impairment resulting from application of excessive force axially to the exposed end of the marking element.
Another object of the present invention is to provide marking elements provided with means for anchoring them in marking instruments to resist displacement without deleterious changes in operating characteristics which have been built into the element so as to provide adequate liquid conveying channels, a low coefficient of friction between the element and the surface to which it is applied during marking, uniform and controlled flow of ink. long life, etc.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following more detailed description of certain exemplars. In the course of such description reference will be had to the appended drawings in which FIG. 1 is a side elevation partly in section showing an exemplary form of marking instrument with its cap removed;
FIG. 2 is a side elevation of a marking element provided with one form of anchoring means;
FIG. 3 is a transverse section taken along the plane Ill-llI of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a marking element illustrating a modified form of anchoring means;
FIG. 5 is a vertical section of the frontal portion or point holding means of a marking instrument of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 with the improved marking element of FIG. 2 anchored in position against displacement; and
FIG. 6 is a section taken along the plane VIVI of FIG. 5.
The marking instrument shown in FIG. 1 includes a body portion or barrel 1 provided with a frontal portion 2 which includes a forward extension or holder 3 provided with an axial bore 4 in which is positioned the marking element 10. The frontal portion and holder 3 is preferably integral with the body and can be made by injection molding of a suitable plastic composition such as polypropylene or other synthetic polymer.
Two or more spacers 5 may extend rearwardly from the frontal portion 2 into the hollow body and into contact with an absorbent cylindrical reservoir element 6 inserted into the body, the element 6 carrying a supply of ink or colored liquid of desired characteristics. The rear, originally open. end of thebarrel is closed by a plug 7.
Various means for admitting air into the barrel and particularly the rear portion thereof may be employed. The internal wall of the body may be provided with three or more longitudinally extending spaced ribs or other forms of air channels to convey air from the holder 3 to the rear of reservoir 6, or the latter may be provided with an air conduit extending longitudinally from one end to the other thereof at or near its circumference.
The term bore as used herein with respect to the axial opening extending through the holder 3 refers to any axial opening or conduit, whether circular or polygonal in cross-section extending through the frontal portion of the holder and the holder for the marking element. For example the internal surface of the bore 4 may be provided with longitudinally extending grooves. In the past it has been common to use a cylindrical bore and to employ a marking element of rectangular crosssection, the largest transverse dimension of such rectangular marking element being but slightly greater than the diameter of the bore so as to permit the marking element to be inserted thereinto and frictionally held with one end of the marking element extending forwardly beyond the end of the holder 3 and the internal end being in contact with or in ink receiving relation to the reservoir within the barrel.
As previously indicated frictional contact of the type referred to hereinabove is not satisfactory and in the event an excessive force is applied axially to the exposed end of the marking element, such element will be deformed, compacted and forced into a wad within the bore thereby blocking any air passages that may have existed previously. Prior attempts to increase the frictional contact between the marking element and its holder (such as are shown in US. Pat. Nos. 3,057,000 and 3,221,360 have been found to be totally unsatisfactory. A constriction of the porous element may restrict or even terminate the movement of a liquid towards the outer end (see for example U.S. Pat. No. 2,530,234). As previously stated the manufacture of fibrous tips having controlled porosity, uniformity, strength, long life and highly desirable uniform writing characteristics has taken great strides and a method of manufacturing such tips of the character stated in US. Pat. No. 3,558,392 is most effective. The heat-set and then resin bonded bundles of synthetic fibers have admirable writing characteristics as there described but localized transverse compression will impair the writing characteristics.
In accordance with the present invention a writing element is provided with very effective anchoring means as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. The writing element 10 there shown is of rectangular cross-section, having two larger opposite sides 11 and 12 and shorter intervening sides 13 and 14. Although the shape of the ends of such writing element can vary, the illustrated form has similar ends each end being provided with a face 15 and 15 which is at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the element.
In accordance with the present invention a metallic staple having a crown 20 and parallel arms 21 and 22, the crown-preferably lying in a plane at right angles to the arms, is driven into one side of. the fibrous preformed marking element in a predetermined zone between the ends 15 and 15f with the crown 20 preferably extending at an angle of between about 30 and 60 (although as low as angle can be used) to the longitudinal axis of the element, the arms 21 and 22 extending through the element, the end portions of the arms 21 and 22 being bent inwardly as best illustrated in FIG. 3 at 21' and 22'. As shown in FIG. 3 the crown 20 and the inturned endportions 21' and 22.of the arms preferably lie in contact with sides 12 and 11 respectively and need not be (and preferably are not) embedded in such surfaces. A stainless steel staple of rectangular cross-section (measuring approximately 0.025 X 0.0.15 inches in width and thickness) has been foundeminently successful when used on points for writing elements approximately 0.22 andO. l 3 inches in width and thickness. 1
The novel writing element illustrated in FIG. 2 is employed in the construction of this invention as shown in FIGS. and 6. The writing element is inserted into the bore 4 of the point holder 3 with the end face 15 at a predetermined distance beyond the end of the holder 3 and a metallic stake 40 is driven through the walls of the pen holder 3 and through the writing element between the transversely extending arms 21 and 22 of the staple whose crown 20 is visible in FIG. 5. The lower or rearward end of the writing element 10 extends beyond the rearwardly extending edges of the spacing elements 5 and is embedded in the central portion of the absorbent reservoir filler 6. It may be noted that although the stake 40 may be a circular wire, it is highly desirable to employ a stake pin having a rectangular cross-section such stake pin being driven with its largest transverse measurement or dimension parallel to the longitudinal axis of the writing element 10.
Tests conducted by dropping completely filled markers constructed in the manner shown in FIG. 5 from a height of 36 inches with the point contacting the solid floor at the end of the drop showed a point push back which only averaged 0.080 inches. Axially applied forces or loads of 15 pounds were successfully resisted by the devices constructed in accordance with this invention.
Instead of one staple, a secondary. staple can be ap plied from the reverse side of the markerelement in the same selected zone. This modification is illustrated in FIG. 4 where a marker element equipped with a staple having crown 20 and bent end portions 21' and 22 (applied in the manner previously described in connection with FIGS. 2 and 3), has another staple whose crown is identified by 30, driven through the marker element from the side opposite that upon which crown 20 is exposed. This second staple has its crown 30 inclined at an angle similar to but opposed to the angle of staple 20, and is in the same longitudinal zone of the marked element whereby arms of both staples embrace a common zone. End portions 31' and 32' of arms of staple 30 are preferably bent toward each other, as indicated. In use, a stake is driven transversely through the point holder and between the arms of the two staples. Materially higher axially applied loads are resisted by marker elements constructed in this manner.
Although specific reference has been made to marking elements having a rectangular cross-section, the anchoring means (staples and stake pins) can be similarly employed on writing elements of either polygonal, squareor even circular cross-section. When writing elements of circular section are'employed the crown of the staple does not lie in a plane but is preferably curved; moreover,'when cylindrical writing elements are employed the internal bore 4 of the point holder 3 is generally provided with two or more longitudinally extending channels which act as air vents.
1. in a-marking instrument having a body portion providing a reservoir for a colored fluid, a frontal portion provided with a through bore and an elongated fibrous marking element extending along said bore with one end of such. element in contact with fluid in such reservoir and an outer end extending forwardly of said frontal portion, the provision of means for holding said fibrous element in position to resist axial displacement, comprising; I av a metallic staple having a crown and arms driven into the fibrous element with the crown crossing the axial plane of the element at an angle of between about 30 and 60 and said arms being embedded in the element at longitudinally spaced positions therealong.
and a metallic stake driven through the frontal portion and said element and extending between the embeddedarms of said staple.
2. A marking instrument as stated in claiml wherein the fibrous elementis of polygonal cross-section, the crown of said driven staple lies on one side of the element and the stake extends through an adjacent side of the element with both ends of the stake embedded in the frontal portion.
3. A marking instrument as stated in claim 1 wherein the frontal portion is composed of a plastic composition, the fibrous element is of rectangular cross-section, longitudinal edges of the fibrous element are in frictional contact with the through bore of the frontal portion, the crown of said driven staple lies on a side of larger dimension of the elementand the stake extends through the larger cross-sectional dimension of the element with both ends of the stake embedded in the frontal portion.
4. An elongated, preformed, fibrous element having a multiplicity of channels for feeding a colored liquid, said element being adapted for positioning in a marking instrument, said element having a polygonal crosssection of desired size and end surfaces at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the element.
said element carrying a staple including a crown and arms, said staple being driven into one side of the element in a zone between said ends with the crown in contact with said side and extending at an appreciable angle to the longitudinal axis of the element, said arms being embedded in the element at longitudinally spaced positions.
5. A preformed, fibrous element as stated in claim 4 wherein end portions of said arms are bent into contact with the side of the element opposite said crown.
6. An elongated, preformed. fibrous element as stated in claim 4 including a second staple similarly driven into the element from said opposite side. whereby the embedded arms of the second staple occupy positions laterally disposed in the element in said zone.
7. An elongated. preformed, fibrous element as stated in claim 5 and including a second staple similarly driven into the element from said opposite side. whereby the embedded arms of the second staple occupy positions laterally disposed in the element at said