|Publication number||US3815013 A|
|Publication date||Jun 4, 1974|
|Filing date||May 31, 1973|
|Priority date||Jun 14, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3815013 A, US 3815013A, US-A-3815013, US3815013 A, US3815013A|
|Original Assignee||Gen Electric|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (21), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [1 1 Milkovic [111 3,815,013 1 June 4, 1974 CURRENT TRANSFORMER WITH ACTIVE LOAD TERMINATION  Inventor: Miran Milkovic, Scotia, NY.
 Assignee: General Electric Company,
 Filed: May 31, 1973  Appl. No.: 365,429
Related US. Application Data [631 Continuation of Ser, No. 262,643, June 14, 1972.
 US. Cl 323/6, 323/44 R, 323/88, 324/123, 324/127  Int. Cl. G01! 19/00 8] Field of Search 323/6, 1, 8, 50, 44, 84-88,
323/108-110, 120; 324/110, 123, 127; 330/103; 317/16; 328/15 S; 321/4 SC, 47
[561 References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 2,981,888 4/1961 White, Jr. 324/1 10 X 3,524,135 8/1970 Nercessiam; 324/123 3,617,878 11/1971 Senour 324/123 X 3,714,545 1/1973 Chiffert 323/6 3,733,538 5/1973 Kernick et a1. ..1 321/45 C OTHER PUBLICATIONS Basic Electrical Measurements M. B. Stout; Prentice-Hall, lnc. 1961 2nd Printing; Pages 397-413.
Kepco Power Supply Handbook P. Birman, 1966 Cat. No. TK 451 k4B5 (Sci. Lib. of Pat. Off); Pages 31-39.
Primary Examiner-Gerald Goldberg Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Patrick D. Ward; Joseph T. Cohen; Jerome C. Squillaro 5 7] ABSTRACT A current transformer and transresistance amplifier are combined; the secondary winding of the current transformer being connected to the input of the transresistance amplifier and being virtually shortcircuited because of the very low input impedance of the transresistanceamplifier. The transresistance amplifier, nevertheless, supplies an output voltage which is proportional to current in the primary winding of 15 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures aRf I 1 I 1 I l l 1 26 1,1 1/
PATENTEBJUN 4 m4 SHEEI 1 [If 3 III.-
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The subject invention pertains, in general, to improvements in instrument transformer performance; and, more particularly, to the combination of a transresistance amplifier with a current transformer for the purpose of terminating the current transformer with an active load element which virtually short-circuits the transformer while providing an output voltage which is proportional to the transformer current of interest.
Ideally, an instrument current transfonner should opcrate with its secondary short-circuited. However, this would mean that the voltage across the secondary would be zero and it would not, ordinarily, bepossible for the secondary to supply an output voltage proportional to current in the primary; the voltage output being required for metering purposes, for example.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One object of the invention is to enable an instrument current transformer to be operated with an apparent, or virtual, short-circuited secondary'while an output voltage, developed in response to its finite secondary current, is supplied; said output voltage being proportional to the current in the primary winding of the current transformer.
Another object of the invention is to effect a substanv fier, which virtually short-circuits the transformer secondary because of the very low input impedance of the active load element. Paradoxically, although the secondary is virtually short-circuited its finite secondary current is employed by the active load element for developing an output voltage which is proportional to current in the transformer primary.
One feature of the invention resides in the employment of a transresistance amplifier for terminating the secondary of an instrument current transformer.
Another feature of the invention resides in the employment of phase-shifting means, such as an inverting operational amplifier or the equivalent, in conjunction with a transresistance amplifier so that at least pairs of output voltages, proportional to primary current, may be developed; the output voltages being phase-shifted with respect to each other.
Other objects as well as the various features and advantages of the invention are set forth hereinafter where specific illustrative embodiments of the invention are described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a schematic illustration of the invention showing an instrument current transformer terminated with a transresistance amplifier.
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration showing in more detail the transresistance amplifier shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration, similar to the one shown in FIG. 1, except that the current transformer has been replaced by an ideal current source.
FIG. 4 is a reproduction of oscillograms showing the 5 various amplitudes and phase relationships among secondary current Is, voltage Vs at the input to the transresistance amplifier, and the output voltage V of the transresistance amplifier.
FIG. is a reproduction of an oscillogram showing amplitude and phase relationships among current If in a feedback resistance Rf, a voltage Vs at the input of the transresistance amplifier, and an output voltage V0 supplied by the transresistance amplifier.
FIG. 6 is another schematic illustration showing a transistor and additional output coupling transformer for supplying an output voltage Vol which is free of any DC component.
FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of the transresistance amplifier including transient voltage protection means; said means also protecting the current transformer against becoming open circuited and, in addi- 4 tion, the diodes 40, maintain a summing point S at i0.7 volt in the event that amplifier 24 is overdriven.
FIG. 8'is another schematic illustration showing an inverting operational amplifier coupled to the output of the transresistance amplifier of FIG. I; the arrangement being useful for supplying a pair of output voltages which are 180 out of phase with each other.
FIG. 9 is a schematic illustrationshowing an additional transistor 38 and output coupling transformer 32' coupled to the output of the transresistance amplifier for providing a pair of output voltages which are 180 out of phase. 35
DESCRIPTION OFYPREFERRED EMBODIMENTS One illustrative embodiment of the invention is I shown in the schematic diagram at FIG. 1 whereat a transresistance amplifier designated, generally, by the reference number 20 is coupled with the output of an instrument current transformer which is designated, generally, by the reference number 22. Generally, the transresistance amplifier 20 is an amplifier which provides an output voltage proportional to input current.
In accordance with the invention the transresistance amplifier 20 serves as an active load for the current transformer 22. The trans-resistance amplifier 20 presents a very low input impedance to the output of the 5 current transformer 22 so that the secondary of the current transformer 22 is virtually short circuited. Thus, the current transformer 22 operates under ideal conditions (short circuit) while the trans-resistance amplifier 22 develops a proportional voltage signal which may beused for metering purposes, among others.
As shown in FIG. 1 the current transformer 22 includes a primary winding Wp having Np turns and a secondary winding Ws of Ns turns; both windings being magnetically coupled with a core of suitable magnetic material. As indicated, the primary winding Wp is in series with a conductor carrying a current Ip. The secondary winding Ws carries a current Is. For the current transformer-22 the relationships among Ip, Is, Np and Ns are as follows:
(equation I) Is Ip/K (equation 2) The transresistance amplifier 20 is comprised of an operational amplifier 24. In FIG. 1 the operational amplifier 24 is provided with two input terminals which are designated with and signs. The terminal is an inverting input terminal and the terminal is a noninverting input terminal. In addition, the operational amplifier 24 is provided with an output terminal 26. Also, as shown in FIG. l,'a feedback resistor Rfis connected in parallel with the operational amplifier 24 between a summing point S and a junction point M. The junction point M is located at a common potential with the output terminal 26 and the summing pointS is at the same potential as the inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier 24. Also, as shown in FIG.
1 the non-inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier 24 is connected to junction point G which is at the same potential as another output tenninal 28 of the transresistance amplifier 20.
The transresistance amplifier 20 is illustrated in more specific detail in FIG. 2. In the illustrative example in FIG. 2 operational amplifier 24 is identified as the high performance operational amplifier p.A74l manufactured by Fairchild Semiconductor, a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation, 313 Fairchild Drive,'Mountain View, California. The Fairchild operational amplifier p.A741 is an integrated circuit device and a connection diagram (top view) therefor is shown in FIG. 2. The'numbers shown in parenthesis such as (I), (2), (8) identify the actual pin conections on the Fairchild '[LA74I operationalamplifier; i.e., the operational amplifier also identified herein by the reference number 24 in FIGS. 1, 2 and elsewhere. As indicated in FIG. 2, a DC voltage source (15 volts) Vee is connected between the pin (4) and a junction point which is at a common potential with the junction point G. Also, as indicated in FIG. 2 another DC volt age source l5 volts) Vcc is connected between the pin (7) and a reference junction point common to the junction point G. The voltage sources Vee and Vcc are connected to the pins (4) and (7) such that pin (4) is at l5 volts and the pin (7) is at volts. Also as indicated in FIG. 2, a potentiometer P is connected between the pins (l) and (5). The potentiometer P includes a voltage selecting slider which is connected to the pin (4) which is at a potential of -l 5 volts. The potentiometer P has a rating of 10K ohms. The slider on the potentiometer P is adjustable for the purpose of providing appropriate oflset nulling voltages for the operational amplifier 24. I
The operating principal involved is discussed hereinafter with reference to FIGS. 1 and 3. In FIG. 3, for purposes of analysis, the current transformer 22 of FIG. 1 is replaced by an ideal current source which, as indicated, provides a current Is Ip/K (equation 2) and a resistance Rs connected across the ideal current source. The resistance Rs represents the AC output impedance of the current transformer 22. The operational amplifier 24 has an open loop gain A0, greater than 10. The transresistance amplifier has a very low input resistance R1 and it may be expressed by the following approximation:
Ri z Rf/Ao I (equation 3) v In more general terms, the transresistance amplifier 20 has a very low input impedance Zi which may be expressed by the following approximation:
Zi z Zf/Ao (equation 3a) where Zf represents a feedback impedance connected between points S and M.
In the particular example shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 the input resistance R1 is less than 0.5 ohm. This represents a virtual short circuit across the secondary winding Ws of the current transfonner 22. As a result, the summing point S is virtually at ground potential. In other words, the summing point S is at substantially the same potential as the junction point G; the voltage between the points S and G being substantially zero. In effect, the secondary winding Ws of the current transformer 22 sees" a short circuit across summing point S and junction point G. Thus, the summing point S conducts no current to junction point G (ground). Instead the current Is from the secondary winding Ws leaves the summing point S and passes through the feedback resistor Rf. Thus, there appears at the junction M and the out- V0 Is Rf (equation 4) Using equation 2 and'substituting:
V0 Ip RF/K (equation 5 The negative sign appears in equations 4 and 5 because V0 is inverted in phase with respect to Is and If. This phase inversion is illustrated clearly in the waveforms shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. As indicated in FIGS. 1 and 3 substantially all of the current Is from the secondary winding Ws enters the summing point S and exits therefrom to pass as the current designated If through the feedback resistance Rf sothat:
f= ls (equation 6) tance measured where Rf is disconnected. Equation 7 can be stated in broader temis as put terminal 26 the output voltage V0 which is defined z' Zo/Ao (equation 70) where 20 is the open-loop output impedance, corresponding to R0, and Z0 is the output impedance, corresponding to R0. v
The following example will serve to illustrate some important aspects of the subject invention: where Rf 2000 ohms and If Is milliamperes, V0 volts according to equation 40. By coupling the secondary winding Ws of the current transformer 22 to the input of the transresistance amplifier 20, as indicated in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, it is possible to greatly reduce the size and the cost of the current transformer. Thisvconsiderable reduction occurs because of a considerable reduction in the volt-ampere rating of the transformer. If, for example, the transresistance amplifier was not employed, the secondary winding Ws of the current transformer 22 would have to carry a current Is l ampere to produce an output voltage V0 10 volts across a 10 ohm load resistance connected across the secondary winding Ws. However, by using the transresistance amplifier 20 the volt-ampere product of current transformer 22 is about 10,000 times smaller than the voltampere. product of the current transformer if used alone, without the transresistance amplifier 20. Because the current transformer 22 is virtually shortcircuited the power transformed to its secondary is reduced. Since the transformer 22 operates under a virtual short circuit the only power required is that power needed to sustain the copper and iron losses.
In FIGS. 4 and 5 time-varying waveforms (oscillograms) of Is, If, Vs andVo are illustrated; Vs being the voltage measured at the summing point S. For Rf 2000 ohms, the waveforms, or oscillograms, at FIGS. 4 and 5 show that the feedback current If and the secondary current Is in the secondary winding Ws of the cur rent transformer 22 was measured at 5 milliamperes. The voltage Vs is practically zero, (less 1 millivolt) indicating virtual short circuit condition. The output voltage V0 was measured to be 10 volts (peak). As shown, the output voltage V0 is symmetrical with the zero-line in FIGS. 4 and 5;'i.e., V0 does not contain any significant DC component. At V0 i0 volts, for example, a 0.l millivolt DC offset voltage will produce an error of only 0.00] percent. However, with the Fairchild uA74l amplifier, offset voltage compensation capability is provided. Another way of obtaining an output voltage Vol, free from any DC component, is shown at FIG. 6 where a transistor 38 and output coupling transformers 32 having a lcl turns ratio is provided.
Illustrated at FIG. 7 is a way of protecting the amplifier 24 from transient over voltages by connecting a pair of oppositely poled Si diodes 40 in parallel with the input to the amplifier. By this arrangement the voltage between the points, or nodes, S and G cannot exceed i0] volt, for example. The oppositely poled Si diodes also serve as protection for the operational amplifier 24 if it is overdriven. In this case, the summing point S is no longer at virtually zero potential. In addition, the diodes serve as protection for the current transformer if the operational amplifier is accidentally disconnected.
In certain applications it may be necessary, or desirable, to provide multiple output voltage signals, like the output voltages V0 and Vol which are shifted in phase by 180. FIGS. 8 and 9 show two different ways of accomplishing this.
Another method of obtaining a phase-inverted output voltage V0 is illustrated in FIG. 8 where an inverting operational amplifier 40 is resistance-coupled by means of a resistor R1 to the output of the transresistance amplifier 20. Thus, between the output terminals 26' and 28 there appears the output voltage V0 which is inverted 180 with respect to the output voltage V0 which appears between the output terminal 26 and the junction point G or 28' of the transresistance amplifier 20.
Still another method of obtaining a 180 phase shift is shown in FIG. 9 where a transformer 32' and transistor 38' are employed. The circuit shown in FIG. 9 is similar to that shown in FIG. 6, except that the transformer 32 has a center-tapped secondary winding where two voltage output signals V0 and V0 are supplied. The voltage output signals V0 and V0 are 180 out of phase.
While specific embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described in detail to illustrate the invention, it is to be understood that the invention may be otherwise embodied without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention which is hereinafter set forth in the claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination: a current transformer including primary and secondary windings adapted for conducting primary and secondary currents, respectively; and, a transresistance amplifier for terminating said secondary winding and serving as an active load which virtually short-circuits said secondary winding while supplying an output voltage proportional to the primary current, if any.
2. The combination according to claim 1 further comprising means coupled with said transresistance amplifier for supplying in response to said output voltage another output voltage phase-inverted with respect to said output voltage.
3. In combination: a current transformer comprising primary and secondary windings adapted for conducting primary and secondary currents, respectively; and an operational amplifier including first and second input terminal means, output terminal means, and a feedback resistance connected between said first input terminal means and said output terminal means, said operational amplifier having a high open-loop gain and a low input resistance, measurable between said first and second input terminal means, said secondary winding being connected between said first and second input terminal means and in parallel with said low input resistance whereby there is no substantial potential difference between said first and second input terminals even when said secondary winding conducts secondary current, said operational amplifier supplying, between said output terminal means and said second input terminal means, an output voltage proportional to said primary current.
4. The combination according to claim 3 wherein said input resistance of said operational amplifier is defined as:
Ri z Rf/Ao where R1 is the input resistance, Rf is the magnitude of said feedback resistance, and A0 is the open-loop gain of said operational amplifier.
5. The combination according to claim 4 wherein Ri is not greater than 0.5 ohm.
.6. The combination according to claim 3 wherein said output voltage is defined as:
where V is the magnitude of the output voltage, Is is 7. The combination according to claim 3 wherein said output voltage is a varying voltage which may include a DC component and said combination according to claim 3 is further comprised of means connected between said output terminal means and said second terminal means for translating said output voltage without said DC component.
I 8. The combination according to claim 3 further comprising inverting operational amplifier means, responsive to said output voltage, for supplying another output voltage which is phase-inverted 180 with re I spect to said output voltage.
9. In combination: a transformer including at least one secondary winding adapted for conducting secondary current; and, operational amplifier means serving as an active load for terminating said secondary winding in a virtual short circuit while supplying an output voltage proportional to said secondary current, if any.
10. The combination according to claim 9, wherein said operational amplifier means includes input and output terminal means and a feedback resistance connected between said input and output terminal means, said output voltage being defined as:
where V0 is the output voltage, is is the secondary current, and Rf is the feedback resistance.
11. The combination according to claim Sl wherein said output voltage is a varying voltage which may in- 8 clude a DC component and said combination according to claim 9 is further comprised of means coupled with said operational amplifier means for translating said output voltage without its DC component.
12. In combination: a current transformer including primary and secondary windings; a high gain amplifier including first and second input terminals between which said secondary winding is connected so that said amplifier represents a very low impedance connected across said secondary winding, said amplifier including an output terminal; and, a feedback impedance connected between said first input terminal and said output terminal.
13. The combination according to claim 12 wherein the primary and secondary windings are adapted for conducting primary and secondary currents, respectively, and the very low impedance of said amplifier virtually short-circuits said secondary windings so that no substantial difierence of potential exists between said first and second input terminals while substantially all of the secondary current is conducted from said first input terminal through said feedback impedance to said output terminal so that between said output terminal and said second input terminal there exists a potential difierence substantially equal to the product of the secondary current and the feedback impedance.
14. The combination according to claim 13 wherein said potential difference between said output terminal and said second input terminal is a varying potential difference which may include a DC component and said combination according to claim 13 is further com prised of means connected between said output terminal and said second input terminal for translating said varying potential difference without its DC component.
voltage proportional to primary current.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2981888 *||Jul 19, 1955||Apr 25, 1961||Dresser Ind||Electrical current measuring system|
|US3524135 *||Jan 8, 1968||Aug 11, 1970||Forbro Design Corp||Error reducing metering for a constant current regulated power supply|
|US3617878 *||Apr 21, 1969||Nov 2, 1971||Blh Electronics||Ac to de high-accuracy low-level voltage measuring system|
|US3714545 *||Apr 18, 1972||Jan 30, 1973||Comteurs Schlumberger||Current transformer connection control|
|US3733538 *||Mar 28, 1972||May 15, 1973||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Apparatus for limiting instantaneous inverter current|
|1||*||Basic Electrical Measurements M. B. Stout; Prentice Hall, Inc. 1961 2nd Printing; Pages 397 413.|
|2||*||Kepco Power Supply Handbook P. Birman, 1966 Cat. No. TK 451 k4B5 (Sci. Lib. of Pat. Off); Pages 31 39.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3881149 *||Aug 23, 1973||Apr 29, 1975||Lorain Prod Corp||Compensated transformer circuit|
|US4198595 *||Sep 5, 1978||Apr 15, 1980||General Electric Company||Apparatus and method of phase shift compensation of an active terminated current transformer|
|US4286214 *||May 7, 1979||Aug 25, 1981||General Electric Company||Current sensor for phase inversion-modulation of AC signals|
|US4354155 *||Sep 27, 1979||Oct 12, 1982||Firma Leopold Kostal||Circuit arrangement for monitoring a current-consuming load|
|US4652810 *||Jan 3, 1986||Mar 24, 1987||Yokogawa Hokushin Electric Corporation||Subminiature current transformer|
|US4659981 *||Sep 24, 1985||Apr 21, 1987||Sony Corporation||Input transformer circuit|
|US4684827 *||Mar 7, 1986||Aug 4, 1987||Ant Nachrichtentechnik Gmbh||Circuit arrangement for detecting a current in power supply devices|
|US4835463 *||Aug 24, 1987||May 30, 1989||Metricom, Inc.||Wide dynamic range a.c. current sensor|
|US4939451 *||Jan 6, 1989||Jul 3, 1990||Metricom, Inc.||Wide dynamic range a.c. current sensor|
|US4967145 *||Mar 3, 1989||Oct 30, 1990||Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug, Ag||Active current transformer|
|US7145321 *||Feb 25, 2005||Dec 5, 2006||Sandquist David A||Current sensor with magnetic toroid|
|US8269482 *||Sep 16, 2008||Sep 18, 2012||Electro Industries/Gauge Tech||Intelligent electronic device having circuitry for reducing the burden on current transformers|
|US8797202||Mar 29, 2011||Aug 5, 2014||Electro Industries/Gauge Tech||Intelligent electronic device having circuitry for highly accurate voltage sensing|
|US8930153||Mar 1, 2011||Jan 6, 2015||Electro Industries/Gauge Tech||Metering device with control functionality and method thereof|
|US20060192548 *||Feb 25, 2005||Aug 31, 2006||Sandquist David A||Current sensor with magnetic toroid|
|US20090072813 *||Sep 16, 2008||Mar 19, 2009||Electro Industries/Gauge Tech.||Intelligent Electronic Device Having Circuitry for Reducing the Burden on Current Transformers|
|EP0157881A1 *||Sep 11, 1984||Oct 16, 1985||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Current detecting circuit|
|EP1325394A1 *||Sep 11, 2001||Jul 9, 2003||Radian Research, Inc.||Wide ratio autotransformer-type current ranging|
|EP1701423A2 *||Mar 2, 2006||Sep 13, 2006||Airbus Deutschland GmbH||Arrangement for improving the short circuit withstandability of an appliance by use of a bypass|
|EP1970716A2||Feb 12, 2008||Sep 17, 2008||Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc.||Wide range current sensing method and system|
|WO2008138873A1 *||May 8, 2008||Nov 20, 2008||Epcos Ag||Broadband detecting circuit|
|U.S. Classification||323/357, 324/127, 324/123.00R|
|International Classification||H01F38/32, G01R15/18|
|Cooperative Classification||G01R15/183, H02H3/05, H01F38/32, G01R15/18|
|European Classification||G01R15/18, G01R15/18C, H01F38/32|