|Publication number||US3816011 A|
|Publication date||Jun 11, 1974|
|Filing date||Jun 8, 1972|
|Priority date||Apr 3, 1970|
|Publication number||US 3816011 A, US 3816011A, US-A-3816011, US3816011 A, US3816011A|
|Inventors||Biebuyck L, Hubbard E|
|Original Assignee||American Metal Climax Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (35), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Biebuyck et al.
[ June 11, 1974 ENTRANCE STRUCTURE  Inventors: Lawrence F. Biebuyck, Dallas, Tex.;
Eugene Hubbard, Niles, Mich.
 Assignee: American Metal Climax, Inc., New
22 Filed: June 8,1972
21 Appl. No.: 260,977
Related US. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 25,457, April 1970,
 US. Cl. 403/187, 403/260  Int. Cl. Fl6b 7/18  Field of Search 287/l89.36 H, 189.36 C, 287/l89.36 R; 52/656, 731, 239, 499, 475, 239; 49/501  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,706,543 .4/1955 Kammerer 52/656 3,147,5l8 9/l964 Horgan... 52/731 3,299,596 l/l967 Neal 52/731 Proud 52/73l Crossman 52/731 Primary ExaminerReinaldo P. Machado Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Mason, Kolehmainen, Rathburn & Wyss  ABSTRACT There is provided a new and improved entrance system for a building which permits a latitude of design by the architect. The system includes a door formed of butt joined vertical and side rails, the rails each having side pockets extending beyond spaced webs thereby forming glazing pockets. Longitudinal parts on the tubular structures of the rails defune longitudinal screw splines. Twisting and shear stresses between the rails are reacted through a joint block of general T-shape having a body portion fitting within the glazing pocket of one rail and a tongue portion fitting within the tubular structure of the abutting rail. Screw fasteners extend through the joint block and the rails to secure the rails together. I
4 Claims, 22 Drawing Figures 3; L saznsnrs 816 011 PATENTEDJHM 1 1 1914 ENTRANCE STRUCTURE The present invention is a division of our co-pending application Ser. No. 25,457 filed Apr. 3, 1970.
The present invention relates to an imporved entrance structure, and more specifically to a coordinated system of doors, entrance frames, graphic identification, and hardware to provide an entrance arrangement having a wide latitude with regard to the combination and design in building entrances. The system is particularly adapted to be assembled from extruded aluminum construction elements.
Heretofore commercially available aluminum doors and entrances have generally been highly standardized, mass produced products which look and act very much like the doors made of other materials. Aluminum doors, particularly, are strong enough to withstand heavy traffic if the door is not abused. It has definite advantages in that it provides little obstruction to a clear view of the interior of the building from the street. Although it has somewhat marginal weathering properties, these may be of little importance if the doors are likely to be open a large part of the time. Many of these doors go into building facades that do not warrant, and do not get, the benefit of architectural design services. However, there are buildings such as schools, colleges, public auditoriums, recreation buildings, churches, and public buildings of all kinds wherein the ordinary commercial aluminum door is not satisfactory. These buildings are always architect-designed and their entrances are an integral part of their design compositions. The commercially available door does not give the monumental entrance the visual impact that it must have if it is to be part of the building design composition. Doors in these buildings get heavy traffic, and sometimes abusive traffic. They must be strong, and look strong.
To provide an entrance, doors mustbe mounted in frames. Historically, the frames have been developed at different times as completely independent products. As they stand commercially today, the doors of any manufacturer may be mounted in the frames of any other manufacturer without any loss of design impact. Door hardware has been another weakness of the commercial aluminum door as applied to monumental entrances.
It has been recognized that commercial doors are often too light in appearance and too weak in structure for buildings of institutional character. Some manufacturers have responded by making a commercial door with wide stiles. Other manufacturers have brought out heavier walled portions of commercial doors, and have given them various labels such as institutional doors. These beefed up doors do look stronger, and may actually be stronger. But they offer the architect no design options over the conventional commercial door.
Accordingly, it would be advantageous if an entrance structure was offered specifically designed to set off the architecture of the building, and if the architect had'options as to the character and proportion of the pushpull hardware. Moreover, it would be desirable for the architect in buildings of monumental character to have the option of designing his own doors to complement his building. Thus, it would be desirable to provide a system of elements which may be combined to provide custom doors and entrances for buildings.
Accordingly, one object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved entrance structure which has the above mentioned advantages.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved entrance structure which provides an architect with a latitude of design combinations.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved door.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved door which may be custom designed with a wide latitude of design combinations.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved door structure which is sturdy and rugged in construction.
In accordance with these and many other objects of the present invention, there is provided a new and improved entrance structure which permits wide latitude with regard to the combination of the components to the architect. An improved door system is provided wherein the door is formed of interconnected vertical and side rails. The rails are formed of a pair of spaced side faces and a pair of spaced transverse webs, the side faces including legs projecting outwardly ofthe webs to define pockets. The webs and portions of the faces therebetween form a tubular structure, and longitudinal parts at the corners of the tubular structure define longitudinal screw splines. The improved door includes a corner joint wherein the vertical and side rails are butt joined together by a joint block of generally T- shape having a body portion fitting within the pocket of one rail and having a tongue portion fitting within the tubular structure of the other rail. Thus, shear and twisting loads of the door are carried in the joint block. The butt fitted joint may be secured in any conventional manner as by screws. However, the joint comers may additionally be welded if desired.
For a better understanding of the present invention reference may be had to the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a new and improved door according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a detailed view. of a comer joint structure of the door of FIG. 1, taken along detail 2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of the upper rail of the door of FIG.'1, taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a comer detail of the door ,of FIG. 1, taken along detail 4 of FIG. 1
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view of the lower rail of the door of FIG. 1, taken along line 5--5 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of one vertical door stile, taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a cross sectional view of the other vertical stile of the door of FIG. '1, taken along line 7 -7 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 8 is an exploded view of a lower corner joint wherein the vertical rail is through;
FIG. 9 is an exploded view of an upper comer joint' wherein the vertical rail is through;
FIG. 10 is an elevational view of a typical door with through horizontal rails;
FIG. 1 l is an exploded view of the lower comer detail 11 ofFIG. l0, illustrating a typical through horizontal lowerrail joint;
FIG. 12 is an exploded view of the upper corner joint 12 of FIG. 10, illustrating a typical through upper rail joint;
FIG. 13 is a cross sectional view of a typical door rail illustrating a different glazing arrangement wherein the glazing panel is offset from the center of the door;
FIG. 14 is a cross sectional view of a typical door rail illustrating a projecting glass stop compatible with the present system;
FIGS. 15 and 16 represent two door structures composed in part of vertical panels illustrating the versatility of the present entrance system;
FIG. 17 is a cross sectional view of the door of FIG. 15, taken along line 1717 thereof;
FIG. 18 is a cross sectional view of the door of FIG. 16, taken along line 18-18 thereof;
FIG. 19 illustrates a top rail assembly taken along line 19-19 of FIG. 16;
FIG. 20 represents a top rail assembly taken along line 2020 of FIG. 16;
FIG. 2l-illustrates a lower rail assembly taken alon line 21-21 of FIG. 16; and
FIG. 22 illustrates a horizontal rail'structure wherein the planks go through and typically shown as 2222 of FIG. 15;
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to the embodiment of FIGS. 1 through 7, there is illustrated an improved door 100 according to the present invention. As therein illustrated, the door, for purposes of illustration, has a through upper rail assembly 101, a lower rail assembly 102, and two side rail assemblies 103 and 104. Glass or other suitable panel 112 is in the opening formed by the interconnected rail assemblies 101, 102, 103 and 104.
The rails make up the basic structure of the door, and are generally universal and interchangeable, capable of being used as verticals, horizontals, or intermediates. A typical. construction element forming a rail assembly is illustrated in FIG. 5. As therein illustrated, a construction element 105 is formed by extrusion or other suitable means of suitable material such as aluminum. The extrusion element 105 has a generally tubular structure defined by spaced transverse webs 105a and 105b, and spaced interconnecting side faces 1050, 105d. The side faces include legs 105e, l05f, 105g and'105h projecting outwardly of the webs on both sides thereof to form pockets 106, 107. The interconnected webs and the portions of the side faces therebetween form a tubular structure to provide strength and rigidity to the construction elements. Longitudinal parts at the corners of the tubular structure define longitudinal screw splines 113 for use in the assembly. These screw splines 113 have flattened tops 105k to provide solid bearing for the heads of assembly screws. As indicated,'the parts forming the screw splines 113 are filleted directed to the heavy side faces 1050, 105d, as well as to the webs 105a, 105b, serving to provide stiffness and transfer of stress at the joints between the rails and between the screws .a ..si a s 05 v The ebs- .5. and 105b may be made thinner than the faces in order to conserve material and in recognition that they carry comparatively light loads and are hot exposed tov abuse. In the interest of universal use, the glazing pocket 106, 107 are provided on their inner surface with weathering pockets or glazing channels 108, and with longitudinally extending inwardly projecting V- shaped ribs 109. Along the bottom of the bight portion of the pockets 106 and 107 are one or more longitudinally extending dove-tailed ribs 110. The glazing channels 108, and the ribs 109 and 110 cooperate to support a suitable glazing means as more fully described later. However in the illustrated embodiment there is provided a pair of glass stops 111 for supporting a glass panel 112, FIG. 1, within the door. Thus, the basic rail extrusion used in the side rails and lower rail are all similar to that illustrated in FIG. 5, except for their availability with standard face widths, such as 3, 4 A, and 6 inches. Rails of such various face widths are illustrated in FIG. 6, element 115, and in FIG. 7, element 116. Elements 115 and 116 are similar to construction element 105 except for the difference in the face length.
To provide for glazing .of the door after assembly thereof, the upper rail (and intermediate rails if used) have a removable face. As herein illustrated, referring to FIG. 3, there is provided a construction element 120 including webs 120a and 120k and side portions 120c and 120d; One side portion 1200, however, includes a removable face 121 and a connecting portion 12% interconnecting theweb's 120a and 12% and filled to its adjacent screw splines 1 13. The lower projecting leg of the side face 120d is provided with a glazing channel 108; since the upper projecting leg of the removable face 121 will never be used to support glazing means, only the lower projecting end thereof is provided with the glazing channel. However, if the rail were to be used as an intermediate, then a glazing channel would be provided on both projecting legsof the removable face. To secure the removable face 121 to the construction element, there is provided an interlocking tongue 120m fitted within a groove 121a of the'face and extending upwardly from the outer portion of the screw splines 113. Additionally, there is provided alongitudinally extending transverse flange 12le extending inwardly from the removable face 121 and seated against the upper one of the webs 120a, being secured in place by suitable screws 122. Advantageouly the removable face 121 may be removed only when the door 100 is open, and presents an unbroken outward face with no weathering joints, eliminating the possibility of vandalism and tampering.
Any door system must of coursebe provided with stile caps. Typical stile caps are shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. Referring to FIG. 7, there is illustrated a stile cap 125 completely covering the edge of the rail 116, necessary in order to, cover the open end of a through running horizontal rail, such as the upper rail 101. The stile cap 125 is provided with two projecting legs 125a having snap-lock detents l25b secured within the pocket of the element 116 over the ribs 109 thereof.
FIG. 6 illustrates a stile cap 126 secured to the glazing pocket of the element 1 15. The stile cap 126 is provided with the projecting legs 126a snapping over the ribs 109 on the construction element. The construction 126 also covers the entire edge of the element 115 in like manner as the stile cap 125 covers the end cut of any through running horizontal rails. The stile cap 126 is provided with weathering pockets 127 for retaining suitable weather strip 128.
To transmit shear and torque loads between abutting vertical and horizontal rails there is provided a joint block used at each of the rail joints. Thus the joint blocks relieve the asembly screws of shear loads, leaving them stressed essentially in tension. A different joint block is used for joints on rails having different face dimensions; however, all of the joint blocks in accordance with the illustrated embodiment may be machined from the same extrusions. A typical joint block is illustrated, for example, in FIG. 8 wherein there is illustrated a lower horizontal rail abutting against a through vertical, similar to that illustrated in FIGS. 1
and 4. Referring now to FIG. 8, there is illustrated a joint which may include a side rail assembly 104 extending through, and a lower rail assembly 102 abutting against the rail assembly 104. A joint block 130 according to the present invention interconnects the two rails. More specifically, the joint block 130 is formed in general T-shape, with the body portion 130a thereof dimensioned to closely fit within the glazing pocket 106 of the through running rail 104. A tongue portion 13% is dimensioned to closely fit between the screw splines 113 of the abutting rail assembly 102. Four screw fasteners or connectors 132 extend through the web of the through rail 115, through apertures 1300 in the joint block 130, and into the respective screw splines 113 of the rail 105, More specifically, the outer web 115a of the rail 115 is provided with a plurality of spaced apertures 134 sufiiciently large to pass the head of the screws 132, and alignedscrew openings 135 are provided in the inner web lb through the screw splines 113 of the element 115 to receive the shank of the screws 132. The aligned apertures 134 and 135 are shopformed so that by the selective use of the desired apertures, butting rails of different widths may be used. Thus it will be seen by a comparison with a typical upper joint having a through vertical that a joint block 137 of a shorter length may be used if a rail of narrowe face abuts the through rail.
More specifically, there is illustrated typical vertical rail 138 extending through, being abutted by a typical upper horizontal rail assembly 139. As heretofore described the rail assembly 139 has a removable face 140 snapped thereto and secured by suitable set-type screws 122. The through rail 138 is formed of outer and inner transverse webs 138a and 138b, and inner and outer side faces 1380 and 138d. Thus, there is formed the pair of pockets 106 and 107 for glazing or other purposes. The joint block 137 includes the body portion 137a dimensioned to fitwithin the pocket 106 of the rail 138, and includes the tongue portion l37b dimensioned to fit between transverse webs 139a and 13911 of the rail assembly 139. The plurality of screws 132 extend through selected ones of the larger apertures 134 in the outer web 1384, and the heads of the screws 132 seat on the flat surfaces of the screw splines 113, extending through the apertures 135 of the inner web 138b, and are secured within the screw splines 113 of the rail assembly 139.
As heretofore described, a similar construction is used with through horizontals as illustrated in FIGS. 10-12. More specifically, in FIG. 10 is illustrated a door 142 formed of upper and lower rails 143 and 144 and side rails 145 and 146. The horizontal rails 143 and 144 are through, and the vertical rails 145 and 146 butt against the through rails. A typical rail joint for a lower rail is illustrated in FIG. 11 wherein the same connector block 137 is used to carry the shear and torque loads between the rails 144 and 146. A typical upper connection is illustrated in FIG. 12 wherein there is provided the upper rail 143 having a removable face 147 in like manner as heretofore described. The same joint block 137 carries the shear and torque load at this joint.
It will be seen that a door according to the present invention may be designed with through verticals, with through horizontals, or a combination of these. In addition, all of the members may be of any one of a number of difierent stock widths to provide different face widths to the door rails. Moreover, intermediate horizontals may be combined with doors of either type.
Further design latitude is afforded by the provision of a system of various glazing stops. A typical center glazed arrangement has heretofore been described. A typical offset arrangement is illustrated in FIG. 13, and a typical projected glass arrangement is illustrated in FIG. 14. Moreover, the glass stops may be the same surface texture and color as the'rails themselves, or the glass stops may be a different or contrasting finish thus affording further design latitude with the structure.
Referring to FIG. 13 there is illustrated a door rail 148 having a glazing pocket 149 and a single glass stop 150 providing for offsetting of a panel 151 relative to the center line of the door. FIG. 14 illustrated a projected glass on the door wherein the door rail 148 is provided with a pocket 149 supporting a set of interconnected glass stops 152 and 153 so that a panel 154 is projected beyond the side surfaces of the rail 148.
In addition to the design latitude afforded by a selection of rails and stops, there is provided planks for use with the system. The planks provide at one edge the details of the basic rails, and will accept glass or panels in the samemanner as the rails. The opposite edge of the planks provides an interlock either with another plank or with a typical rail member. The walls of the planks may be thinner than the walls of the rails in order to save metal and weight and is permissable in view of the fact that the planks are not needed as part of the basic door structure. Moreover, the planks are provided with various surface configurations and may include either a ribbed face arrangement, or a substantially plain arrangement with spaced grooves, or any other desired surface texture. The plank arrangements are best illustrated in-the door embodiments of FIGS. 15 through 22.
Referring first to the embodiment of FIG. 15, there is illustrated a door arrangement wherein the planks on the surface of the door extend through, with neither the upperor lower rails showing. In this arrangement a different rail configuration for the upper and lower rails is used. In FIG. 16 there is illustrated an arrangement wherein the upper and lower rails of the door structure extend through, and the planks abut against the upper and lower rails.
Referring to the embodiment of FIGS. 15, 17 and 22, there is illustrated a typical plank shown as of the rib design. As therein illustrated, the plank 160 includes a pair of spaced side faces 161 and 162, interconnected by transverse webs 163 and 164. The side faces 161 and 162 extend past the transverse webs so that at one edge there is formed a pocket 165 resembling the pockets 106 and 107 of the door rails, and which will accept glass and other panels in the same manner as the rails. The opposite edge of the plank 160 provides interlocking portions 166 which interlock into an adjacent pocket either with another plank 160 or with a typical rail member. Screw splines 167 are provided along the transverse webs intermediate their length to facilitate assembly of the planks into the door.
Referring now to FIG. 15 there is illustrated an embodiment or design of a door 170 incorporating a plurality of planks 160. As therein illustrated, the door 170 includes a pair of spaced side rails 171 and 172 interconnected by special horizontal rails 173, FIG. 22. The horizontal rail 173 has a portion of its faces cut off in order to receive the through facing of the planks 160. More specifically, the horizontal rail 173 includes spaced side portions 174 and .transverse webs 175 which together form a generally tubular structure. Screw splines 176 are filleted into the side portions and webs 174 and 175. The connection between the verticals and horizontals now may be made with a suitable joint block in like manner as heretofore described.
In the embodiment of FIG. 15, where planks 160 are used to produce full panel doors, it is necessary at some point in the assembly for the glazing edge of a plank to adjoin the glazing edge of either another plank or a rail member. For this purpose there is provided a reverser 177, FIG. 17, which re-produced the details of the plank interlocks in both directions, fitting into the recesses at the glazing edges of the planks and rails. The completed door is, of course, then finished off with suitable stile caps, such as stile caps 125 and 126.
It will be seen that in the embodiment of FIGS. 15,
i 17 and 22, the side faces 161 and 162 of the planks 160 extend through, from the top to the bottom. Thus the upper and lower portions of the transverse webs 163 and 163 will be coped out to fit over the horizontal rails 173. Screw fasteners 178 will pass through the inner web of the horizontal rails 173 into the screw splines 167 of each plank to secure the planks and rails togethen FIGS. 16, 18 and 19 to 21 illustrate an embodiment wherein the upper and lower rails extend through, and wherein a section of glazing'is incorporated into the door. As therein illustrated there is provided a door 180 formed by a pair of side rails 181 and 182 and upper and lower horizontal rails 183 and 184. The door 180 is formed of a plurality of planks 185 and a panel 186 of glass or other suitable material. The planks 185 are similar to the planks 160 heretofore described, except as to the surface configuration or finish, each formed of side faces and transverse webs forming suitable glazing pockets 187. Suitable glass stops 188 are used in the pockets 187 containing the glazing panel.
It will be seen that a door design embodying a glass panel does not require the use of a reverser, such as was used in the embodiment of FIGS. 15, 17 and 22. The glass panel 186 may be assembled last, so that the planks 185 may be assembled from both the ends of the door side rails 181, 182 thus eliminating the need for the reverser. Moreover, it will be seen that in the illustrated embodiment wherein the horizontal members run through, the planks 185 are square cutand butted against the horizontal rails 183 and 184. The screw fasteners 178 extending through the inner web at the horizontal rails and into the screw splines 176 of the planks 185 secure the planks to the horizontal rails 183 and 184.
The doors of the present entrance system are designedto accept many of the standard hardware components. While the entrance system according to the present invention is largely an appearance design to give the architect versatility in his design of the en trance structure from a stock series of extrusions, suitable hardware must be available to permit maximum latitude to the designer. Accordingly, the present series of doors according to the present invention will accept many suitable panic devices, door closures, door operators, hinges, pivots, push-pull hardware and the like to considerable advantage. I
Although the present invenion has been described by reference to several embodiments thereof, it will be apparent that numerous other modifications and embodiments will be devised by those skilled in the art which will fall within the true spirit and scope of the present invention.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A joint block assembly for use in an entrance door system comprising:
first and second rails, said first rail running through and said second rail being in butt fitting relation to said first rail, each of said rails including a pair of spaced transverse webs interconnected by a pair of spaced side faces defining a tubular structure, each of said side faces having end portions extending beyond each of the webs to form a pair of glazing pockets, and longitudinal parts along each of the corners formed by said webs and side faces to define longitudinal screw splines,
a joint block of generally T-shape having a body portion to fit within the glazing pocket of said first rail and having tongue portion insertable into the tubular structure of said second rail between the longitudinal screw splines,
a plurality of fastening means extending through the web portions of said first rail and the body portion of said joint block on opposite sides of said tongue portion and threaded into said longitudinal screw splines of said second rail.
2. A joint block assembly as set forth in claim 1 wherein each of the longitudinalscrew splines in said first rail has a plurality of' apertures transverse to the said screw splines for selectively receiving said plurality of fastening means.
3. A joint block assembly as set forth in claim 3 wherein each of said longitudinal screw splines on said first rail includes spaced engaging flanges to form a slot therebetween, said flanges having flattened top surfaces in order to receive the head of said fastening means.
4. A joint block assembly as set forth in claim 1 wherein said. first rail is a vertical rail and said second rail is a horizontal rail.
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|U.S. Classification||403/187, 403/260|
|International Classification||E06B3/96, F16B7/18|
|Cooperative Classification||E06B3/9636, F16B7/187|
|European Classification||F16B7/18N, E06B3/96K|