US 3816687 A
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United States Patent 11 1 Heitner 1 June 11, 1974 ELECTRICALLY HEATED WATER 1,321,221 11/1919 MacPherson 219/1049 OUTLETS 1,515,593 11/1924 Elsdon-Dew et a1 219/ 10.49 1,557,508 10/1925 Weiss et a1 219/438 Inventor: Alfred Heitner, Buttfen. Germany 1,843,044 1/1932 Russ 13/26 2,181,274 11/1939 Jackson et ul. 2l9/l0.49 X  Asslgnee' g g g 2 (362' 2,266,002 12/1941 Clark 13/26 0 )1 many 2,405,103 7/1946 Winn 219/424 22 Filed; Jan. 31 1973 2,538,979 l/l95l Parage 13/29 3,014,255 12/1961 Bussard et a1. 2l9/l0.75 X  App]. No.: 328,287 3,053,959 9/1962 Christmann 2l9/10.49
Prima Examiner-Volod m r Y. Ma ewsk 30 F A l t P t D y Y Y y 1 orelgn pp y ata Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Donald D. Jeffrey Feb. 3, 1972 Germany 2205094 M 16, l 72 2 38 ay 9 Germany 2238 B RACT  0.8. CI 219/l0.49, 13/26, 219/10.57, A he wa r outlet having a tubular wall incorpo- 219/10.75, 219/438, 219/535, 222/460 rating an electrical heater to prevent freezing of water  Int. Cl. H05b 5/00 in he let. Th he er is supplied with low-tension  Field of Search 13/26, 27, 29; 219/6.5, voltage from a transformer which is disposed within or 2l9/l0.49, 10.57, 10.75, 10.79, 424, 426, on the outlet wall. The heater can be in the form of a 438, 521, 535; 222/460 metal strip which may at least partially form the internal surface of the annular wall of the outlet. The out-  I References Cited let can be used for flat roofs, terraces, depot floors or UNITED STATES PATENTS like surfaces requiring draining.
1,023,791 4/1912 Anderson 2191/1049 4 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures s M" 1', 1 l
24/2 I 3 I x) 6 1 I I I o 2 2 .i
PATENYEHJIJII 1 I am SHEET H'UF 7 Fig.
PAIENTEnJun 1 m4 SHEET 7 BF 7 1 ELECTRICALLY HEATED WATER OUTLETS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A water outlet, which is protected from freezing by an electric heating means or element supplied with lowtension voltage from a transformer is disclosed for example in German Pat. specification No. 1,272,240. The transformer is disposed separately from the outlet, and difficulties are often caused in actually and correctly installing the appropriate transformer which is to be fitted during building or supplied separately; also, the amount of space required for a separate transformer at the point of installation is often not available. In addition, the length of the electrical supply conduit between the transformer and the outlet heating means must also be taken into account, in order to avoid power losses in the circuit.
It has also already been proposed, for example in German Gebrauchsmuster Pat. No. 7,002,317 for one or more safety means to be arranged in the electrical supply conduit for the outlet heating means, in order to prevent damage to the heating means and/or a fire in the event of a faulty connection to for example 220 V. A disadvantage in this respect is that the safety means with its associated housing is a separate component (until installed) and can therefore get lost on the buildmg site.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art constructions referred to above.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heated water outlet which is cheap and easy to produce, and which is also easy to install, without the need for precautions of an electrical nature, beyond those required in making a straight forward electrical connection.
Yet another object is to ensure that the electrically live components of the heated outlet are concentrated in a relatively small space, in relatively close proximity to the outlet itself.
Still another object of the invention is to ensure that the transformer is protected from overloading.
A further object of the invention is to ensure that water cannot penetrate into the body of the water outlet.
A water outlet according to the invention has a wall with a heating means therein. A transformer for supplying electrical power to the heating means is disposed either in or on the outlet wall. The transformer secondary winding either can-be connected to the heating means, or can be in the form of a metal strip which also forms the heating means. The transformer can also extend co-axially around the outlet, in the wall thereof, with the secondary winding also forming the heating means.
The metal strip can partially or completely form the inside surface of the wall of the outlet, the part of the strip, or of a conductor connected thereto, which passes around the transformer core, being enclosed on all sides by the water outlet body.
The transformer can also have an overloadpreventing cut-out means.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Embodiments of a water outlet according to the present invention will now be described byway of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 shows a cross-section through a first embodiment of the outlet, with a protective transformer arranged within the wall of the outlet,
FIG. 2 shows a cross-section through a second embodiment of the outlet, with protective transformer arranged on the outside of the wall thereof,
FIG. 3 shows a cross-section through a third embodiment of the outlet,
FIG. 4 shows a plan view in cross-section of a fourth embodiment of the water outlet,
FIG. 5 shows a side view in cross-section of the transformer of the embodiment of FIG. 4,
FIG. 6 shows a side view in cross-section of the water outlet of FIG. 4, and
FIG. 7 shows a fifth embodiment of the water outlet.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring firstly to FIG. 1, a water outlet comprises an annular funnel-like wall 1 and a heating means 2 in the wall 1. The heating means 2 is connected by connection leads 3 to a protective transformer 4. A further lead 5 connects the transformer 4 to a power source such as a supply network (not shown). The transformer 4 is arranged within the body of the wall 1, in a heatinsulating region 6.
The outlet in FIG. 2 is generally similar to that de- 1 scribed above with reference to FIG. 1, except that the transformer 4 is arranged, not within the wall 1, but on the outside thereof.
In the water outlet of FIG. 3, which is similar in its general construction to the outlets of FIGS. 1 and 2, the heating means comprises a ribbon-like or laminar metal strip 2a which is closed on itself so as to extend round the outlet in the body of the wall 1 thereof, in the region 6. The strip 2a forms the secondary winding of the transformer 4, the primary winding of which is indicated by reference numeral 7. A power supply cord 5 is provided for supplying power to the transformer 4. This makes the heating means and transformer assembly cheap and easy to produce, while giving a high degree of electrical safety.
In the FIG. 3 embodiment in which the heating means comprises the metal strip 2a which at the same time forms the secondary winding of the transformer, a certain difficulty can arise in respect of the manufacturing process, in that the layer of material between the metal strip 2a and the interior of the outlet, that is the water-carrying space within the outlet funnel, is generally only thin so that under some circumstances moisture can penetrate into the outlet body and cause damage.
The embodiment of the water outlet as shown in FIG. 4 comprises an outlet body formed by an annular wall 1 and comprising or having heat insulating material. The internal surface of the wall 1 is at least partially covered or formed by a metal strip 12 forming the outlet heating means. The strip 12 also has a loop portion 13 which simultaneously represents the secondary winding of the transformer and also forms an electrical connection between the transformer secondary winding and the metal strip 12. The loop portion 13 is enclosed on all sides by portions A and B of the material of the outlet body. The transformer has an iron core 14a comprising limb portions which are respectively surrounded by the transformer primary winding 14b and passed through the loop portion 13. Reference S represents a capillary gap which could possibly occur between the material of the outlet body and the strip 12 and/or loop portion 13 but which ends in the watercarrying space within the outlet funnel.
FIG. 5 also shows the iron core 14a of the transformer, the primary winding 14b of the transformer, and the metal strip 12 which encloses one'limb portion of the iron core 14a. It is clearly visible in FIG. 5 that the strip 12 is enclosed on all sides by the portions A and B of the material of the outlet body.
FIG. 6 shows a side view of the water outlet, showing that the metal strip 12 is let into the internal surface of the wall 1 of the outlet, in such a way that the internal diameter of the chamber or funnel in the outlet for receiving water remains uniform.
Going on now to FIG. 7, in this embodiment which is similar to that described above with reference to FIGS. 4 through 6, the heated internal surface of the outlet funnel defined by the wall 1 is entirely formed by the metal strip 12 which thus is of annular shape. The loop portion 13, which can also comprise a plurality of windings around the limb of the iron core 14a, is enclosed on all sides by the material of the outlet body, and is connected to the metal strip 12 at two diametrically opposite positions 15 and 15. The extended loop portion 13 is parallel to the strip 12. It is possible to use particularly thin metal to form the strip 12, which is of advantage, for branching of the current occurs at the positions 15 and 15', and the distance between the connecting positions 15 and 15' is only half the periphery of the wall 1, in comparison with the almost full periphery in the construction shown in FIG. 4. This enables both the high specific resistance of rust-proof material (used for the strip 12) and also the high cost thereof, to be taken into account.
With this embodiment, production of the water outlet is simplified, in that the metal strip 12 can be pushed directly onto the central core of a mould in which the outlet body is to be made, so as to be a tight fit on the core. In this way the strip can be reliably centered and secured in the mould, so that when the material for making the outlet is introduced, for example by foaming, injection moulding or casting, generally no displacement of the heating means in the mould will occur. It is therefore of no importance whether or not the material forming the body of the outlet wets, or sticks to, the metal strip. If during production a capillary gap such as S in FIG. 4 remains between the metal strip 12 and the surrounding material of the outlet body, or such a capillary gap develops in the course of time for any reasons, the capillary gap does not impair the sealing of the outlet from the surrounding constructional work, as any water which penetrates into the capillary gap will return to the water-receiving space within the outlet.
In each of the abovedescribed embodiments, the transformer can have an automatic cut-out means, in
order toprevent the transformer, which is designed for mains voltage, from overheating, in the event for example of the transformer by error being connected to a source supplying a voltage higher than the design rating of the transformer; such connection could lead to the danger of fire.
With the above-described arrangements, since the transformer is not separate from, that is positioned outside of, the water outlet, but is incorporated therein, the outlet heating means only has to be connected to the supply mains network, without any other additional steps, with the heating means being supplied with the low-tension voltage which is required for safety rea-v sons.
Various modifications can be made without depart ing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, for example as regards the shape of the funnel portion of the outlet.
1. A heated water outlet comprising a generally tubular wall and an inlet and spaced outlet through which the water passes, said outlet wall being at least partly comprised of heat-insulated material, electrical heating means in the form of a metal strip positioned adjacent the inner surface of said outlet wall in said outlet wall for transferring heat directly to water flowing through said outlet, a protective transformer mounted on said wall, said transformer including a core and a primary winding around said core, said primary winding having leads for connection to a power source, said electrical heating means being formed with a loop portion which extends outwardly from the surface of said wall defining said outlet, said loop portion extending in spaced relation around a'portion of said core and comprising the transformer secondary thereby electrically and operatively connecting said heating means to said transformer, and electric insulation means continually spac ing said loop portion from the portion of said core disposed therewithin, said electric heating means including said loop portion being enclosed by electric insulation throughout its entire extent.
2. The outlet of claim 1 wherein the inner periphery of said outlet wall is formed with an annular groove, and said electrical heating means is disposed in said groove whereby the interior surface of said electrical heating means forms a continuous flow surface with the surfaces of said wall above and below said electrical heating means.
3. The outlet of claim 1 wherein said electrical heating means includes a main annular section within said wall and said loop portion of said electrical heating means is electrically connected by arcuate branch lines to said main annular section of said electrical heating means at diametrically opposed regions thereof, whereby branching of the current occurs at such regions.
4. A heated water outlet comprising a generally tubular wall and an inlet and spaced outlet through which the water passes, said outlet wall being at least partly comprised of heat-insulated material, electrical heating means in the form of a metal strip embedded in said outlet wall for transferring heat to water flowing through said outlet, a protective transformer embedded in said wall, said transformer including a core and a primary winding around said core, said primary winding having leads for connection to a power source, said electrical heating means being formed with a loop portion which extends outwardly from the surface of said wall defining said outlet, said loop portion extending in spaced relation around a portion of said core and comprising the transformer secondary thereby electrically and operatively connecting said heating means to said transformer, and electric insulation means continually sulation throughout its entire extent.