US 3818908 A
A dispenser for dispensing inhalable medicaments which dispenser dispenses the liquid medicaments in a mist by nebulizing a metered amount of the liquid. The liquid is metered by a rotary piston pump and a piston and cylinder arrangement within the dispenser compresses a small amount of air when a release mechanism is triggered to carry the dispensed liquid such that the patients will inhale a mist.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1191 Phillips y  June 25, 1974 v MEDICAMENT DISPENSER 3,187,748 6/1965 Mitchell el al. 128/173 R 9, 19 B 2 3  Inventor 3 Stud) clty 2/1923 0:2 22/ 3 83 callf- 3,456,644 7/1969 T111151, 128/173 R Assigneez Riker Laboratories, n 3,647,143 7 Gauth1er et a1 Northridge, Calif. E R h d A G d Primary xamineric ar au et  Filed: 1972 Assistant Examiner-.Lee S. Cohen ] App], No 278,538 Attorney, Agent, or Firm A1exander, Sell, Steldt &
. DeLal-lurlt  US. Cl 128/173, 222/193, 239/350, I
v 128/208, 128/211  ABSTRACT  Int. Cl A61m 11/00 A 1 f ha! b  Field Of Search 128/173, 173.1, 194, 201, if zf "sptinsmhg e mamfiims 128/211, 208, 266, 222, 185, 186; 239/350, 99 P g F spensest "1 mlSt I n6. UlZll'lg a metere amotmt O the lqul The hquld 1s metered by a rotary p1ston pump and a 402.2, 335, 383 385 p1ston and cyhnder arrangement within the dlspenser [561 5; 51332162023351; (1252151651 333 UNITED STATES PATENTS r I such that the patientsv will inhale a mist. 3,043,524 7/1962 Boris et a1 239/350 3,180,535 4/1965 Ward 222/4022 X 9 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures 1 23 55 e9 /7 22 I 36 0 a 24 Z6 2 30 4 3 3'2 3 MEDICAMENT DISPENSER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a dispenser for medicaments to be inhaled by the patient, and in one aspect to a dispenser which will provide the liquid in a mist form such that it is easily inhaled without the necessity of having the medicine combined with a liquid propellant.
Examples of the dispensers for medicaments which are packaged in containers with a propellant are illustrated in US. Pat. Nos. 3,157,179 and 3,456,644. While these patents are only examples of numerous patents relating to dispensers where the medicament is either a solid or a liquidfland soluble or insoluble in the propellant such as the Freon" types of propellants they show the present state of the art on inhalation dispensers. An alternative dispensing device is shown in US. Pat. No. 2,95l,644, wherein an appropriate gas under pressure ina container is used to atomize the medicaments from a reservoir so long as the container is open to allow the gas to develop a partial vacuum over a tube. The tube extends into the reservoir for the fluent and discharges it by atomization.
These prior art devices however all utilize the propellants in some manner to discharge the medicament. The propellantrequires careful packaging and it is the purpose of the present invention to avoid the necessity of using propellants in dispensing the medicament and to avoid the packaging requirements which are inherent with the use of pressurized medicaments.
Other prior art exists where atomizers are used to inject a medicament or breath freshener into the oral cavity. These devices have not provided any means for expelling measured amounts of the liquid. It is only coincidental if equalamounts are expelled by different persons operating the devices. Measured amounts to afford prescribed treatment is an essential element of most medicament dispensers.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a dispenser for medicements such that meteredamounts of the medicament will be discharged in a nebulized state and available for inhalation by a patient. The dispensercomprises a tubular housing having a generally cylindrical shape and formed with a laterally extending mouthpiece. Into the housing is assembled a piston like body having a reservoir for the liquid, a metering pump having an inlet communicating with said reservoir and an outlet communicating with the mouthpiece of the housing. An op erator is provided for operating a movable piston in the metering pump to dispense a metered amount of said liquid from the outlet under pressure. A mechanical actuator actuates the operator upon the triggering of resettable release means which release said mechanical actuator. Also provided within the housing is a cooperating structure for compressing'air and directing the air toward said outlet of the metering pump. This air com-' pressing means is also operated by the mechanical actuator and carries the fluid discharged from the pump outlet through the mouthpiece and nebulizes the same to make it available for inhalation by the patient.
The present invention provides a novel dispenser where the medicament does not have to be packaged with a propellant and one wherein the ambient air isment may be supplied in a replaceable canister including a metering pump or in a replaceable cartridge.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view of the, dispenser during operation of the dispenser; 7
FIG. 5 is auverticalv sectional viewof the dispenser upon completion of the operation of the dispenser to dispense a metered amount of liquid;
FIG. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken along the lines 6-6 of FIG. 3; and
FIG. 7 is a transverse sectional view taken along line I 7-7 of FIG. 3.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring. now to the drawing wherein like parts in the several views have similar reference numerals, there is disclosed a dispenser 10 comprising a tubular housing 11 formed with a hollowed laterally projecting discharge passageway or. mouthpiece 12 to aid the patient in inhaling the discharge from the dispenser. As illustrated the inner diameter of the housing 11 is changed to form a shoulder 14 intermediate the length thereof. The diameter is smaller at the end near the mouthpiece 12. Into the smaller diameter end of the housing is fitted a base 15 which is secured by a bayonet joint. The base 15 has a first large bore I6 which receives the body 17 defining a replaceable canister. An opening 18 in the sidewall of the base 15 will communicate with the mouthpiece 12. The opening 18 as shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5 also communicates with a small diameter passageway- 19 leading from an axially extending bore 20 having a smaller diameter than that of the'bore 16. The passageway 19 is part of the air compression means 7 which will be hereinafter described.
The canister 17 is generally cylindrical and is formed with a first axially extending bore 22 forming cylindrical walls defining a reservoir for a quantity of liquid and a second bore 23 which when the canister 17 is in position will align and communicate with the bore 20 in the tending passage 25 with the reservoir 22 to define an inlet into the pump and an opposed passage 26 communicates with the opening 18 in the base 15 to define an outlet from the pump. A tube or nozzle may be fitted at the end of passage 26 to direct and change the discharge. A recess 28 formed about the bore 24 receives a compression spring 29 which drives a flange 30 secured to a piston 31 toward a charge or metering position for the rotary piston pump. The piston 31 has a pair of obliquely positioned 0 rings 32 surrounding the piston which 0 rings seal with the bore 24. On the exv tended end of the piston 31 is a cam follower 33 engageable by an operator 36 defining means for reciprocating and sequentially oscillating the piston through a given angle of rotational movement. The amount of rotation is preferably less than 90 but can be about 180. The reservoir 22 is sealed and vented by a suitable stopper 35.
The operator 36 has the form of a long slender rod having an axially extending tapered cam 37 formed adjacent one end, which upon reciprocation of the rod will cause a reciprocation of the piston 31. At opposite ends of the axially extending cam 37 are cam surfaces 38 and 39 which cooperate with the cam follower 33 on the extended end of the piston 31 causing the same to rotate about its axis in one direction or the other. Rotation of the piston 31 changes the position of the oblique rings 32 relative to the inlet 25 and outlet 26 such that liquid may be properly metered by the pump and discharged from the pump. The end of the operator 36 opposite the end formed with the cams is formed with a head 40. The head is placed in a key hole slot 51 to secure the rod 36 to a cylindrical body 412 to be hereinafter described. Intermittent the ends of the operator 36 is a slot 43 which receives a set screw limiting its travel and permitting rotation of thesame during operation. An axially extending groove 41 in the rod 36 provides an air passage from the top of the canister 17 along the rod to the bore and to the air passage 19.
An air compressing means is provided in the dispenser to deliver a charge of compressed air upon operation ofthe dispenser. This charge of compressed air is directed toward the liquid outlet of the rotary piston ter body 17 and the cylinder 42 is driven downward over the canister 17 to compress the air. This air compressing means also comprises the narrow groove 41 formed in the operator 36, which permits the compressed air to movedownward through the bore 23 and the bore 20 into the passageway 19 to be directed toward the outlet. Surrounding the open end, of the cylinder 42 is a flange 48. This flange slides along the inner bore of a cap 50 to be hereinafter described and is driven toward the shoulder M of the housing 11. The closed end of the bore 45 is formed with the key hole slot 51 in which the head of the operator 36 may be received and placed in a fixed position. A limit screw 52 cooperating with the slot 43 for determining the position of the operator 36 is threadably received through the wall of the canister body 17 into slot 43.
Mechanical actuating means are provided for moving the cylinder 42 relative to the canister 17. In the illustrated embodiment the mechanical actuator means comprises a compression spring 55 which surrounds the cylinder 42 and bears against a flange 56 formed on a second sleeve 58 which triggers the resettable release means to actuate the actuator to drive the air compressing means and the operator. The sleeve 58 is cylindrical having a closed end wall 59 and is manually reciprocated in the dispenser. The sleeve 58 is formed with axially extending slots 60'and 61 in its side walls to afford limited movement of the sleeve to compress spring 55 before unlocking the release means and the energy of the actuator. The slots 60 and 61 do not extend down to the flange56.
The resettable release means comprise a pair of detents 63 and 641 which are received in a diametrical bore 65 in the closed end of the cylinder 42. The detents 63 and 64 are spring biased outwardly by a compression spring 66 toward the interior walls of the shell 58 and extend through the slots 66 and 61 toward the inner cylindrical surface of cap 56 to seat above an inwardly projecting rib 63 formed in the cap St). The cap is seated in the top of the housing ill and extends down to the shoulder 14. The cap 56 holds the sleeves 58 and 42 in place between the shoulder 1 and rib 68.
The detents are placed in locked position by lifting the sleeve 58. The detents are biased inwardly by the rib 68 engaging beveled ends thereof and then are snapped into place above the rib 68 when the bottom edge of the slots 60 and 6t reach a position above rib 68.
A keyway 69 in the cap 519 and a pin '70 in the flange 48 of the sleeve 42 prevent rotation of the sleeve and displacement of the operator 36 from the key hole slot 51.
In the set or readied position (FIG. 3) the detents 63 and 64 are positioned above the rib 63 and the spring is in its expanded position between the flanges 56 and 48. The piston 3t has been rotated by the cam 39 and follower 33 to close the inlet 25 and the outlet 26 is open. The operator wishing 'to expell a metered amount of the medicament then places the thumb against the base 15 and the forefinger and/or the index finger upon the end wall 59 of the sleeve 58 to force the sleeve 58 into the cap 56. The operator should be covering the mouthpiece t2 and beginning to inhale. Continued movement of the sleeve 58 thus causes compression of the spring 55 and eventually the top edges of the slots and 611 engage the beveled surfaces of the detents 63 and 64 driving them inward and off of the rib 68. When the detents disengage the rib 68 the energy of the compressed spring 55 (FIG. 4) drives the sleeve 42 down over-the canister 117. The pressure upon the shell 58 to compress the spring 55 and then the continued pressure or follow through provided by the operator affords complete movement of the shell 42 and actuates the operator 36 forcing the operator down into the bores 23 and 20. This drives the piston 31 inward into the bore 24 forcing the medicament therein out through the outlet 26. During the time the compressed air between the top of the canister 17 and the inner cylinder of the shell 62 is forced down through the groove 41 into the bore 20 and through the passageway 19 the medicament is expelled under pressure through the outlet 26 to be struck by the air discharged from the passageway 19 when the air pressure is highest. The medicament is thus carried by the air out through the opening 118 into the passageway of the mouthpiece l2 and into the mouth and air canals of the operator.
When the shell 42 meets the limit of its travel by contact with the upper surface of the canister 17 the operator 36 has driven the piston 31 to its full inward position and the cam follower 33 on the extended end of the piston has contacted the cam surface 38. Cam 38 causes the cam follower to rotate the piston 31 and the 0 rings 32 to assume the position shown in FIG. 5. The operator will now raise the shell 5%, lifting with it the sleeve 42 and the operator 36. As this is done the spring 29 reciprocates the piston 31 outwardly and the pump again communicates with the inlet 25 and a metered amount of the medicament is drawn into the cylinder 24 forward of the ring 32.. As the shell 58 is lifted the detents 63 and 64 are forced inwardly by rib 68 engaging their beveled edges and then are forced outwardly again to seat on the upper side of the rib 68 in the cap 50. Cam 39 again contacts the follower 33 to rotate the piston 31, turning the 0 rings 32 to a position cutting off communication between the pump and the inlet 25. The device is now positioned for a subsequent operation.
In an operative example, the air discharged fromthe passageway 19 to nebulize the liquid can be atpressures between and 8 pounds per squareinchat standardternperature and atmosphericpressure. The bore 45 of the shell 42 has a diameter of about 0.85 inch and ittravels a total of 0.8 inch. Theshell travels about 0.4 inch to release the spring and when released the pressure therein is about 8 pounds. The spring and the continued movement maintained by the operator then drives the shell 42. The amount of liquid dispensed may be about 5, 6, or 7.microliters, depending on pump capa y For preferred operation, a predetermined amount of air under a predetermined amount of pressure is directed at the discharged liquid. The predetermined amount of liquid is introduced into the air stream when the air is at its peak pressure.
Having thus described the invention with respect to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood that certain modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of this invention.
What is claimed is: v
1. A dispenser for medicaments such that metered amounts of the medicament will be discharged in a state to be orally received during inhalation, said dispenser comprising:
a housing formed with a discharge passageway,
a reservoir for a quantity of liquid disposed in said housing,
metering pump means having an inlet communicating with said reservoir and an outlet communicating with said passageway for dispensing under pressure metered amountsof liquid from said reservoir,
operator means for operating said metering pump means to. dispense said liquid from said outlet under pressure,
air compressing means within said housing for placing a volume of air under pressure and for directing said air under pressure toward said outlet, and
mechanical actuating means for actuating said operator means and said air compressing means whereby a metered amount of liquid is dispensed from said outlet and struck by said compressed air to be discharged with said air as a spray.
2. A dispenser according to claim 1 comprising resettable release means connected between said housing and said air compressing means for releasing said mechanical actuating means upon an operator applying pressure to said release means.
3. A dispenser according to claim 1 wherein said air compressing means comprises:
a hollow cylinder and a mating piston member, said cylinder and piston member being interfitted within said housing and mounted for relative movement, and
a passageway leading from within said cylinder to a position adjacent said outlet.
4. A dispenser according to claim 3 wherein said mechanical actuating means comprises a helical compression spring disposed about the outer surface of said cylinder, said cylinder having a first position relative to said piston member wherein said compression spring is under compression and in which first position said cylinder is retained by said release means, and. a second position relative to said piston wherein air has been driven from said cylinder by said spring compression being dissipated, and said operator means has actuated said metering pump means.
5. A dispenser according to claim d wherein said metering pump means is a rotary piston pump comprising means defining a cylindrical bore, a piston slidably re-- ceived in said bore, spring means urging said piston out of said bore, passage means communicating with said bore to define said inlet and outlet and seal means on said piston for connecting the bore in fluid flow communicationwith said reservoir when said cylinder is in said first position and with said outlet when said cylinder is in said second position.
6. A dispenser according to claim 4 wherein resettable release means are provided for releasing said mechanical actuating means and comprises:
detent means supported by said cylinder,
shoulder means on said housing engageable by said detent means to hold said cylinder in said first position, and
manually actuatable means for compressing said compression spring with said cylinder in said first position and for unlocking said detent means and said shouldermeans to allow movement of said cylinder to said second position.
7. A dispenser according to claim ll wherein said metering pump means is a rotary piston pump comprising means defining a cylindrical bore, a piston slidably received in said bore, seal means on said piston connecting said bore with said inlet and then with said outlet upon operation of said actuating means, spring means urging said piston out of said bore, and passage means communicating with said bore to define said inlet and outlet.
8. A dispenser for an inhalation medicament comprising a tubular housing having a laterally projecting mouthpiece, a supply canister of medicament within said housing, means for metering a quantity of medicament for discharge upon actuation of an actuator on said dispenser, wherein the improvement comprises:
a rotary piston pump means for discharging a predetermined quantity of medicament from said canister and discharging the same from an outlet under pressure, and
means within said housing for providing a quantity of compressed air directed at said outlet and into said mouthpiece to carry said discharged medicament into said mouthpiece upon actuation of said actuator.
9. A dispenser according to claim 8 wherein said canister comprises:
a cylindrical shaped body member having an axially extending bore extending therethrough and a second bore forming a reservoir, said second bore extending toward one end, said body having a third bore extending generally diametrically and having third bore with said reservoir and said one end, and a spring positioned about said piston urging it from said bore.