US 3820803 A
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United States Patent 1191 Frisch et al. June28, 1974 TOE-OR HEEL- HOLDING DEVICE FOR  References Cited SAFETY SKI BINDINGS UNITED STATES PATENTS  Inventors: Hans-Otto Frisch; Bernd 2,545,574 3/1951 French 280/1135 Y Payrhammer, both of Farcham, 3,246,907 4/1966 v Chisholm 280/1 1.35 M Germany 3,367,672 2/1968 Tonozzi et 280/1135 M 1 I 3,692,322 9/1972 Frisch et a1. 2280/1135 '1'  Assignee: Hannes Marker,
ar a r many Primary Examiner-David Schonberg  Filed: Jan. 17, 1972 Assistant ExaminerMilton L. Smith Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Fleit, Gipple & Jacobson ] Appl. No.: 218,371
Related US. Application Data  ABSTRACT  continuatiommpan of Sen NO; 38,053 May 18, A toe-or heel-holdmg dev1ce for safety skl bmdmgs 1970 P No 3,692321 havmg a soleholder member and means 1n operative, v relationship with the soleholder member for resisting [30 Foreign Application p i Data movement by the soleholder member relative to the July 4 1969 German 1934060 ski and wherein the resistance means include an elecy I tric-electronic, hydraulic, or. friction clutch automatic 52 us. c1 280/ll.35 M,,280/-1 1.35 T System [5-1] Int. Cl. A63c 9/08 11 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures  Field ofSearch280/1L35 M,'11.35 T, 11.35 A,
TOE-OR HEEL-HOLDING DEVICE FOR SAFETY SKI BINDINGS This application is a 'continuation-in-part application of application Ser. No. 38,053, filed May 18, 1970 and now Pat. No. 3,692,322, issued Sept. 19, 1972, for Toeor Heel-Holding Device for Safety Ski Bindings.
The present invention relates to toeand heelholding devices for safety ski bindings, which devices comprise at least one soleholder member which is, automatically movable against the resistance presented by at least one resistance element from a locking position to a release position, the resistance presented by the resistance element or elements being a function of the potential energy and kinetic energy.
Known devices of that kind comprise a hydraulic shock absorber presenting a resistance in addition to the resistance element which determines the force required for a release. In these toeand heel-holding devices, the shock absorber is designed so that its shock work absorption capacity is lower by a sufficiently large safety margin than that of the leg of the skier. This requirement must be met if the safety ski binding should accomplish its object to protect the skier from typical skiing injuries. Any shocks having an energy in excess of the predetermined shock work absorption capacity of the toeor heel-holding device will automatically result in a release.
The present invention is based on the recognition that it is significant whether the shock is transmitted to the device by the ski or by the boot. This fact has not been taken into account in the known toeand heelholding devices. For instance, if the shock is applied-to the boot, the shock work absorption capacity of the shock absorber must not exceed that of the leg of the skier because the shock absorber is connected in parallel to said leg in that case. This fact determines the limiting value for the known devices. On the other hand, if the shock is applied to the ski, the shock work absorption capacity of the shock absorber is inherently insignificant if it is ensured that the shock absorber cannot transmit more shock energy to the'skiers leg than the same can take up because in this case the shock absorber is connected to the leg in series rather than parallel thereto.
It has been found in practice that most shocks, particularly the excessively strong shocks, are applied to the ski rather than to the leg or boot of the skier. For this reason it is an object of the present invention to provide for safety ski bindings a toeor heel-holding device which is of the kind described first hereinbefore and which is designed to have a shock work absorption capacity which depends on the magnitude and direction of the kinetic energy. As a result, the device can take up excessively strong shocks which are applied to the ski but are harmless to the skiers leg whereas these shocks previously resulted in undesired premature releases so that the risk of typical skiing injuries was increased.
In a toeor heel-holding device for safety ski bindings, which device comprises at least one soleholder member which is automatically movable against a resistance presented by at least one resistance element from a locking position to a release position, the resistance presented by the resistance element or elements being a function of the potential energy and kinetic energy, this object is accomplished according to the invention by the provision of a final control element, which serves to control a resistance element in response to control signals depending on the kinetic energy.
Depending on the principle on which the design and function of the device is based, the final control element may be a part of an electrical or electronic automatic control system or a part of a pneumatic and/or hydraulic automatic control system. A mechanical automatic control system may also be used. In the latter case, the final control element may be a pendulum arm, which may carry a bob, if desired, and which is mounted on a part that is fixed to the ski at least when the device is in its locking position.
Particularly in toeor heel-holding devices which comprise a soleholder member that is pivotally movable about an axis, the resistance controlled by the final control element may be produced by a friction coupling.
The invention will now be explained in detail and by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: 7
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic top plan view showing a toeholding device;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic top plan view similar to FIG. 1 but which shows the device in an instantaneous position resulting from the application of a shock to the ski;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic top plan view of an alternative toe-holding device in accordance with this invention;
FIG. 4is a diagrammatic top plan view similar 'to that of FIG. 3 but which shows the device in an instantaneous position resulting from the application of a shock to the ski;
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic top plan view illustrating another toe-holding device embodiment of this invention; and
to FIG. 5 but which shows the device in an instantaneous position resulting from a shock transmitted to the device by the ski.
FIGS. 1 and 2 show a point holder arrangement according to the characteristics of the invention, in which the correcting element is part of an electricalelectronic regulating system.
The sole-holding part 101 is the couple of a four-link mechanism, the levers 102 and 103 of which rest pivotably on two linkage-axles 104 and 105. These linkageaxles 104 and 105 of the two-branched levers 102 and 103 may be held'in the locked position, at the least, of
the arrangement, in a ski-fastened part not shown. The
branches (or arms) 106 and 107, which do not carry the sole-holding part 101, and belong to levers 102 and 103, are bent at their free ends towards the middle of the skis and are equipped with pressure guides 108 and 109. A supporting member 110 is articulately linked to each of the lever arms 102 and 103 supporting the soleholding part 101; the supporting member 110 is supported by a helical pressure spring 112 which lies orthogonally to the longitudinal ski direction in a skifastened housing 111 as shown in the normal position in FIG. 1; the spring 112 opposes the motion of the four-link mechanism and hence also the motion of the sole-holding part 101.
The two levers 102 and 103 are additionally connected by a cross tie rod 113, in articulate manner, to which is rigidly fastened a leaf spring 114, extending in FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic top plan view that is similar the longitudinal ski direction and flexible transversely to the longitudinal ski direction, and equipped with a balance weight at its free end. A strip 116 for measuring deflection is mounted on both sides of the leaf spring 114 that may be bent. These deflectionmeasuring strips 116 are connected by wirings 117 to an amplifier 119 supplied by battery 118. A coil 120 is hooked to amplifier 119, a soft iron core'121 being movably located inside the coil. Pressure guides 108 and 109, shown in the normal position in- FIG. 1, rest on the soft iron core 121, pressure guides 108 and 109 being part of the bent-off lever arms 106 and 107.
If now an impact is exerted in the direction 122 of the arrow of FIG. 2 on the ski (not shown), then the arrangement moves as shown in FIG. 2, the balance weight momentarily retaining its original position on account of inertia. This bends leaf spring 114, and therefore control-currents depending in magnitude on the amount of bending will be set up between the measuring strips 116 and the amplifier 119, and will be fed to the coil 120, which builds up a magnetic field which in turn will tend to maintain the soft iron core 121 in a central position with more or less force. This restraining force on the soft iron core must be overcome when levers 102 and 103 do move; the restraining force adds to that of spring 112, so that the resistance acting against the motion of the soleholder increases correspondingly.
In the case of static or quasi-static loading, the balance weight 115 may practically follow the motion of the arrangement instantly, so that leaf spring 114 will not be bent and therefore no control currents will flow to amplifier 119 that might excite magnetically the coil 120, so that in this case there is no additional force opposing the motion of the sole-holding part 101.
FIGS. 3 and 4 show diagramatically a point-holder arrangement, in which, according to the invention, the correcting element is part of a hydraulic regulating device.
The sole-holding part 125 of the point-holding arrangement represents the couple of a four-link mechanism, of which the levers 126, 127 and two hingeable axles 128, 129 are pivotably supported, and these in turn are mounted solidly on the ski in a part, not shown, of the arrangement, at least in the locked position. Levers 126 and 127 are in the form of angle levers, which are acted upon by the opposing resistance from the hydraulic regulator on the germane arms 130 and 131 that do not carry the sole-holding part 125, in response to the motion of sole-holding part 125.
The regulation system comprises a hydraulic cylinder 132 with a hydraulic piston 133, an arbitrarily adjustable throttle valve 134, and a compensation container 135 all of which are interconnected by pipe conduits 136. One piston rod 137 of piston 133 leads out of cylinder 132 and is provided with a support plate 138 at its free end for the arms 130 and 131 of the angular leplace by two weak spiral pressure springs 143, and extends between the mouths of two pipe conduits connected to the housing 141, thus permitting u nhampe red flow of the fluid.
If for instance an impact is exerted on the ski (not shown) in the direction of the arrow 144, see FIG. 4, then the arrangement moves as indicated in FIG. 4, the correcting element 140 momentarily retaining its normal position due to inertial forces. Because of this relative shift between housing 141 and correcting element 140, the flow of fluid through housing 141 is hampered by the correcting elements 140 at least partially shutting off the pipe conduit; this can be seen in FIG. 4; in
this manner is increased the opposing resistance to the motion of piston 133 and hence to that of the soleholding part.
FIGS. 5 and 6 show a point holder arrangement in which a friction clutch is used as the resistance regulated by the correcting element.
Again, the sole-holding part of this point holder arrangement forms the couple of a four-link mechanism with the ski-fastenedsupport-axles 151 and 152, of which levers 153 and 154 are made two-armed. Two helical pressure springs 157 and 158 act upon levers 153, 154 arms 155, 156 that do not support the soleholding part 150; springs 157 and 158 oppose the motion of the four-link mechanism and therefore also that of sole-holding part 150. Those arms of levers 153 and 154 that do support the sole-holdingpart 150 are further interconnected by a cross tie 159, and hingeably so, cross tie 159 being hinged to a pendulum rod 161 supporting the balance weight 160. The pendulum rod 161 rests in its normal position as illustrated in FIG. 5 on two cams 162 and through these on a piston 163; piston 163 is guided along the longitudinal ski direction and serves as a bearing bracket for a spiral pressure spring 164 the other end of which rests on a second movable piston 165. This piston 165 is provided with a friction lining 166 on its front end. A second friction lining167 is provided at the sole-holding part 150, opposite the front end just mentioned; spring 164 will push friction lining 166 of piston 165 against friction vers 126 and 127, the arms being non-supporting of the sole-holding part 125. By means of a spring 139 opposing release, the hydraulic piston 133 will normally be held in the position shown in FIG. 3. Thecorrecting element 140 is inserted in the closed hydraulic circuit. Within housing 141, the correcting element 140 forms a cylindrical slide elastically supported and transversely located to the longitudinal ski direction, the slider being provided on its periphery with an annular tee-slot 142. In its normal position, the slide will be held in lining 167.
If now an impact acts inthe direction of the arrow 168, see FIG. 6, upon the ski (not shown),-then the arrangement moves as indicated in FIG. 6; pendulum rod 161 moves piston 163 by means of one of its cams 162 and thus increases the prestressing of spring 164. This in turn increases the stopping force of the friction linings 166 and 167. This frictional force is added to the force from spring 157, so that the resistance opposing the sole-holding part is increased.
The invention in its broader aspects is not limited to the specific details shown and described and departures may be made from such details without departing from the principles of the invention and without sacrificing its chief advantages.
What is claimed is:
1. A toe-or heel-holding device for safety ski bindings comprising a soleholder member, a resistance means in operative relationship with said soleholder member for resisting movement by said soleholder member relative to the ski, said soleholder member, upon overcoming the resistance of said resistance means, being automatically movable from a locking position to a release position, an inertial mass for automatically controlling the resistance of said resistance means and for opposing movement of said soleholder member as a function of the kinetic energy applied to the ski, said inertial mass being mounted in a rest position and being subject to momentary deflection by forces of mass inertia, and means cooperating with said inertial mass and acting on said resistance means for causing said resistance, means to oppose the movement of said soleholder member in dependence upon said momentary deflection of said inertial mass.
2. A device as in claim 1 wherein said means for cooperating with said inertial mass and acting on said resistance means is an electrical automatic control system including:
means operatively connected to said inertial mass and to said soleholder member for deflecting in response to movement of said soleholder member in a substantially transverse direction with respect to the ski;
deflection-measuring means positioned adjacent said deflection means for determining the degree of deflection of said deflecting means;
a coil in electrical circuit relationship with said deflection-measuring means for passing an electrical current of a magnitude proportional to the amount of deflection of saiddeflection means;
lever arms connected to said soleholder member; and
a core member located within said coil and maintained in position by a magnetic field created by said current passing through said coil, at least one of said lever arms bearing against said core memher to oppose movement of the soleholder member in a transverse direction relative to the ski.
3. A device as in claim 2 further including an amplifier in circuit between said deflection-measuring means and said coil. I
4. A device as in claim 2 further including a pressure spring mounted with its axis transverse to the ski and supporting members connected to the soleholder member for acting against the pressure spring to oppose movement of the soleholder member in a direction transverse to the ski.
5. A device as in claim 1 wherein said resistance means is a hydraulic automatic control system, said system including:
levers connected to said soleholder member and movable in response to movement of the soleholder member relative to the ski;
a hydraulic cylinder;
a piston positioned within said cylinder and movable within the cylinder in response to movement of the soleholder member and-said levers;
a hydraulic circuit externally of said cylinder and connecting opposite ends of the cylinder in hydraulie circuit relationship; and
said inertial mass comprising a correcting elementin circuit relationship with said hydraulic circuit and mounted for movement transversely of the ski for reducing the flow of fluid from within said cylinder to oppose movement of the piston and to oppose movement of the soleholder member relative to the ski.
6. A device as in claim 5 further including springs positioned to hold the correcting element in a predetermined position. i
7. A device as in claim 6 wherein said correcting element is substantially cylindrical in form and includes an annular slot in normally fluid circuit relationship with said cylinder.
8. A device as in claim 5 further including a spring within the cylinder for holding the piston in a predetermined normal position and for opposing movement of the piston within the cylinder.
Y 9. A device as in claim 5 further including an adjustable throttle valve in said hydraulic circuit.
10. A device as in claim 1 wherein said resistance means is a friction clutch automatic control system, said system including:
levers connected to said soleholder member and movable in response to movement of the soleholder member relative to the ski;
arms extending from said levers;
spring means fixedly mounted relative to the ski and positioned to oppose movement of said arms;
a first friction lining mounted on said soleholder member; another friction lining positioned to selectively engage said first friction lining and to oppose movement of said soleholder member relative to the ski and means in cooperating relationship with said inertial mass for moving said friction linings into en.- gagement with each other when said inertial mass moves relative to the ski.
11. A device as in claim 10 wherein said moving means include a cross tie interconnected between said levers, a pendulum rod hingedly mounted on said cross tie, said inertial mass comprising a balance weight supported by said pendulum rod, cams located on said pendulum rod, a piston normally resting against both of said earns, a guideway fixedly positioned relative to said member.