US 3820924 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Cassidy I [1111 3,820,924 June 28, 1974 1 1 ROTARY VANE REFRIGERANT GAS COMPRESSOR  lnyentor; llany J. Cassidy, Kettering, Ohio  Assignee: Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park, Mich.
 Filed: Dec. 15, 1972 [21 Appl. No.: 315,706
 US. Cl 418/89, 418/97, 418/267, 1 55/186, 55/487  Int. CL... F01c 21/04, F04c 29/02, B01d 19/00  Field of Search 418/88, 89, 97100, 418/266-268; 55/186, 437, 439, 487, 485;
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 776,058 11/1904 Heinze 4181266 Primary Examiner-Car1ton R. Croyle Assistant Examiner-John J. Vrablik Attorney, Agent, or FirmTa1burtt & Baldwin 5 7] ABSTRACT Rotary vane compressor having a plurality of radially directed vanes. The vanes are movable and are biased toward engagement with a cavity surface. An oil sump containing a separator assembly is attached to the rotor housing.
10 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures ROTARY VANE REFRIGERANT GAS I COMPRESSOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION gage the wall of the chamber. The present invention relates to an improved compressor of this type.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly, this invention comprises a rotor housing, a rotor in such housing, vanes carried by such rotor, and an oil sump connected to the discharge side of such compressor.
One of the primary objects of this invention is to provide an improved vane compressor wherein refrigerant fluid is introduced into the chamber, compressed between the rotor, the chamber walls, and two vanes, be-
Still another object of this invention is to provide a rotary vane compressor of the type described wherein lubrication of bearings is enhanced. A further object of this invention is to providea rotary vane compressor of the type described wherein lubrication of the vanes is easily accomplished.
Still another object of this inventionis to provide a housing 2 having a rotor cavity 3 therein, a rotor 5 in 'suchcavity, and a sump housing 7 attached to the housing 1.
More particularly, housing 2 has an inlet 9 through a wall thereof into slots 11 opening into cavity 3. An outlet 13 is also formed in the housing wall. An inlet line or tube 15 and a discharge line or tube 17 are re spectively clamped in the inlet 9 and outlet 13 by a clamping plate 19 secured to the housing by a fastener 21.
Cavity 3 has one wall portion 23 having a curvature substantially the same as the curvature of the rotor and mating therewith, and a second intake and compression portion 25 having a smaller curvature, i.e., being generally formed with one or more radii larger than the radius of curvature of portion 23. The second portion 25 extends from the opposite ends of portion 23 and also rotary vane compressor such as described which is economical in construction and effective in operation.
Other objects and advantages will be made apparent as the description progresses.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Referring now to the drawings, in which one of various possible embodiments are shown.
FIG. 1 is a vertical section taken through a compressor constructed in accordance'with this invention, the section being perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rotor; and FIG; 2 is a vertical section taken through the compressor on the axis of rotation of the rotor, certain parts being rotated and other parts being removed for clarity, with a pulley and clutching device being shown in broken lines.
Like parts are shown by corresponding reference characters throughout the several views of the drawings.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT from approximately the inlet or the ends of slots 11 to a point adjacent a plurality of discharge ports 27. The housing 2 is adapted to be connected to suitable brackets or ears (not shown) attached to an automotive vehicle engine.
Rotor 5 includes a shaft 31 which may be connected in any suitable manner, such as by brazing, for example, mounted by bearings 33 in a bore 35 in one wall 37 of housing 2 and by bearings 39 in a bore 41 in another wall 43. The axis of rotation of shaft 31 is offset with respect to the center of the cavity 3. Shaft 31 extends outwardly from bearings 39 through a hollow nose portion 45.on wall 43 and is adapted to be connected to an armature 47 of a magnetic clutch 49 having a pulley portion 51 mounted on the nose 45. The
magnetic clutch is shown in broken lines in FIG. 2 and it will be understood that such clutch is merely exemplary, with many other types and designs of clutches being usable with the compressor.
The rotor 5 is of generally solid cylindrical shape and has four rectangular radial slots 53, 55, 57 and 59 extending axially of the rotor and spaced at 90 intervals around the rotor. Vanes 61, 63, 65 and 67 are respectively slideably mounted in slots 53, 55, 57 and.59. The vanes are identical in construction and; a description of One will suffice for all.
' The vanes have a length substantially equal to the width of the rotor 5 and cavity 3. Each vane has a tip edge portion 69 at its outer end which is adapted to en gage the curved surface of the cavity 3 during its traverse of such surface. The outer end of each vane is tapered inwardly as indicated at 70 from the tip or edge portion 69 toward the leading side 71 of the vanes so that such taper does not sealingly engage the cavity surface for a purpose to be made apparent hereinafter.
Each-side 71 has a pair of generally radially directed slots 73 therein extending from taper 70 to the inner end of the vane for forming passages between the vanes and their respective slots from the cavity 3 to the inner ends of the slots.
Each vane has two radial bores 75 extending from its inner end toward the tips 69. The bores 75 of vanes 63 and 67 are aligned with each other and with bores 77 extending through the rotor and shaft between the inner ends of slots 55 and 59. Likewise the bores 75 of the vanes 61 and 65 are aligned with each other and with bores'79 extending through the rotor and shaft between the inner ends of slots 53 and 57. The bores in the vanes 63 and 67 and bores 77 are axially offset from the bores in the vanes 61 and 65 and bores 79 to pre- One end of a spring 81 is seated in each bore 75 and the other end of each spring engages an end of a rod 83 extending from the respective bore in the vane through the respective bore 77 or 79 into the bore of the opposite vane. The springs 81 thus exert an outwardly directed bias on the vanes. The length of the rods 83 is such that the springs 81 do not bottom when the distance from tip to tip of two opposed vanes is the least, nor do the ends of the rods come out of the bores 75 when the distance from tip to tip of two opposed vanes is the greatest.
Referring now to the discharge side of the compressor, a multi-fingered reed valve 85 is secured to the housing 2 on the outside of discharge ports 27 by a stop and oil separator assembly 87.
Assembly 87 includes a curved stop 89 for the reed valve 85 and two separator sections 91 and 93 each of which includes a screen 95 on the upper face thereof and a perforated plate 97 on the lower face thereof. The sections 91 and 93 are spaced from one another by spacers 99. Spacer 101 also separates the section 91 from the stop 89. Tubular sleeves 103 extend up through the sections 91 and 93 at one end thereof and through spacers 99, stop 89 and reed valve 85 into cavities 105 formed in housing 2. Spacer 107 is located on the lower ends of the sleeves 1-03 and bolts 109 extend through such spacers and sleeves 103 for securing one end of the assembly 87 to the housing.
The lower section 93 is larger than section 91 and substantially corresponds to the shape and size of the sump housing cavity so that all gas and lubricant must pass through the section before leaving the sump. An oil deflector 111 prevents oil and gas from bypassing one or both sections 91 and 93.
The other end of assembly 87 is connected together and to housing 2 by a single connector assembly 113 which also performs a second function as a lubricating passage. Assembly 113 includes a sleeve 115 having a head 117 at the upper end thereof and spacers 119 and 121 located respectively below sections 91 and 93. A sleeve connector 123 extends through sleeve 115 and has a threaded end 125 connected to a threaded passage 127 in housing 2.
A tube 129 having a filter 131 on one end extends through sleeve 123 and passage 127, and has a reduced diameter end portion 133 extending into a lubricating port 135 opening into cavity lubricating port 135 opening into cavity 3 at a point thereof in which the pressure of gas is attimes less than the pressure of gas and lubricant in sump 7. The opening of port 135 is approximately midway between the side walls of the cavity.
It will be noted that outlet 13 opens into the sump cavity 7 above the extended portion of section 93 outside the deflector 111.
A lubricating port or passage 137 extends from cavity 3 through wall 43 to the inside of nose 45 which is'in communication with the bearings 39, and a port or passage 139 extends from cavity 3 through wall 37 to the bore 35 in which bear-ings33 are mounted. The inner ends of ports 137 and 139 are aligned with the inner ends of the vane slots 53, 55, 57 and 59 as the latter pass thereby while the respective vane slot is in communication with gas and lubricant which are at a low pressure, such as inlet pressure. This places ports 137 and 139 at a low pressure, and causes gas and lubricant at high compressed pressure to migrate across the sides of the rotor to and through the bearings 33 and 39, and adjacent a seal 141, thereby lubricating the latter three elements.
Operation of the compressor of this invention is as follows:
Refrigerant gas to be compressed is delivered to the compressor through suction tube 15 to inlet 9. As will be understood, the rotor 5 is being rotated in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 1 by the drive pulley 51 and clutch 49 and creates a low pressure in inlet 9 thus causing the flow of gas into slots 11 and cavity 3. When the tip 69 of vane 71 passes the end of slots 11 the gas, and any lubricant mist mixed therewith, is trapped in the moving chamber formed by the side walls of cavity 3, the outer wall of such cavity, the rotor surface and the vanes 61 and 63. As this chamber becomes smaller due to the rotation of the rotor the gases are compressed.
The vanes are forced outwardly by the centrifugal force thereon, by the pressure of the compressed gas which is passed through the slots 73, and by the spring force exerted on the vanes by the springs 81. These forces are opposed by the force created by the pressure of the gas between the curved surface face of the cavity and the tapered surfaces of the vanes. This pressurized gas is biasing the vanes inwardly. If the pressure of the refrigerant and lubricant mixture in the moving chamber becomes exceedingly high as the chamber moves toward the discharge ports 27, the vane will be forced inwardly slightly against spring 81 permitting the escape of some of the mixture into the following chamber. Thus, the vanes act as their own safety valves and prevent the mixture from being compressed and pressurized beyond a predetermined or objectionable value. The throat area provided in the area of the discharge ports 27 and indicated by T also tends to prevent overcompression.
As the vanes are moved inwardly during rotation of the rotor, the springs 81 and pins 83, along with the centrifugal force, cause the opposite vanes to move outwardly against the curved surface of the cavity.
When the pressure of the gas in the moving chamber reaches a predetermined value, the reed valve will open to allow the compressed gas and oil mixed therewith to be discharged downwardly through the screen and separator sections 91 and 93. The oil collects on the screens and passes through the perforated plates, dropping as droplets into the sump 7. The gas passes through the screen and separator sections to the sump, above the level of oil therein, and then passed upwardly through an extension of section 93, past baffle 111 into the outlet 13 and to the tube 17.
The pressure of gas in the sump 7 is at times higher than the pressure of gas in the moving chamber into which port opens. Accordingly, oil is forced upwardly through the tube 129, to such port from which it is discharged into the cavity.
This oil lubricates the various moving parts within the cavity. However, due to the construction of the compressor and particularly the vanes thereof, the oil is not capable of creating slugging, such as might occur if some means were not provided for relieving pressure if a chamber were somehow filled with liquid. In such case the lubricant acts on the tapered portions 70 to force the vane inwardly, thereby preventing slugging and damage to the compressor and clutch.
Although only one embodiment of the invention has been disclosed and described, it is apparent that other embodiments and modifications of the invention are possible.
' ing chambers, said vanes cooperating with said cavity walls and said rotor to compress gas supplied to said cavity from said inlet and to discharge said compressed gas through said discharge outlet, an oil sump housing attached to said compressor housing, means for supplying oil from said sump housing to said cavity, said discharge outlet opening into said oil sump housing, a valve normally closing said discharge outlet and adapted'to open when the pressure of gas and oil on the upstream side thereof exceeds a predetermined value, and a separator device in said sump in the path of gas and oil discharged from said discharge outlet, at least one fastening device securing said'separator device to said compressor housing, said separator device comprising at least two sections spaced apart from one another, each section including a screen'and a perforated plate adjacent and on the downstream side of said screen, said separator device including an L-shaped deflector to prevent gas and oil discharged from said discharge port from bypassing said separator, said fastening device passing through one leg of said L-shaped deflector. 2. Arotary vane refrigerant gas compressor as set forth in claim 1 wherein said compressor has an outlet passage, one of said sections extending beyond said deflector and causing gas and oil passing through said separator to pass through the portion of said one section extending beyond said deflector before passing to said outlet passage. l
3. A rotary vanerefrigerant gas-compressor asset forth in claim 2 further including a second fastening device having an opening therethrough, said means for supplying oil from said sump housing to said cavity including a tube extending from said sump through said second fastening device, said compressor housing hav ing a port'therein opening into said cavity, said tube opening into said port.
4. A rotary vane refrigerant gas compressor comprising a compressor housing having a cavity therein, an
inlet into said cavity and a discharge outlet from said cavity, a rotor, means mounting said rotor for rotation in said cavity, the axis of rotation of said rotor being offset from the center of said cavity, said rotor having a plurality of slots therein, vanes movably located in said slots separating said cavity into a plurality of moving chambers, said vanes cooperating with said cavity walls and said rotor to compress gas supplied to said cavity from said inlet and to discharge said compressed gas through said discharge outlet, an oil sump housing attached to said compressor housing, means for supplying oil from said sump housing to said cavity, said discharge outlet opening into said oil sump housing, a valve normally closing said discharge outlet and adapted to open when the pressure of gas and oil on the upstream side thereof exceeds a predetermined value, and a separator device in said sump in the path of gas and oil discharged from said discharge outlet, fastening means securing-said separator device to said compressor housing, said fastening means including one fastening device havingan opening therethrough, said means for supplying oil from said sump to said cavity including a tube extending from said sump housing through said one fastening device, said compressor housing having a port therein opening into said cavity, said tube opening into said port. 7
5. A rotary vane refrigerant gas compressor as set forth in claim 4 wherein said cavity is noncircular, and has a first portion having a curvature generally corresponding to the curvature of said. rotor, and a second portion having less curvature than said first portion.
6. A rotary vane refrigerantgas compressor as set forth in claim 4 wherein each vane includes a tip edge extending along the outer periphery thereof adjacent the trailing side of the vane, and a tapered portion extending from said tip edge to the: leading side of said vane.
7. A rotary vane refrigerant gas compressor comprising a compressor housing having a cavity therein, an inlet into said cavity and a discharge outlet from said cavity, a rotor, means mounting said rotor for rotation in said cavity, the axis of rotation of said rotor being off-set from the center of said cavity, said rotor having a plurality of slots therein, vanes movably located in said slots separating said cavity into a plurality of moving chambers, said vanes cooperating with said cavity walls and said rotor to compress gas supplied to said cavity from said inlet and to discharge said compressed gas through said discharge outlet, an oil sump housing attached to said compressor housing, means for supplying oil from said sump housing to said cavity, said discharge outlet opening into said oil sump housing, a valve normally closing said discharge outlet and adapted to open when the pressure of gas and oil on the upstream side thereof exceeds a predetermined value, and a separator device in said sump in the path of gas and oil discharged from said discharge outlet, at least one fastening device securing said. separator device to said compressor housing, said means for supplying oil from said sump hosuing to said cavity including a tube extendingfrom said sump housing to a lubricating passage in said housing, said lubricating passage opening into said cavity, said tube having a filter on the end 9. A rotary vane refrigerant gas compressor as set forth in claim 7 wherein each vane includes a tip edge extending along the outer periphery thereof adjacent the trailing side of the vane, and a tapered portion ex- 7 8 tending from said tip edge to the leading side of said has a first portion having a curvature generally correvane sponding to the curvature of said rotor, and a second 10. A rotary'vane refrigerant gas compressor as set portion having less curvature than said first portion. forth in claim 7 wherein said cavity is noncircular, and