|Publication number||US3821068 A|
|Publication date||Jun 28, 1974|
|Filing date||Oct 17, 1972|
|Priority date||Oct 17, 1972|
|Also published as||CA1020785A1, DE2420932A1, DE2420932C2|
|Publication number||US 3821068 A, US 3821068A, US-A-3821068, US3821068 A, US3821068A|
|Original Assignee||Scott Paper Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (210), Classifications (19)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Field Inventor:
David L Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.
Scott Paper Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
Oct. 17, 1972 US. Cl 162/111, 156/183, 161/128,
Int. Cl. D211 9/02, B31f l/14 of Search 162/111, 112, 158, 113,
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 4/1971 Parrish.... 162/111 5/1934 Alden 16 2/112 1/1962 Hechtman et a1 117/155 UA 8/1965 McCarty 162/113 1/1967 Cooper et a1. 162/113 1/1967 Sanford et al. 162/113 U11 3,821,068 [45 June 28, 1974 8/1970 lhrman 162/111 l/197l Herveyetal. ..162/158 5 7 ABSTRACT A soft, absorbent, creped paper web formed by deposition from an aqueous slurry of principally lignocellulosic fibers and dried to at least 80 percent fiber consistency or dryness without being subjected to mechanical compression of the web to substantially reduce formation of papermaking bonds which would form upon compression of the web while wet. The resultant uniform density web is adhered to a dryer through the use of a creping adhesive (which does not add significant strength to the web) and is creped therefrom. The fibers in the web are bonded together almost exclusively by conventional papermaking bonds formed upon drying of the web. The uniform density web product has a dry basis weight of from about 10 to 30 lbs/ 2,880 feet a TEA-to-stiffness ratio greater than 0.5 X 10 and an average calculated density throughout it thickness under no load of less than 0.3 grams per cubic centimeter.
12 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to an absorbent, creped, sanitary paper product with improved softness and to a method for making it.
2. Description of the Prior Art In the field of sanitary paper products, which includes bathroom tissues and other tissue products, softness is probably the most desired property. Use of these products requires intimate contact with the consumer, and it is well known that a harsh-feeling product will not often be purchased by the consumer.
While the difference between a soft product and a harsh one is perceived by a consumer as a single property, softness is actually a combination of several physical properties. Softness has been described as the subjective property of paper exhibited by the feeling of softness when a sheet is crumpled in the hand. This feeling depends in large measure on the ease of crumpling, or flexibility of the sheet, together with the absence of sharp edges in the crumpled sheet. Therefore, softness is not only a function of the stiffness of the sheet, but also the thickness of the sheet. For example, if two sheets have the same stiffness, the thicker of the two feels softer. Further adding to a feeling of softness is the ability of the sheet to be compressed between the fingers, a factor determined in large measure by the density of the sheet. Thus, a low density sheet formed with, little compaction will be easily compressed between the fingers.
In the conventional process for manufacturing sanitary paper products, an aqueous slurry of papermaking fibers is deposited upon a foraminous member, such as a Fourdrinier wire, and water is removed to form a coherent web of the fibers. Upon drying, the fibers interbond where they contact each other by the hydrate bonding process associated with papermaking. Because conventional, papermaking fibers are short, less than. V4 inch, there is little or no physical entanglement of the fibers, and almost all of the webs strength comes from the papermaking bonds. To a large extent, the interfiber bonding strength of the papermaking bonds formed, and thus the strength of the web, is dependent upon the closeness of the fibers to each other when the bonds are formed. Accordingly, it is customary in a papermaking operation to compact the paper web before it is dry to increase the strength of the web. Accompanyin g this increase of strength is an increase in stiffness.
Furthermore, when the wet-compacted web dries it remains in its compacted condition, resulting in a high density web. Thus, the softness of the conventionally formed web is reduced not only because its stiffness is increased as a result of increased interfiber bonding by papermaking bonds, but also because the compressibility of the web is decreased as a result of the increased density of the web.
It has long been recognized that a reductionin interfiber bonding by papermaking bonds in a paper web will result in a reduction of stifi'ness. Probably the most commonly employed method for reducing papermaking bonds is creping of the dried web from a drying surface with a doctor blade, an action which disrupts and breaks many of the interfiber bonds already formed in the paper web.
Another method of reducing the papermaking bonds is to prevent their formation either by chemical treatment of the fibers to reduce their interfiber bonding capacity or by the use of little or no pressing of the web while it is wet. However, it has always been thought that practice of this method to the degree which would significantly increase softness would make the web too weak to be suitable for commercial products. Accordingly, where this method has been practiced in the past, bonding materials have been added to the web to restore the strength lost by reduction. of the papermaking bonds. These bonding materials were selected to add strength to the web to a greater degree than they add stiffness. This method is disclosed in US. Pat. application Ser. Nos. 156,327 and 156,282, where it is also suggested that further softening of the web can be accomplished by combining creping with the other steps.
Another method of reducing the number of papermaking bonds formed in a web is disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,301,746 to Sanford et al. In that method, the paper web is formed under little or no pressing; but while still wet enough to allow an increase in bonding by compaction (stated as being between 30 and percent dry), the web is heavily compacted in a knuckle pattern against a dryer drum. The pattern compaction of the web leaves the majority of the web uncompacted, and presumed weak, while at the same time adding strength to the web as a whole with the numerous papermaking bonds present in the compacted'areas. Further softening of. the web is accomplished by creping the web from the dryer drum. The resulting product is alleged to be softer, although weaker than a comparable product formed by a conventional papermaking process. However, the patent indicates that the loss of strength is not so great as to render the product unsuitable for commercial use.
All of these described methods to reduce papermaking bonds can be successfully used to soften paper webs. However, the methods employing the addition of bonding materials have the disadvantages of increased material costs as well as process complications. And the method of the Sanford patent, as well as the creping method, produces a degree of softness which is less than ideally desired. In view of these shortcomings, it is easily appreciated that methods have been sought for a long time to produce a softer web, especially methods which are less expensive than the prior art methods.
In view of the clear teachings of the prior art, it was very surprising to discover that a very soft paper web could be produced with adequate strength for commercially useful products by elimination of a process step which has long been believed necessary in the prior art.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The product of the invention is a soft, absorbent, creped, fibrous web formed by deposition from an aqueous slurry of principally lignocellulosic fibers. The web is formed and dried to a predetermined dryness level withoutbeing subjected to mechanical compression. Atdryness levels beyond this predetermined dryness level, further interbonding of the fibers by papermaking bonds to a significant extent will not occur upon mechanical compression of the web. The predetermined dryness level is chosen to produce a very soft, low density web.
Further reduction of papermaking bonds, and thus softening of the web is accomplished by creping the web from a dryer surface. The web is adhered to the dryer surface through the use of a creping adhesive, chosen to adhere the web to the dryer surface without adding significant interfiber bonding to the web. The fibers in the web are bonded together almost exclusively by papermaking bonds formed upon drying of the web. The web thus formed has exceptional softness and surprisingly adequate strength when compared to products in the prior art relying upon papermaking bonds for their strength.
The predetermined dryness level is preferably at least 80% fiber consistency, that is, containing no more than 20 percent moisture by weight, but the web may be rewet to as low as 70 percent fiber consistency upon application of the creping adhesive to the web. The web is subjected to a modest pressure when it is applied to the creping surface, increasing web density and formation of papermaking bonds to a slight extent when web has been rewet to 70 percent dryness, and much less so when web has been rewet to no wetter than 80 percent fiber consistency.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING The drawing is a schematic side view of a preferred form of apparatus for carrying out the method of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS As illustrated in the drawing, the papermaking machine has a stock distribution means, indicated generally by reference numeral 10, for delivering an aqueous papermaking slurry or fiber furnish to a Fourdrinier wire 16. The stock distribution means includes a tapered manifold or header 11 which is connected to a source (not shown) of an aqueous papermaking slurry or fiber furnish. A number of branch tubes or laterals l2 connect the tapered manifold 11 to blending chamber 13 defined by generally parallel, upper and lower walls 14 and 15. The stock distribution system may be similar to that disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,298,905.
The Fourdrinier wire 16 is carried over a suction breast roll 17 and over a plurality of table rolls 18, after which it passes around a wire turning roll 20 and is threaded past three guide rolls 2], 22 and 23 and back to the suction breast roll 17. The Fourdrinier wire 16 and its supporting rolls is driven by drive means (not shown) connected to the wire turning roll 20.
One or more vacuum boxes, hydrofoils or other dewatering or formation assisting devices (none of which are shown in the drawing) may be employed in conjunction with the Fourdrinier wire 16. In addition, the configuration of the papennaking machine may vary widely from that described above without having any effect upon the present invention. It is essential, however, that the web thus formed on the Fourdrinier wire 16 or other foraminous surface be maintained virtually free from any mechanical compression or compaction until it is at least 80 percent dry.
After the slurry is deposited on the Fourdrinier wire 16 and dewatered sufficiently to form a web, the web is transferred, substantially free from any compaction or mechanical compression, from the upper surface of the Fourdrinier wire 16 to the surface of aforaminous drying fabric 24. The drying fabric 24 may comprise a woven sheet material, such as made from wire or other filamentary materials, or a perforated or foraminous base. The drying fabric 24 is advanced past the position closely adjacent the portion of the Fourdrinier wire 16 running between the wire turning roll 20 and the first guide roll 22. In doing so, it passes over a rotating suction pickup roll 25 or a stationary suction pickup shoe, and transfer of the web to the drying fabric 24 at this location may be assisted, if desired, by steam or air jet, such as might issue from a header 26 (shown in phantom line in the drawing) disposed opposite the Fourdrinier wire 16 and the suction pickup roll 25.
The drying fabric 24 carrying the web moves from the suction pickup roll 25 into the drying means, indicated generally by reference numeral 27, and then is carried about guide rolls 28 and 30, and about transfer roll 31 which lightly presses the web into contact with the surface of the creping drum 32. One or more vacuum boxes (not shown) may be disposed behind drying fabric 24 following the suction pickup roll 25 to remove additional entrained water from the web without compression. The drying fabric 24 continues on about a'further guide roll 33 and then returns to the transfer point adjacent the suction pickup roll 25.
The drying means 27 may comprise any means for preferably drying, without compressing, a web to a point where it has a moisture content of preferably less than 20 percent by weight, that is, so that it is more than percent dry. Various techniques for drying the web may be employed, such as radiant heat lamps, tunnel dryers, or transpiration dryers wherein air, preferably heated, is passed through the web. The drawing illustrates a typical fonn of transpiration dryerin which air from a hood 34 is passed through the web, through the drying fabric 24, and through the drum 35 which supports both the web and the drying fabric 24. The air is then removed from the interior of the drum 35 by another hood 36. A typical form of such drying apparatus is shown in US. Pat. No- 3,432,936. I
Since the web is applied to the surface of the creping drum 32, which preferably is a Yankee dryer, in a dry condition, it is usually necessary to apply a creping adhesive to the web surface or to the creping drum 32. This is particularly true where the sheet is dried to a level of percent or above, since there is insufficient moisture remaining in the web at this point to adhere it to the creping drum 32 tightly enough to permit it to be creped therefrom. Furthermore, because of the de sirability of avoiding heavy pressure being applied to the web when it is brought into contact with the creping drum 32, there is little natural adhesion of the web to the drum, even at the higher wetness levels.
The creping adhesive may be applied by an elongate sprayer 37, such as that shown in phantom line in the drawing. Alternative methods for applying adhesive to the web in order to adhere to the creping drum 32 may be employed. For example, a glue application roll which picks up adhesive from a reservoir and transmits it to the surface of a web immediately prior to the web contacting the creping drum 32 can be used. Also, a glue application roll which picks up adhesive from a reservoir and applies it directly to the creping drum 32 after which the web is pressed into contact with and adhered to the creping drum 32 can be employed.
In the preferred method of the invention, the web is essentially dried by the creping drum 32, that is, to a fiber consistency of about 95 percent or above. A creping blade 38 disposed on the opposite side of the creping drum32 from the roll 31 is usedto remove the web from the drum while creping it. In the alternative, the web can be creped from the creping drum 32 at a dryness less than 95 percent, in which case the web will be further dried by other, conventional drying means.
In practicing the invention, it would be ideal to avoid all mechanical pressing on the web until it is dry enough to not form significantly more papermaking bonds upon being compressed. However, it is impracticable to avoid small amounts of pressure at some locations in the apparatus, such as where the Fourdrinier wire 16 comes together with the drying fabric 24. But, in accordance with the practice of the invention, the pressure applied at such locations in the apparatus is so small as to be insignificant in the compacting effect it has on the web. As an illustration, the pressure applied to the web at all locations in the apparatus preceding adherence of the web to the creping surface is usually less than 3 psi. In comparison, a conventional press operation, as used in the prior art, applies a pressure to the web of up to several hundred psi, and the knuckle pressure applied to the web in the method disclosed in the Sanford patent ranges from about 1,000 psi up to 11,000 psi, depending upon basis weight of the web. For purposes of interpreting the term without mechanical compression as it is used herein, it shall be considered to be less than 5 psi.
in the preferred method of the invention, the web is dried to at least 80percent dry without mechanical compression of the web more preferably to 90 percent or more, then an adhesive is applied to the web to enable it to be adhered to the dryer drum. The adhesive can be applied to the web directly or to the drum first, by either spraying or printing with a rotogravure roll. The adhesive is selected for its ability to adhere the web to the drum and not for adding strength to the web.ln practice,,the adhesive is a material which because of its nature or the amount used adds no significant strength to the web, less than percent of the total web strength, for example. Examples of suitable adhesives are Accostrength 95 and Accostrength 86, both from American Cyanimid, Creptrol 190 from Hercules Corporation, and animal glues from Peter Cooper Corporation.
The most common adhesives suitable for this purpose are in aqueous solutions, and therefore, the web is rewet somewhat upon application of the adhesive. In the most preferred practice of the invention, the web is more than 90 percent dry upon application of the adhesive, and it is rewet to a degree which reduces the web dryness to no less than 80 percent. The invention may be practiced with beneficial results, however, by applying the adhesive to a web of only about 80 percent dryness, reducing its dryness to as little as 70 percent dry. in all cases, the web is rewet generally evenly all over its surface to avoid excessively wet areas. This is true even though the adhesive is applied in a pattern, because the wet adhesive spreads over' the surface by capillary action. I
Another variation which may be employed in practicing the invention is the addition into the slurry of small amounts of materials which reduce interfiber bonding capacity of the fibers. Examples of such materials are Quaker 2000 and Quaker 2003, both from Quaker Chemical Corporation, and Rycofox 618 from Ryco Corporation. Another variation includes the addition into the slurry of small amounts of fibers other than papermaking fibers, such as cotton, wool, rayon and others.
The most important feature of the invention is the avoidance of significant mechanical pressure being applied to the web until the web is too dry to form significant additional papermaking bonds upon being compressed. It has been known in the prior art that dry paper webs will not be subject to a significant increase in papermaking bonds upon being pressed. However, it was not known in the prior art that acceptable strength can be obtained without wet pressing or some other form of strengthening step, such as those previously described. But, surprisingly, practice of the invention enables production of an exceptionally soft web with adequate strength for commercially useful products. When compared to other paper products relying almost ex clusively upon papermaking bonds for their strength, the product of the invention is remarkably softer than such prior art products of equivalent strength. The product of the invention has been found to have particularly desirable properties when made in the basis weight range from about 10 to about 30 lbs/2,880 ft and is very desirable for a bathroom tissue when made in the basis weight range from about 15 to about 22 lbs/2,880 ft To illustrate the unexpected properties discovered in the product of the invention, examples of the product of the invention and of the prior art and their properties are disclosed herein. Full appreciation of these products and their properties requires a description of the procedures employed to measure them. For purposes of measuring the acceptability of these sheet materials of the present invention from a general standpoint of softness, two different properties have been found which in combination provide a basis for accurately distinguishing such materials from. those of the prior art, as well as providing a reliable indicator of the comparable softness and strength. These properties are: (1) TEA-to-stiffness ratio of the sheet material and (2) the average calculated density throughout the thickness of the sheet material under no load. These properties and the procedures and techniques for determining them are described in detail hereinso as to explain the invention and to permit others to clearly ascertain its scope with regard to such sheet materials.
The TEA-to-stiffness ratio is obtained by first measuring the TEA (tensile energy absorbtion) of a given specimen of sheet material in accordance with the TAPPI'Test, T494 SU-64, in both the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD), in kilogram-meters per square meter, with the exception that a jaw spacing of 2 inches rather than the 8 inches recommended by TAPPI is used because of the particular nature of the product, some of which have lines of perforation which must be avoided. This test method is not a TAPPI standard, but is suggested by TAPPI as the most suitable method to date. The stiffness of the product is then measured by subjecting the specimen to the test set forth in TAPPI standard test, T451 M-60, in
both the machine direction and the cross-machine direction, to determine its effective overhanging length (critical length) denoted as L in centimeters. The stiffness of the product is proportional to the cube of the effective overhanging length and is therefore expressed herein as L Briefly described, the TEA of a product is obtained by clamping a 1.000 i 0.005 in. (2.54 i 0.01 cm) wide specimen in two spaced sets of jaws when they are 2 in. (5.08 cm) apart, with any noticeable slack being pulled out of the strip before clamping. Strain is applied to the specimen by moving the jaws farther apart at a constant rate of 1.00 i 0.01 in./min. (2.54 t 0.02 cm./min.) while recording the elongation with an accuracy of i 2 percent of the actual value and the load, in either pounds or kilograms, with an accuracy of $0.5 percent until breakage of the specimen. The area under the load-elongation curve is then measured by planimeter or integrator with an accuracy of i 2 percent. The TEA is then calculated using the equation:
TEA lA/LW with units of kilogram-meters per square meter where:
A area under load elongation curve in kilogramcentimeters L initial span between clamp lines in centimeters W initial width of specimen in centimeters.
The stiffness of a product is obtained with a Clark Softness Tester by placing the end of a to 50 mm. (%'to 2 inches) wide specimen with parallel edges and of convenient length between the jaws or rollers comprising a clamp mounted on a rotatable spindle. The spindle can be rotated about a horizontal axis parallel to the long axis of the jaws or rollers and perpendicular to the long axis of the paper strip. The overhanging length of the specimen is adjusted by resetting the jaws or turning the rollers until, when the spindle is slowly rotated back and forth through 90, the specimen just falls over at each of the end points of rotation. The overhanging or critical length L is then measured from the line where the edges of the jaws or rollers grip the specimen to the end of the strip. For purposes of defining the product of the present invention, the stiffness is indicated by the cube of L.
In using the above tests for TEA and stiffness to form a ratio which defines a desired property of a fibrous product of the invention, specimens for each test are taken in both the machine direction (M.D.) and the cross-machine direction (C.D.). Preferably, several tests are made with each and the results averaged in order to eliminate errors due to measurement or to formation. The resulting values are then combined in ratio form as follows:
The TEA-to-stiffness ratio TEA (M.D.) X TEA (C.D.)/L (M.D.) X L (C.D.)
The average calculated density throughout the thickness of the sheet material under no load is determined by the following procedure'An approximately 1 inch long specimen of the product is oven-dried to eliminate moisture therein. The dried specimen is inserted in a small container and is slowly immersed at atmospheric pressure in a solution of butyl methacrylate monomer therein containing a small amount of benzoyl peroxide as a catalyst. The container and the immersed specimen are placed in an oven having an interior temperature of 55 C for a period of about 16 hours to cause polymerization of the monomer. A small amount of volumetric shrinkage occurs which is insignificant because it is constant for each sample. Cross-sections are cut from the resulting embedded sample using a microtome, the sections having a thickness of 10 to 12 microns.
Each section is placed on a glass slide, and covered with mineral oil and a glass cover slip. The section of the specimen is now photographed by transmitted light through a microscope adjusted to give a linear magnification of 80, and the magnified picture is printed in a 5 inches by 7 inches format.
The resulting photomicrograph is mounted on a board, and transparent paper is placed over the photomicrograph. The outline of the resulting cross-section shown in the photomicrograph is now traced onto the transparent paper, care being taken to follow the basic curves and undulations of the cross-sectional outline to an extent sufficient to get inside the outline at least percent or more of the cross-sectional area including any stray fibers. Certain stray fibers deviating from the outline of the cross-section should be left outside the area in order to obtain truer density values. A planimeter is then used to measure the area within the inside edge of the line defining the cross-sectional outline in square inches. Several photographs of each specimen are preferably used and several cross-sectional area measurements are taken, the results being averaged to obtain a reliable cross-sectional area.
The actual thickness of the sample is obtained by dividing the area by the length of the cross-section outlined and by the linear magnification of 80. The calculated density under no load in grams per cubic centimeter was obtained by the equation:
Calculated Density g/cc [basis weight (g/m )/Actual thickness (in.)] X
(2.54 cm/in.) X (10,000 cm /m where the basis weight is that of the original sheet materialfrom which the specimen was taken as determined by TAPPl'standard T410 OS-61.
Other tests were made in accordance with the following standard tests: Tensile measurements were made using TAPPI standard T404 TS-66; and Stretch measurements were made using TAPPI standard T457 M-46.
The following examples comparatively illustrate the difference between the sheet materials of the present invention and. the conventional sheet materials of the prior art.
' EXAMPLE 1 As an illustration of the prior art, a web was formed from a fiber furnish consisting of the following conventional papermaking pulps in water:
20 percent soft wood bleached kraft 20 percent soft wood bleached sulfite 40 percent hardwood bleached kraft 20 percent mechanical fiber.
The web was formed on a conventional Fourdriniertype papermaking machine which included wet pressing to remove water and add strength to the web and was transferred onto the surface of the Yankee dryer at about 30 percent dryness. The web was creped from the Yankee dryer when it was about 65 percent dry, that is, when it contained about 35 percent moisture by weight. The web was further dried in an afterdryer in the form of heated drums until it was more than about 92 percent dry. The resulting sheet material was one which was typically used in sanitary paper products, such as wet creped bathroom tissue, and possessed the following general properties:
basis weight 12.3 lbs/2880 ft bulk 0.081 in/24 sheets As another illustration of the prior art, a web was formed from a fiber furnish consisting of water and the following papermaking pulps:
30 percent softwood bleached kraft 25 percent softwood bleached sulfite 35 percent hardwood bleached kraft 10 percent mechanical fiber The web was formed in a conventional Fourdriniertype paper-making machine which included wet pressing to remove water and add strength to the web and was transferred onto the surface of the Yankee dryer at about 30 percent dryness. The web was creped from the Yankee dryer when it was about 94 percent dry, that is, when it contained only about 6 percent moisture by weight. The resulting sheet material was one which was typically used in sanitary paper products such as dry creped bathroom tissue, and possessed the following general properties:
basis weight 9.5 lbs/2880 ft bulk 0.074 in/24 sheets tensile (M.D.) 8.8 oz/in. stretch (M.D.) 14.271 TEA (M.D.) .875 kg M/M tensile (C.D.) 2.5 oz/in stretch (C.D.) 5.4% TEA (C.D.) 0.173 kg M/M L (M.D.) 3.9 cm. L (C.D.) 4.0 cm.
EXAMPLE Ill As yet another illustration of the prior art, a commercial bathroom tissue made using the process described in US. Pat. No. 3,301,746, was tested and possessed the following general properties:
basis weight 1 1.1 lbs/2880 ft hulk 0.135 in/24 sheets tensile (M.D.) 11.20 oz/in.
stretch (M.D.) 13.3%
TEA (M.D.) 0.806 kg M/M tensile (C.D.) 5.7 oz/in.
stretch (C.D.) 5.192
TEA (C.D.) 0.306 kg M/M" L (M.D.) 4.5 cm.
L (C.D.) 5.3 cm.
EXAMPLE IV As an illustration of the present invention, the web was formed from an aqueous slurry of 80 percent kraft softwood pulp and percent kraft hardwood pulp, which was passed through an open gap and formed into tion of mechanical compression to 98 percent fiber consistency by passing heated air through the web. The sheet was then adhered to a Yankee dryer drum with a transfer roll exerting about 150 psi pressure to the web and with the aid of an adhesive applied to the web by gravure printing in a repeating hexagonal pattern, 40 mils in length, 7.5 mils wide, and microns deep, from a copper roll with a 0.002 inch thick chrome outer layer. The adhesive was an aqueous solution of 3 percent Accostrength 95, obtainable from American Cyanamid Corporation, 1 percent National Starch latex 5329, obtainable from National Starch Corporation, and 0.34 percent Rycofax 618, obtainable from the Ryco Corporation. The dryness of the web after printing was 76 percent, and the web had pickedup 0.7 percent adhesive solids. The sheet was then creped and lightly calendered for bulk control. The creped sheet was converted into tissue rolls. The converted paper had the following general properties:
basis weight 16.8 lbs/2880 ft bulk 0.197 in/24 sheets tensile (MD 16.1 oz/in;
stretch (M.D) 16.6%
TEA (M.D.) 0.955 kg M/M tensile (C.D 4.6 oz/in.
stretch (C.D 8.4%
TEA (C.D.) 0.370 kg M/M L (M.D.) 4.0 cm.
L (C.D.) 4.65 cm.
EXAMPLE V As a further illustration of the invention, a web was formed from an aqueous slurry of 80 percent kraft softa h e hashss we.tbrq ishrisqwithsm sas es:
wood fibers and 20 percent kraft hardwood fibers refined to a freeness of 560 mlLTo the aqueous fibrous slurry, 0.2 percent Quaker 2000, obtainable from Quaker Chemical Company, (based on bond dry fiber weight) was added to reduce the interfiber bonding capacity of the fibers. The fiber suspension was formed into a sheet on a Fourdrinier wire and through-dried without application of mechanical compression with hot air to percent fiber consistency. The sheet was then adhered to a Yankee dryer drum by spraying an aqueous solution of 1 percent Accostrength 86 obtainable from American Cyanamid Corporation, in the manner illustrated in the drawing. The amount of chemical pickup to the web from the application of the creping adhesive was less than 1 percent. The amount of pressure exerted on the web by the transfer roll was about psi. The sheet was then creped and converted into bathroom tissue rolls, and had the following general properties:
basis weight 17.4 lbs/2880 i't bulk 188 tn/24 sheets tensile (M.D.) 23.6 oz/in. stretch (M.D.) 19.3% TEA (M.D.) 2.20 kg M/M tensile (C.D.) 5.9 oz/in. stretch (C.D 6.8% TEA (C.D.) .364 kg M/M L (M.D.) I 4.4 cm.
1 l ties for these five examples are set forth below in Table TABLE I 3. Method according to claim 1, wherein application of the creping adhesive causes the web to be rewet to Average Calculated Density TEA-to-Stiffness Table I clearly illustrates the superior softness properties of the product of the invention in comparison with the products of the prior art. For example, the examples of the prior art products all have average calculated densities under no load greater than 0.4 gms/cc. In contrast, the examples of the product of the invention all had average calculated densities under no load of less than 0.3 gms/cc.
In further comparison, the TEA-to-stiffness ratios for the examples of the prior art were all 0.40 X or less, in most cases, far less. In contrast, the same ratios for examples of the invention were higher than 0.5 X 10*, and in one case almost twice as high.
It is believed that lower density adds to the subjective feeling of softness in a paper web, and therefore, the above measurement is important in distinguishing the product of the invention over the prior art products. Also, it is believed that the TEA-to-stiffness ratio is an important measurement in comparing flexibility (as exhibited by the length overhang test) of webs on a basis of equal strength, or to state the same in other words, to compare the strength of webs of equal stiffness. Thus, it can be seen from Table I, that the product of the invention is superior to the prior art in this respect also.
Having described the preferred embodiments of the invention, 1 claim:
. 1. Method for making a soft, absorbent, creped, sanitary paper product, comprising the steps of:
forming a web of principally lignocellulosic fibers by deposition of an aqueous slurry of the fibers onto a foraminous surface;
removing water from the web without mechanical compression until the web is at least 80 percent dry to form a web having uniform density;
bonding the fibers together almost exclusively by papermaking bonds formed upon drying of the web;
applying a creping adhesive to one surface of the web, the adhesive not adding significant strength to 1 the web; adhering the web to a creping surface; drying the web on the creping surface to about 95 percent dry; and removing the dried web from the creping surface with a creping blade. 2. Method according to claim 1, wherein the web is at least 90 percent dry prior to application of the crepanew? t swqhra degree which is no wetter than percent dry when adhered to the creping surface.
4. Method according to claim 3, wherein the web is at least percent dry when adhered to the creping surface.
5. Method according to claim 4, wherein the web is at least percent dry when adhered to the creping surface.
6. Method according to claim 5, wherein the web has a dry basis weight of from about .15 to about 22 lbs/2,880 feet 7. Method according to claim 4, wherein the web has a dry basis weight of from about 10 to about 30 lbs/2,880 feet 8. Method according to claim 1, wherein water is removed from the web by passing air through the web. 9. Method according to claim 1, wherein the fibers are treated with a debonding agent before drying of the web to reduce their inter-fiber bonding capacity.
10. Method for making a soft, absorbent, creped, sanitary paper product, comprising the steps of:
forming a web of principally lignocellulosic fibers by deposition of an aqueous slurry of the fibers onto a foraminous surface;
removing water from the web without mechanical compression while the web is less than 80 percent dry to form a web having uniform density;
bonding the fibers together almost exclusively by pa-' permaking bonds formed upon drying of the web; and
creping the web from a creping surface.
11. A soft, absorbent, creped, sanitary paper web product formed by deposition from an aqueous slurry, the web comprising:
randomly arranged, contacting lignocellulosicfibers bonded together almost exclusively by papermaking bonds;
the web being of uniform density and having a dry basis weight of from about 10 to 30 lbs/2,880 feet a TEA-to-stiffness ratio greater than 0.5 X 10 and an average calculated density throughout its thickness under no load of less than 0.3 grams per cubic centimeter.
12. A web according to claim 11, wherein the web is a bathroom tissue having a basis weight of from about 15 to about 22 lbs/2,880 feet UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION patent No. 3,821,068 Dated June 28, 1974 Inventor) DAVID L. SHAW It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent fend that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
n In co umn 11, in Table I, in the lTEA-to-Stiffness Ratio X 10 column, the "10 should read 10 also that portion of the Ratio column of Table I reading-".98" should read .55-, and that portion of the same column reading ".58" should read .80.
Signed and Scaled this [SEAL] I sixteenth Day Of December 1975 A ttest:
RUTH C. MASON Arresting Officer C. MARSHALL DANN ummissimzer ofPatents and Trademarks
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3905863 *||Apr 1, 1974||Sep 16, 1975||Procter & Gamble||Process for forming absorbent paper by imprinting a semi-twill fabric knuckle pattern thereon prior to final drying and paper thereof|
|US3974025 *||Jun 19, 1975||Aug 10, 1976||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent paper having imprinted thereon a semi-twill, fabric knuckle pattern prior to final drying|
|US3992254 *||Jan 7, 1975||Nov 16, 1976||Valmet Oy||Structure for separating a web and wire in a paper machine|
|US4064213 *||Feb 9, 1976||Dec 20, 1977||Scott Paper Company||Creping process using two-position adhesive application|
|US4093765 *||Feb 13, 1976||Jun 6, 1978||Scott Paper Company||Soft absorbent fibrous web and disposable diaper including same|
|US4120747 *||Jul 18, 1977||Oct 17, 1978||The Procter & Gamble Company||Use of ozone treated chemithermomechanical pulp in a high bulk tissue papermaking process|
|US4157938 *||Apr 21, 1977||Jun 12, 1979||The Procter & Gamble Company||Method and apparatus for continuously expelling an atomized stream of water from a moving fibrous web|
|US4194947 *||Jul 6, 1978||Mar 25, 1980||Oy Nokia Ab & Valmet Oy||Transferring a web from a pick-up fabric to a flow-through drying wire|
|US4196045 *||Apr 3, 1978||Apr 1, 1980||Beloit Corporation||Method and apparatus for texturizing and softening non-woven webs|
|US4238284 *||Jul 6, 1978||Dec 9, 1980||Oy Nokia Ab & Valmet Oy||Method for dewatering a tissue web|
|US4256877 *||Dec 13, 1977||Mar 17, 1981||Sca Development Aktiebolag||Method of manufacturing cellulose derivative|
|US4351699 *||Oct 15, 1980||Sep 28, 1982||The Procter & Gamble Company||Soft, absorbent tissue paper|
|US4441962 *||Jul 30, 1982||Apr 10, 1984||The Procter & Gamble Company||Soft, absorbent tissue paper|
|US4447294 *||Dec 30, 1981||May 8, 1984||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making absorbent tissue paper with high wet strength and low dry strength|
|US4448638 *||Sep 29, 1982||May 15, 1984||James River-Dixie/Northern, Inc.||Paper webs having high bulk and absorbency and process and apparatus for producing the same|
|US4464224 *||Jun 30, 1982||Aug 7, 1984||Cip Inc.||Process for manufacture of high bulk paper|
|US4834838 *||Feb 20, 1987||May 30, 1989||James River Corporation||Fibrous tape base material|
|US4874465 *||Mar 28, 1988||Oct 17, 1989||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Tissue products containing sliced fibers|
|US4940513 *||Dec 5, 1988||Jul 10, 1990||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for preparing soft tissue paper treated with noncationic surfactant|
|US4959125 *||Dec 5, 1988||Sep 25, 1990||The Procter & Gamble Company||Soft tissue paper containing noncationic surfactant|
|US5048589 *||Dec 18, 1989||Sep 17, 1991||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Non-creped hand or wiper towel|
|US5059282 *||Feb 21, 1990||Oct 22, 1991||The Procter & Gamble Company||Soft tissue paper|
|US5137600 *||Nov 1, 1990||Aug 11, 1992||Kimberley-Clark Corporation||Hydraulically needled nonwoven pulp fiber web|
|US5164046 *||May 7, 1991||Nov 17, 1992||The Procter & Gamble Company||Method for making soft tissue paper using polysiloxane compound|
|US5215626 *||Jul 19, 1991||Jun 1, 1993||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for applying a polysiloxane to tissue paper|
|US5223092 *||Apr 30, 1991||Jun 29, 1993||James River Corporation||Fibrous paper cover stock with textured surface pattern and method of manufacturing the same|
|US5227242 *||Jun 6, 1990||Jul 13, 1993||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Multifunctional facial tissue|
|US5246546 *||Aug 27, 1992||Sep 21, 1993||Procter & Gamble Company||Process for applying a thin film containing polysiloxane to tissue paper|
|US5306395 *||Apr 5, 1993||Apr 26, 1994||Valmet-Karlstad Ab||C-wrap type twin wire former|
|US5314584 *||Dec 17, 1992||May 24, 1994||James River Corporation||Fibrous paper cover stock with textured surface pattern and method of manufacturing the same|
|US5354425 *||Dec 13, 1993||Oct 11, 1994||The Procter & Gamble Company||Tissue paper treated with polyhydroxy fatty acid amide softener systems that are biodegradable|
|US5397437 *||Jan 31, 1994||Mar 14, 1995||Valmet-Karlstad Ab||Method of rebuilding a conventional tissue machine to a TAD machine|
|US5399412 *||May 21, 1993||Mar 21, 1995||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Uncreped throughdried towels and wipers having high strength and absorbency|
|US5525345 *||Mar 6, 1995||Jun 11, 1996||The Proctor & Gamble Company||Lotion composition for imparting soft, lubricious feel to tissue paper|
|US5556511 *||Dec 15, 1994||Sep 17, 1996||Sulzer-Escher Wyss Gmbh||Process for drying paper webs|
|US5607551 *||Jun 24, 1993||Mar 4, 1997||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Soft tissue|
|US5611890 *||Apr 7, 1995||Mar 18, 1997||The Proctor & Gamble Company||Tissue paper containing a fine particulate filler|
|US5616207 *||Nov 21, 1994||Apr 1, 1997||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Method for making uncreped throughdried towels and wipers|
|US5624676 *||Aug 3, 1995||Apr 29, 1997||The Procter & Gamble Company||Lotioned tissue paper containing an emollient and a polyol polyester immobilizing agent|
|US5656132 *||Mar 6, 1995||Aug 12, 1997||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US5667636 *||Oct 27, 1994||Sep 16, 1997||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method for making smooth uncreped throughdried sheets|
|US5672249 *||Apr 3, 1996||Sep 30, 1997||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for including a fine particulate filler into tissue paper using starch|
|US5700352 *||Apr 3, 1996||Dec 23, 1997||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for including a fine particulate filler into tissue paper using an anionic polyelectrolyte|
|US5705164 *||Aug 3, 1995||Jan 6, 1998||The Procter & Gamble Company||Lotioned tissue paper containing a liquid polyol polyester emollient and an immobilizing agent|
|US5722180 *||Sep 4, 1996||Mar 3, 1998||Fort James Corporation||Apparatus for drying a wet paper web|
|US5759346 *||Sep 27, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making smooth uncreped tissue paper containing fine particulate fillers|
|US5772845 *||Oct 17, 1996||Jun 30, 1998||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US5801107 *||Dec 20, 1996||Sep 1, 1998||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Liquid transport material|
|US5830317 *||Dec 20, 1996||Nov 3, 1998||The Procter & Gamble Company||Soft tissue paper with biased surface properties containing fine particulate fillers|
|US5851629 *||Aug 13, 1997||Dec 22, 1998||Fort James Corporation||Soft single-ply tissue having very low sidedness|
|US5865950 *||May 22, 1996||Feb 2, 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for creping tissue paper|
|US5888347 *||May 2, 1997||Mar 30, 1999||Kimberly-Clark World Wide, Inc.||Method for making smooth uncreped throughdried sheets|
|US5915813 *||May 21, 1996||Jun 29, 1999||Fort James Corporation||Apparatus and method for drying a wet web and modifying the moisture profile thereof|
|US5932068 *||Mar 10, 1997||Aug 3, 1999||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US5935381 *||Jun 6, 1997||Aug 10, 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Differential density cellulosic structure and process for making same|
|US5938893 *||Aug 15, 1997||Aug 17, 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure and process for making same|
|US5944954 *||Feb 5, 1997||Aug 31, 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for creping tissue paper|
|US5958185 *||Nov 7, 1995||Sep 28, 1999||Vinson; Kenneth Douglas||Soft filled tissue paper with biased surface properties|
|US5958187 *||Jul 11, 1997||Sep 28, 1999||Fort James Corporation||Prewettable high softness paper product having temporary wet strength|
|US6001218 *||Jul 7, 1997||Dec 14, 1999||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Production of soft paper products from old newspaper|
|US6022818 *||Apr 2, 1996||Feb 8, 2000||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Hydroentangled nonwoven composites|
|US6027610 *||Jun 7, 1995||Feb 22, 2000||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Production of soft paper products from old newspaper|
|US6042692 *||Jul 8, 1996||Mar 28, 2000||Valmet-Karlstad Ab||Paper machine for manufacturing a web of soft crepe paper|
|US6059928 *||Sep 18, 1995||May 9, 2000||Fort James Corporation||Prewettable high softness paper product having temporary wet strength|
|US6074527 *||Nov 20, 1997||Jun 13, 2000||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Production of soft paper products from coarse cellulosic fibers|
|US6096152 *||Apr 30, 1997||Aug 1, 2000||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Creped tissue product having a low friction surface and improved wet strength|
|US6103061 *||Jul 7, 1998||Aug 15, 2000||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft, strong hydraulically entangled nonwoven composite material and method for making the same|
|US6139686 *||Dec 19, 1997||Oct 31, 2000||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process and apparatus for making foreshortened cellulsic structure|
|US6171442||Apr 30, 1999||Jan 9, 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US6171695||May 19, 1997||Jan 9, 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Thin absorbent pads for food products|
|US6199296||Dec 16, 1999||Mar 13, 2001||Valmet-Karlstad Ab||Seal arrangement for through-air drying papermaking machine|
|US6209224||Dec 8, 1998||Apr 3, 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method and apparatus for making a throughdried tissue product without a throughdrying fabric|
|US6238682||Mar 12, 1998||May 29, 2001||The Procter & Gamble Company||Anhydrous skin lotions having antimicrobial components for application to tissue paper products which mitigate the potential for skin irritation|
|US6261580||Aug 31, 1998||Jul 17, 2001||The Procter & Gamble Company||Tissue paper with enhanced lotion transfer|
|US6296736||Oct 30, 1997||Oct 2, 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Process for modifying pulp from recycled newspapers|
|US6315864||Oct 30, 1997||Nov 13, 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Cloth-like base sheet and method for making the same|
|US6387210||Sep 30, 1998||May 14, 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method of making sanitary paper product from coarse fibers|
|US6387217||Nov 12, 1999||May 14, 2002||Fort James Corporation||Apparatus for maximizing water removal in a press nip|
|US6428794||Sep 20, 1995||Aug 6, 2002||The Procter & Gamble Company||Lotion composition for treating tissue paper|
|US6458248||Mar 17, 2000||Oct 1, 2002||Fort James Corporation||Apparatus for maximizing water removal in a press nip|
|US6464830||Nov 7, 2000||Oct 15, 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method for forming a multi-layered paper web|
|US6517672||Jul 16, 2001||Feb 11, 2003||Fort James Corporation||Method for maximizing water removal in a press nip|
|US6547928||Nov 30, 2001||Apr 15, 2003||The Procter & Gamble Company||Soft tissue paper having a softening composition containing an extensional viscosity modifier deposited thereon|
|US6572735||Aug 22, 2000||Jun 3, 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Wet-formed composite defining latent voids and macro-cavities|
|US6602387||Nov 22, 2000||Aug 5, 2003||The Procter & Gamble Company||Thick and smooth multi-ply tissue|
|US6669821||Nov 14, 2001||Dec 30, 2003||Fort James Corporation||Apparatus for maximizing water removal in a press nip|
|US6701637||Apr 20, 2001||Mar 9, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Systems for tissue dried with metal bands|
|US6712121||Oct 12, 2001||Mar 30, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Antimicrobially-treated fabrics|
|US6739023||Jul 18, 2002||May 25, 2004||Kimberly Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method of forming a nonwoven composite fabric and fabric produced thereof|
|US6752905 *||Oct 8, 2002||Jun 22, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having reduced slough|
|US6780282||Jun 14, 2001||Aug 24, 2004||Voith Pater Patent Gmbh||Machine and process for producing a fibrous material web|
|US6797117||Nov 30, 2000||Sep 28, 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Low viscosity bilayer disrupted softening composition for tissue paper|
|US6808597 *||Jul 9, 2002||Oct 26, 2004||Hercules Incorporated||Methods of making and using creping adhesives comprised of polyamine-epihalohydrin resin/poly(vinyl alcohol) mixtures|
|US6808790||May 23, 2002||Oct 26, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Wet-resilient webs and disposable articles made therewith|
|US6827818||Sep 27, 2002||Dec 7, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US6846383 *||Jul 10, 2002||Jan 25, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Wiping products made according to a low temperature delamination process|
|US6849157||May 7, 2004||Feb 1, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US6855229||Jan 16, 2004||Feb 15, 2005||The Procter & Gamble Company||Low viscosity bilayer disrupted softening composition for tissue paper|
|US6861380||Nov 6, 2002||Mar 1, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having reduced lint and slough|
|US6887350||Dec 13, 2002||May 3, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having enhanced strength|
|US6918993 *||May 28, 2003||Jul 19, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Multi-ply wiping products made according to a low temperature delamination process|
|US6929714||Apr 23, 2004||Aug 16, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having reduced slough|
|US6958103||Dec 23, 2002||Oct 25, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Entangled fabrics containing staple fibers|
|US6979386||Aug 22, 2000||Dec 27, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having increased absorbency|
|US6986830 *||Dec 19, 2003||Jan 17, 2006||Voith Paper Patent Gmbh||Method and a machine for the manufacture of a fiber web|
|US6991706||Sep 2, 2003||Jan 31, 2006||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Clothlike pattern densified web|
|US6992028||Sep 9, 2002||Jan 31, 2006||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Multi-layer nonwoven fabric|
|US7022201||Dec 23, 2002||Apr 4, 2006||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Entangled fabric wipers for oil and grease absorbency|
|US7041196||Dec 18, 2003||May 9, 2006||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US7045026||Dec 18, 2003||May 16, 2006||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US7156954||May 7, 2004||Jan 2, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft tissue|
|US7189307||Sep 2, 2003||Mar 13, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Low odor binders curable at room temperature|
|US7194788||Dec 23, 2003||Mar 27, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft and bulky composite fabrics|
|US7194789||Dec 23, 2003||Mar 27, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Abraded nonwoven composite fabrics|
|US7229529||Jul 15, 2004||Jun 12, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Low odor binders curable at room temperature|
|US7255816||Nov 5, 2001||Aug 14, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method of recycling bonded fibrous materials and synthetic fibers and fiber-like materials produced thereof|
|US7297231||Jul 15, 2004||Nov 20, 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Binders curable at room temperature with low blocking|
|US7300552||Mar 3, 2003||Nov 27, 2007||Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products Lp||Method for maximizing water removal in a press nip|
|US7311853||Sep 20, 2002||Dec 25, 2007||The Procter & Gamble Company||Paper softening compositions containing quaternary ammonium compound and high levels of free amine and soft tissue paper products comprising said compositions|
|US7354502||Dec 18, 2003||Apr 8, 2008||The Procter & Gamble Company||Method for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US7361253||Jul 18, 2005||Apr 22, 2008||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Multi-ply wiping products made according to a low temperature delamination process|
|US7432309||Oct 17, 2003||Oct 7, 2008||The Procter & Gamble Company||Paper softening compositions containing low levels of high molecular weight polymers and soft tissue paper products comprising said compositions|
|US7435312||Nov 9, 2005||Oct 14, 2008||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method of making a clothlike pattern densified web|
|US7449085||Nov 1, 2006||Nov 11, 2008||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Paper sheet having high absorbent capacity and delayed wet-out|
|US7478463||Sep 26, 2005||Jan 20, 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Manufacturing process for combining a layer of pulp fibers with another substrate|
|US7566381||Apr 16, 2007||Jul 28, 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Low odor binders curable at room temperature|
|US7582577||Mar 23, 2006||Sep 1, 2009||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure comprising an oil system|
|US7645353||Dec 23, 2003||Jan 12, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ultrasonically laminated multi-ply fabrics|
|US7645359||Jan 3, 2006||Jan 12, 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US7662256||Aug 8, 2008||Feb 16, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Methods of making two-sided cloth like webs|
|US7678228||Sep 17, 2007||Mar 16, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Binders curable at room temperature with low blocking|
|US7678856||Sep 17, 2007||Mar 16, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide Inc.||Binders curable at room temperature with low blocking|
|US7744723||May 2, 2007||Jun 29, 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure product with high softness|
|US7749355||Oct 25, 2005||Jul 6, 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Tissue paper|
|US7754049||Oct 18, 2007||Jul 13, 2010||Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products Lp||Method for maximizing water removal in a press nip|
|US7811951||Aug 19, 2009||Oct 12, 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure comprising an oil system|
|US7820874||Feb 10, 2006||Oct 26, 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Acacia fiber-containing fibrous structures and methods for making same|
|US7829177||Jun 8, 2005||Nov 9, 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web materials having offset emboss patterns disposed thereon|
|US7918951||Jan 3, 2006||Apr 5, 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US8021996||Dec 23, 2008||Sep 20, 2011||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Nonwoven web and filter media containing partially split multicomponent fibers|
|US8049060||Jun 29, 2006||Nov 1, 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Bulk softened fibrous structures|
|US8080130||Jan 22, 2009||Dec 20, 2011||Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products Lp||High basis weight TAD towel prepared from coarse furnish|
|US8110072||May 4, 2009||Feb 7, 2012||The Procter & Gamble Company||Through air dried papermaking machine employing an impermeable transfer belt|
|US8425729||Dec 17, 2008||Apr 23, 2013||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Embossed nonwoven fabric|
|US8455077||May 7, 2007||Jun 4, 2013||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structures comprising a region of auxiliary bonding and methods for making same|
|US8466216||Apr 16, 2007||Jun 18, 2013||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Low odor binders curable at room temperature|
|US8616126||Mar 4, 2011||Dec 31, 2013||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia having a large color gamut on web substrates|
|US8665493||Mar 4, 2011||Mar 4, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8758560||Mar 4, 2011||Jun 24, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8833250||Mar 4, 2011||Sep 16, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia having a large color gamut on web substrates|
|US8839716||Mar 4, 2011||Sep 23, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia having a large color gamut on web substrates|
|US8839717||Mar 4, 2011||Sep 23, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Unique process for printing multiple color indicia upon web substrates|
|US8916260||Mar 4, 2011||Dec 23, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8916261||Mar 4, 2011||Dec 23, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8920911||Mar 4, 2011||Dec 30, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8927092||Mar 4, 2011||Jan 6, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8927093||Mar 4, 2011||Jan 6, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8943957||Mar 4, 2011||Feb 3, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia having a large color gamut on web substrates|
|US8943958||Mar 4, 2011||Feb 3, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia having a large color gamut on web substrates|
|US8943959||Mar 4, 2011||Feb 3, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Unique process for printing multiple color indicia upon web substrates|
|US8943960||Mar 4, 2011||Feb 3, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Unique process for printing multiple color indicia upon web substrates|
|US8962124||Mar 4, 2011||Feb 24, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Web substrates having wide color gamut indicia printed thereon|
|US8985013||Mar 4, 2011||Mar 24, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia having a large color gamut on web substrates|
|US9032875||Aug 27, 2014||May 19, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia on web substrates|
|US9085130||Sep 27, 2013||Jul 21, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Optimized internally-fed high-speed rotary printing device|
|US9102133||Aug 27, 2014||Aug 11, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia on web substrates|
|US9102182||Aug 25, 2014||Aug 11, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia on web substrates|
|US9108398||Aug 27, 2014||Aug 18, 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus for applying indicia on web substrates|
|US20020060046 *||Jun 14, 2001||May 23, 2002||Voith Paper Patent Gmbh||Machine and process for producing a fibrous material web|
|US20040065422 *||Oct 8, 2002||Apr 8, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having reduced slough|
|US20040082668 *||Oct 17, 2003||Apr 29, 2004||Vinson Kenneth Douglas||Paper softening compositions containing low levels of high molecular weight polymers and soft tissue paper products comprising said compositions|
|US20040112558 *||Dec 13, 2002||Jun 17, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Tissue products having enhanced strength|
|US20040121121 *||Dec 23, 2002||Jun 24, 2004||Kimberly -Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Entangled fabrics containing an apertured nonwoven web|
|US20040121683 *||Dec 20, 2002||Jun 24, 2004||Joy Jordan||Composite elastic material|
|US20040121689 *||Dec 23, 2002||Jun 24, 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Entangled fabrics containing staple fibers|
|US20040121693 *||Dec 23, 2002||Jun 24, 2004||Anderson Ralph Lee||Entangled fabric wipers for oil and grease absorbency|
|US20040144511 *||Jan 16, 2004||Jul 29, 2004||Mckay David D.||Low viscosity bilayer disrupted softening composition for tissue paper|
|US20040154763 *||Dec 18, 2003||Aug 12, 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Method for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US20040154769 *||Dec 18, 2003||Aug 12, 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US20040157515 *||Dec 18, 2003||Aug 12, 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making a fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US20040157524 *||Dec 18, 2003||Aug 12, 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure comprising cellulosic and synthetic fibers|
|US20040194901 *||Apr 23, 2004||Oct 7, 2004||Sheng-Hsin Hu||Tissue products having reduced slough|
|US20040206465 *||May 7, 2004||Oct 21, 2004||Farrington Theodore Edwin||Soft tissue|
|US20040244933 *||Dec 19, 2003||Dec 9, 2004||Scherb Thomas Thoroe||Method and a machine for the manufacture of a fiber web|
|US20050006039 *||May 7, 2004||Jan 13, 2005||Farrington Theodore Edwin||Soft tissue|
|US20050045292 *||Sep 2, 2003||Mar 3, 2005||Lindsay Jeffrey Dean||Clothlike pattern densified web|
|US20050045293 *||Sep 2, 2003||Mar 3, 2005||Hermans Michael Alan||Paper sheet having high absorbent capacity and delayed wet-out|
|US20050045294 *||Sep 2, 2003||Mar 3, 2005||Goulet Mike Thomas||Low odor binders curable at room temperature|
|US20050045295 *||Jul 15, 2004||Mar 3, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Low odor binders curable at room temperature|
|US20050136776 *||Dec 23, 2003||Jun 23, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Soft and bulky composite fabrics|
|US20050136777 *||Dec 23, 2003||Jun 23, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Abraded nonwoven composite fabrics|
|US20050136778 *||Dec 23, 2003||Jun 23, 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc .||Ultrasonically laminated multi-ply fabrics|
|US20050245160 *||Jul 13, 2005||Nov 3, 2005||Anderson Ralph L||Entangled fabrics containing staple fibers|
|US20050247417 *||Jul 18, 2005||Nov 10, 2005||Maurizio Tirimacco||Multi-ply wiping products made according to a low temperature delamination process|
|US20060014884 *||Jul 15, 2004||Jan 19, 2006||Kimberty-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Binders curable at room temperature with low blocking|
|USRE42968 *||Mar 15, 2011||Nov 29, 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure product with high softness|
|EP0098148A2 *||Jun 28, 1983||Jan 11, 1984||Canadian Pacific Forest Products Limited/ Produits Forestiers Canadien Pacifique Limitee||Process for manufacture of high bulk paper|
|EP1176250A2 *||Mar 30, 2001||Jan 30, 2002||Voith Paper Patent GmbH||Process and apparatus for making a fibrous web|
|EP2088237A1||Jan 26, 2009||Aug 12, 2009||Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products LP||High basis weight TAD towel prepared from coarse furnish|
|WO1981002704A1 *||Mar 18, 1981||Oct 1, 1981||Valmet Oy||Procedure and paper machine for manufacturing creped paper web|
|WO1997003247A1 *||May 30, 1996||Jan 30, 1997||Valmet Karlstad Ab||A paper machine for manufacturing a web of soft crepe paper|
|WO1999020821A1 *||Oct 16, 1998||Apr 29, 1999||Kimberly Clark Co||Soft, strong hydraulically entangled nonwoven composite material and method for making the same|
|WO1999023290A1 *||Oct 30, 1998||May 14, 1999||Kimberly Clark Co||Cloth-like base sheet and method for making the same|
|WO2002043546A1||Nov 27, 2001||Jun 6, 2002||Procter & Gamble||Dispensing apparatus|
|WO2007040662A2 *||Jun 2, 2006||Apr 12, 2007||Kimberly Clark Co||Manufacturing process for combining a layer of pulp fibers with another substrate|
|WO2010004519A2||Jul 9, 2009||Jan 14, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Substrates having formulations with improved transferability|
|WO2010073149A2||Nov 24, 2009||Jul 1, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Nonwoven web and filter media containing partially split multicomponent fibers|
|WO2011106584A1||Feb 25, 2011||Sep 1, 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fibrous structure product with high wet bulk recovery|
|WO2013126531A1||Feb 21, 2013||Aug 29, 2013||The Procter & Gamble Company||Embossed fibrous structures and methods for making same|
|WO2014004939A1||Jun 28, 2013||Jan 3, 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Textured fibrous webs, apparatus and methods for forming textured fibrous webs|
|U.S. Classification||162/111, 156/183, 162/207, 162/179, 162/290, 162/168.1, 428/153, 162/281|
|International Classification||D21F9/02, D21F11/14, D21F9/00, D21F11/00, D21H21/14|
|Cooperative Classification||D21H21/146, D21F9/02, D21F11/14|
|European Classification||D21H21/14D, D21F11/14, D21F9/02|