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Publication numberUS3822853 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 9, 1974
Filing dateFeb 22, 1972
Priority dateDec 30, 1969
Publication numberUS 3822853 A, US 3822853A, US-A-3822853, US3822853 A, US3822853A
InventorsShelley S
Original AssigneeShelley Enterprises
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for producing modular boxlike units
US 3822853 A
Abstract
Apparatus for producing modular boxlike units in which a ceiling slab, side walls and in some cases interior partitions are cast together to comprise a first portion of a monolithic structure. The casting mold is characterized by having form portions pivotally mounted on a stationary structure and which are movable relative to the stationary structure between a closed position for casting in which all form portions are in a predetermined aligned relationship and an open position for removing the cast first portion of the monolithic structure from the mold. After the mold is opened, the first portion of the monolithic structure is removed to a floor slab mold, and a floor slab is cast in contact with the side walls and interior partitions to form the completed monolithic structure.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

llnited States Patent 1191 Shelley g 1.1 1 3,822,853 1451 July 9,1974

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 127,170

/1960 U.S.S.R 249/27 [76] Inventor: Shelley W. Shelley, c/o Shelley 346,996 7/1960 Switzerland 425/62 Enterprises, San Marcos Ave., Ext. 1,327,037 4/1963 France 425/62 El comandante, San Juan, P R 674,658 11/1963 Canada 1 249/27 00924 50,495 l/1966 Poland 249 27 122] Filed: 1972 Primary ExaminerRobert D. Baldwin 21 APP] NO: 223 4 Assistant Examiner-M McQuade R l t d U S A r f D t Attorney, Agent, or Fzrm-Lee C. Robinson, Jr.

eae pplcalon aa [60] Division of Ser. No. 889,045, Dec. 30, 1969, [57] ABSTRACT abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. A

pparatus for producing modular boxlike unlts in 790305 1969 which a ceiling slab, side walls and in some cases interior partitions are cast together to comprise a first [52] US. 249/27 249/162 2 0 portion of a monolithic structure. The casting mold is [51] I t Cl E04 11/02 characterized by having form 'portions pivotally 58] d 162 mounted on a stationary structure and which are mov- 2129/1080 egg 155.144 24 126 161 1 4 able relative to the stationary structure between a closed position for casting in which all form portions are in a predetermined aligned relationship and an [56] References 'l open position for removing the cast first portion of the UNITED STATES PATENTS monolithic structure from the mold. After the mold is 1,168,659 1/1916 McArthur 249/182 opened, the first portion of the monolithic structure is 2,708,780 5/1955 Burlthalter 249/99 emo ed to a floor slabmold, and a floor slab is cast 312741306 9/ 1966 Kestmg 249/27 X in contact with the side walls and interior partitions to h t z form the completed monolithic structure. 33689ZO18 9/1972 Pelle 249/ 10 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures I 78 so V 22 J0" I 3 so 78 n \F 1 u" 1 /nf 44 N Na $399M m new \2 4 74 5 32 a 911 v w: 72 6k I t 6, 72 ll-i Q 42" I. FM

1 1 40 t 66 H l-G K H 3 7o g 26 E as Z e 4 x A E 5 l 49 I 32 1 H\ 1 g 48 2:4 4 42 ea 5 i o a a as 62 5e 5 c2 l 1 I u f D a V/%%/ A /%1 ///Mf W//%C////31 3'0 2 5 60 5'0 2a 5a 60 41 0 sa MENTED JUL 91974 SHEU 03 W H MHMM Q PNEMEBM. 919M SHEET 0E [If N PATENTEDM 3.8229853 sum w 0? w APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING MODULAR BOXLIKE UNITS CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION j cast with additional forms which needed to be transported to the location of the floor slab. Among the disadvantages of these prior systems was that after each casting operation the forms were disassembled to removethem from the cast unit. Thereafter they were either discarded or needed to be repositioned and reassembled to cast successive boxlike units. With each assembly, the forms had to be leveled'and aligned with each other.

Another disadvantage of severalof the casting systems employed heretofore was that the equipment and procedures used were not readily adaptableto the production of the boxlike units on an assembly line basis, thereby leading 'to inefficient and expensive use of manpower and equipment.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention overcomes the above and other disadvantages by providing apparatusfor producing modular boxlike units in which a ceiling slab, side walls and in some cases interior partitions are cast together to form a first'portion of a monolithic structure. After the first portion is removed from the forms in a unique manner, it is then transported to a floor slab form. The floor slab is thereafter cast in contact with the side walls and interior partitions to provide a boxlike monolithic structure for assembly into a building structure.

The mold in one preferred embodiment for casting the first portion of the monolithic structure comprises a stationary horizontal top form for casting the ceiling slab, exterior and interior wall forms movable relative to the top form between an open and a closed position, and means to move the wall forms into the open or the closed position. In the closed position the forms are in a predetermined aligned relationship with each other for casting. In the open position the wall forms are spaced from the cast first portion of the monolithic structure so that the first portion may be readily removed from the mold.

In some embodiments the wall forms are hinged from a scaffold rigidly mounted on a concrete base slab. In still other embodiments one or more L shaped forms serve as interior forms for both the side walls and the ceiling slab. Because the forms are mounted such that they may be readily moved into a closed, aligned relationship, there is no need to adjust and level the forms with each casting.

In some cases the forms are constructed to provide for vertical support columns located at the corners of the boxlike units and integral therewith, and at other select locations within the unit. Some of the purposes and locations of these support columns are more fully explained incopending US. application Ser. No. 762,668, filed Aug. 14, 1968, by Shelley W. Shelley, and in the continuation-in-part application filed Nov. 26, 1969.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The present'invention, as well as further objects and features thereof, will become more fully apparent from the following description of certain preferred embodiments, when read with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a horizontal sectional view' of a monolithic building structure produced in accordance with one illustrative embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken generally along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1, together with the top slab form, movable wall forms and a device for moving the wall forms into the open and the closed positions in accordance with one illustrative embodiment of the invention; r

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 3,-3 in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view taken along the line 4-4 in FIG. 1, together with cooperating pre-formed side walls and supporting structure;

FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view similar toFIG. 2 but illustrating the cast structure after it has been removed from the wall and ceiling forms to an additional form for casting a floor slab; v

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a modification of the mold structure of FIG. 2, the mold being shown in a closed position for casting;

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view similar to FIG. 7 but showing the mold in an open position for stripping and cleaning;-

' FIG. 9 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a mold structure having a pair of movable wall forms in accordance with still another illustrative embodiment of the invention, the wall forms being shown in their closed positions for casting;

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a modification of the mold structure of FIG. 9, the forms being shown in their opened positions for stripping and cleaning;

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a mold structure having a pair of wall forms in accordance with a still further illustrative embodiment of the invention, the forms being shown in their closed positions for casting;

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view similar to FIG. 11, but showing the wall forms in an open position for stripping and cleaning;

FIG. 13 is a fragmentary view similar to FIG. 3 of a modified side wall form of the embodiment of FIG. 2;

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view of a mold structure having a pair of wall forms and a corner form in accordance with a still further illustrative embodiment of the invention, the forms being shown in their closed positions for casting.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 there is shown a cast concrete structure in the shape of an E turned on its side with the fingers of the E extending downwardly. The structure 20 is comprised of a ceiling slab 22, opposed side walls 24 and interior partitions 26 and 27 between the side walls 24. The interior partitions 26 and 27 are each equidistant from the side walls 24. The bottom edges of the walls 24 and the interior partitions 26 and 27 each rest on soffits 28. The soffits 28 are attached to a horizontal, flat base 30 made of concrete or steel.

A plurality of open frame scaffolds 32 are affixed to the base 30 and rise upwardly to a height just short of the top of the side walls 24 and the interior partitions 26 and 27. Welded to the top of each scaffold 32 is a set of regularly spaced apart, parallel, horizontal I beams 34. Welded on top of, and at right angles to each set of I beams 34 is a set of parallel, horizontal I beams 35 spaced at regular intervals. Welded across the top of each set of I beams 35 is a horizontal steel top plate 36. The edges 38 of each steel top plate 36 which are nearest the sidewalls 24 and the interior partition 26, are bent downwardly and inwardly to form acute angles with the underside of the steel top plate 36. Together, the steel top plates 26 are the form for the ceiling slab 22. The I beam lattices support the plates 36 and prevent them from sagging during the casting of the ceiling slab 22.

A vertical interior form 40 is mounted on the side of each scaffold 32 opposite each side wall 24 by means of parallel, pivoted, swinging arms 42. Each swinging arm 42 is pivoted at one end to the scaffold 32 and pivoted at the other end to the interior form 40. The swinging arms 42 are pivoted at selected intervals along the top, the middle and the bottom of the interior form 40 (see FIG. 2). Each swinging arm 42 is parallel to the swinging arm directly beneath it, and is parallel to the swinging arms opposite it at the same height on the interior form 40.

The length of each swinging arm 42 is such that each interior form 40 may be swung into an opened position away from the sidewall 24 or into a closed position in contact with the side wall 24. The interior form 40 may thus be swung into a closed and an opened position while still remaining vertically upright and in an aligned relationship with the top plate 36. The interior forms 40 in the closed position extend from the underside of the ceiling slab 22 to just below bottoms of the side walls 24.

A vertical steel plate 44 constitutes the casting surface of each interior form 40. The outer surface of the casting plate 44 is in contact with the side wall 24 when the form is in the closed position. A series of parallel, horizontal I" beams 46 are welded to the surface of each casting plate 44 nearest the scaffold 32. The horizontal I" beams 46 are spaced approximately one foot apart. A series of parallel, vertical 1" beams 48 are welded to each set of horizontal "I beams 46 (see FIG. 3). The vertical I" beams 48 are spaced about four feet apart. This lattice of I beams prevents the casting plate 44 from bulging inwardly from the weight of the concrete during casting. The swinging arms 42 are shown as pivoted to a selected vertical I beams 48 (see FIG. 2), however, in other embodiments they are pivoted at selected intervals along the top, middle, and bottom horizontal I beams 46.

An upper portion 50 of each casting plate 44 is bent inwardly at a right angle such that when the interior form 40 is in the closed position the portion 50 is in contact with the underside of the ceiling slab 22. The innermost edge 52 of the portion 50 is bent downwardly at an obtuse angle which is the complement of the angular bend of the edge 38 of the top plate 36. When in the closed position, the edges 38 and 52 are in a mating relationship such that little or no concrete may be seen between them during casting.

A vertical, interior form 40' which is of substantially the same construction as the interior form 40 is mounted by pivoted swinging arms 42 on each scaffold 32 opposite the interior form 40 in a substantially identical manner to the mounting of the interior form 40. When in the closed position, the interior forms 40' are in a spaced relationship with each other and each is in contact with opposite sides of the interior partition 26. In a manner similar to that of the interior form 40, the interior forms 40' each have an upper portion 50' bent inwardly at a right angle and an edge 52 in mating relationship with a corresponding top plate edge 38 when the interior forms 40' are in their closed position.

The length and height of the interior forms 40 are approximately the length and heightof the interior partition 26 (see FIGS. 2 and 3). The interior partition 27 is cast in forms having construction substantially identical to the construction of the forms 40.

As viewed in FIG. 2, the left interior forms 40 and 40' are in the open position and the right interior forms 40 and 40' are in the closed position.

A horizontal screw jack 54 is rigidly mounted on the base 30 between a sidewall interior form 40 and an opposed partition interior form 40'. A horizontal drive arm 56 extends from each end of the screw jack 54 in the direction of one of the forms. Each drive arm 56 is threaded through a pivot mounting 58 supported on a horizontal rail 60. A rod 62 is pivoted at one end to the mounting 58 and is pivoted at the other end to the bottom of the interior form 40. Another rod 62 is pivoted at one end to the other mounting 58 and is pivoted at the other end to the bottom of the interior form 40. By

causing the screw jack 54 to rotate its drive arms 56 the mountings 58 are retracted or extended and the interior forms 40 and 40 may be swung into the open closed positions, respectively.

In other embodiments, the common screw arrangement of FIG. 2 is replaced by separate jacks, drive arms, and rods for each of the interior forms 40 and 40'. In still other embodiments the screw jack 54 is replaced with a hydraulic or pneumatic device. In embodiments having long side-walls, a jack arrangement may be repeated at selected intervals along the interior forms 40 and 40'.

Opposite the exterior surface of each side wall 24 is an exterior form 64 which is in contact with the side wall 24 when the exterior form 64 is in a closed position for casting. Each side wall exterior form 64 is supported on an open frame 66 which is movable on a carriage 68. The carriage 68, the frame 66 and the form 64 are rolled to an opened position in the direction indicated by the arrow to strip the form 64 from the cast side wall 24 upon hardening.

The construction of the exterior forms 64 is similar to the construction of the interior forms 40 and 40. A vertical, steel plate 70 constitutes the casting surface of each exterior form 64. One surface of the casting plate 70 is in contact with the side wall 24 when the exterior form 64 is in a closed position. A series of parallel, horizontal I beams 72 are welded to the opposite surface of each casting plate 70, the I beams 72 being spaced approximately one foot apart. A series of parallel, vertical I beams 74 (see FIG. 2) spaced approximately four feet apart are welded to each set of horizontal I beams 72. This I" beam lattice prevents the casting plate 70 from bulging outward under the weight of the concrete during casting.

The open frame 66 is welded at spaced intervals to selected vertical I" beams 74 (see FIG. 2), although in some embodiments it is welded at spaced intervals to top, middle, and bottom horizontal I beams 72. The bottom of the open frame 66 and the bottoms of the vertical I" beams 74 are welded to the carriage 68. The carriage 68 rolls upon the base 30.

As best shown in FIGS. 1, 3 and 4, two pre-formed exterior side walls 76a and 76b are positioned perpendicular to, and between the ends of the side walls 24. The pre-formed side walls 76a and 76b are equipped with L shaped reinforcing members 77 which protrude from the upper. portion of the side walls 76a and 765 such that one leg of the members 77 lie in the plane of the ceiling slab 22. A lifting lug 78 is welded to each reinforcing member 77 and protrudes above the ceiling slab 22.

The ends of the pre-formed side walls 76a and 76b are the end forms for the side walls 24. An elastic gasket 41 or a removable filler is positioned between the ends of the forms 40 and 40 and the pre-formed walls 76a and 76b to seal the forms against the pre-for'med walls and to allow the forms to be opened easily. The pre-formed side wall 76b is the end form for the right end of the interior partition 26 as viewed in FIG. 1. The pre-formed wall 76a is the end form for the left end of the interior partition 27 as viewed in FIG. ll.

Steel reinforcing members 79 extend from the ends of the pre-formed side walls 76a and 76b into the ends of the side walls 24. Steel reinforcing members 81 extend perpendicularly from the pre-formed walls 76a and 76b into the ends of the interior partitions 26 and 27.

A pre-formed partition 80 extends inwardly and perpendicularly from each side wall 24 at selected locations. A pre-formed interior partition 82 is positioned to extend inwardly and perpendicularly from the left side wall 24 as viewed in FIG. 1. The end of the partition 82 opposite the left side wall 24 is the other end form for the interior partition 26. An elastic gasket 43 or removable filler is positioned between the end of the form 40' and the pre-formed partition 82 to seal the form against the pre-formed partition and to allow the form 40 to be opened easily.

The pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82 are each equipped with T shaped reinforcing members 84 which protrude from the upper portions of the interior partitions such that the cross arm of the Ts lie in the plane of the ceiling slab 22. Steel reinforcing members 86 also extend from the ends of the pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82 into the adjoining side walls 24 (see FIGS. 1 and 3). Steel reinforcing members 88 extend from the opposite end of the pre-formed inter- 6 ior partition'82 into the left end of the interior partition 26 as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 4.

The pre-formed side walls 760 and 76b are notched in an L shape at the juncture of the pre-formed side walls withthe ceiling slab 22. The upper leg of the L serves to contain the concrete of the ceiling slab 22 along the edges of the pre-formed side wall 76a and 76b during casting (see FIG. 4).

The pre-formed side walls 76a and 76b are held in position between an outside, wheel mounted scaffold 90 and one or more swinging arms 92 which are pivotally mounted on the scaffold 32. The interior partitions 80 and 82 are held in place between swinging arms 93 which are pivotally mounted on the scaffolds 32. In other embodiments the pre-formed walls 76a and 76b and the interior partitions 80 and 82 are propped into position with timbers nailed to the base 30. The base 30 is provided with recesses 94 (FIG. 4) which receive the lower edges of the preformed walls 76a and 76b and the pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82.

The pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82 have recesses 96 and 98, respectively, at their bottom edges as shown more clearly in hidden line fashion in FIG. 6. The recess 96 is defined by two downwardly extending projections 100. The downward projections 100 are at opposite ends of the pre-formed interior partition 80 and at other selected locations. The recess 98 is defined by'a similar pair of downward projections 102 located at opposite ends of the pre-formed interior partition'82 and at other selected locations.

The pre-formed wall 76a contains a doorway 103 at its left end as viewed in FIG. 1. The pre-formed interior partition 82 contains a doorway (see FIG. 1). The side walls 24, 76a and 76b and the interior partitions 26, 27, 80 and 82 may contain other openings for win-' dows, doors, and provisions for the electrical wiring and plumbing for the unit to be constructed. The preformed walls 76a and 76b and the pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82 are preferably cast from concrete using any conventional type of mold. In other embodiments they may be made of wood and synthetic materials; 1

The ceiling slab 22, the side walls 24 and the interior partitions 26 and 27 are cast at one time with the forms 40, 40' and 64 in closed position and with the preformed walls 76a and 76b and the pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82 in their upright positions. The side walls 24 and the interior partitions 26 and 27 are integral with the ceiling slab 22. The pre-formed walls 76a and 76b are in rigid contact with the side walls 24 and the ceiling slab 22. The pre-formed side wall 76b is in rigid contact with the interior partition 26. The preformed side wall 76a is in rigid contact with the interior partition 27.

The pre-forrned interior partions 80 are in rigid contact with the ceiling slab 22, and also are in rigid contact with the side walls 24. The interior partition 82 is in rigid contact with the ceiling slab 22, the left (as viewed in FIG. 1) side wall 24 and the interior partition 26. As thus cast together, the walls 24, 76a and 76b, the interior partitions 26, 27, 80 and 82, and the ceiling slab 22 form the first portion 20 of the complete monolithic structure.

When the casting of the first portion 20 is completed, the portion 20 is lifted from the open forms 36, 40, 40', and 64 by the lugs 78 and is transported to a flat, horizontal, steel faced concrete floor slab form 104 (see FIG. The floor slab form 104 may also be made of solid steel plate. The floor slab 106 is cast in rigid contact with the bottoms of the side walls 24, 76a and 76b and the interior partitions 26, 27, 80 and 82 by pouring concrete into the interior of the structure through the recesses and 102 in the pre-formed interior partitions 80 and 82 and through the door ways 103 and 105 in the pre-formed side wall 76a and the pre-formed interior partiton 82.

In one preferred embodiment the side walls 24, 76a and 76b and the interior partitions 26, 27, 80 and 82 are provided with steel reinforcing members 108 extending horizontally from the bottom edges of the side walls and the interior partitions so as to be incorporated in the floor slab 106 upon hardening. In the same preferred embodiment the bottom edges of the side walls 24, 76a and 7611 are each provided with L" shaped notches at the points where the reinforcing members 108 exit from walls to facilitate the bending of the reinforcing members 108 into the plane of the floor slab 106. In other embodiments the L shaped notches 110 extend the entire length of the side walls 24, 76a and 76b. The downward projections 100 and 102 of the pre-formed interior 80 and 82 are rigidly engaged in the cast floor slab 106.

Referring to FIGS. 7 and 8, a modification of the mold structure of FIG. 2 is shown comprising the structure of FIG. 2 but with the substitution of the hand operated jacks 120, the rollers 122, and the sloping guide plates 124 for the screw jack 54, the horizontal drive arms 54, the pivot mountings 58, the rail 60 and the pivoted rods 62. The rollers are affixed to the bottoms of selected vertical 1 beams 48. The concave guide plates 124 support the rollers 122 and are rigidly mounted to the soffits 28 and base 30. The guide plates 124 slope downwardly and inwardly from the top of the soffit 28. A recess is provided in the base 30 to accommodate the guide plate.

The hand operated jack 120 has a drive arm 126 pivoted to the bottom of a selected vertical I beam 48 of an interior form 40. The jack 120 is mounted on a plate 121 hinged to the base 30. By turning a handle 123 on the jack so as to retract the arm 126 the interior form 40 may be rolled downwardly to an open position in order to strip the interior form 40 from the east side wall 24 (see FIG. 7). Turning the handle 123 in the opposite direction extends the arm 126 and the interior form 40 is rolled upwardly into the closed position for casting.

The relationship between the slope and curvature of the guide plates 124, the diameter of the rollers 122, together with the length and inclination of the swinging arms 42 are calculated to secure easy stripping. The interior partitions 26 and 27 are cast by similar mold structures.

Referring to FIG. 9, a mold structure is shown comprising a pair of upside-down L" shaped interior forms and 142. The upper legs of the forms 140 and 142 are turned inwardly. The forms 140 and 142 are constructed in a manner similar to the interior forms 40 of the mold embodiment of FIG. 1. The form 140 has a steel, vertical casting plate 144, one surface of which is in contact with the interior partition 26 and a portion of the undersurface of the ceiling slab 22 when the form 140 is in the closed position. A series of parallel, horizontal I" beams 146 spaced approximately one foot apart are welded to the opposite surface of the casting plate 144. A series of parallel, upside-down L shaped vertical I beams 148 spaced approximately four feet apart are welded to the horizontal I beams 146 to create a support lattice for the casting plate 144. A triangular shaped, open framework 150 is welded to the I beam lattice to support the upper leg of the form 140. The form 142 is adjacent the side wall 24.

The construction of the form 142 is substantially identical to the construction of the form 140.

Horizontal legs 152 welded to the bottoms of selected vertical 1 beams 148 of the form 140 extend under the soffit 28 supporting the interior partition 26 to pivot mountings 154 in recesses 156 in the base 30. Likewise horizontal legs 152' welded to the bottoms of selected vertical I beams 148 of the form 142 extend under the soffit 28 supporting the side wall 24 to pivot mountings 154 in recesses 156 in the base 30.

The casting plate 144 has an edge 158 just beneath the undersurface of the ceiling slab 22 which is bent downwardly at an obtuse angle. The casting plate 144' of the form 142 has a corresponding edge 160 just beneath the undersurface of the ceiling slab 22 which is bent downwardly at an acute angle which is the complement of the angular bend in the edge 158. When the forms 140 and 142 are in a closed position for casting the edges 158 and 160 are in a mating relationship which allows little or no seepage or concrete between them during casting. Together in the closed position for casting, the upper legs of the forms 140 and 142 are the horizontal form for pouring the ceiling slab 22 and the forms 140 and 142 constitute a rectangular, tunnelshaped interior form for the sidewalls 24 and the interior partitions 26 and 27.

A pneumatic or other fluid operated device 162 has a first retractable arm 164 pivotally attached to the top of the form 140 and a second retractable arm 166 pivotally attached to the base 30 near the side wall 24. Likewise a pneumatic device 168 has a first retractable arm 170 pivotally attached to the top of the form 142 and a second retractable arm 172 pivotally attached to the base 30 near the interior partition 26.

The forms are stripped from the cast structure by first energizing the device 168 so as to retract its arms 170 and 172, and pull the form 142 in an inward are away from the side wall 24 and ceiling slab 22 (shown in hidden line fashion in FIG. 9). Next the device 162 is'energized so as to retract its arms 164 and 166, thereby pulling the form 140 in an inward arcaway from the interior partition 26 and the ceiling slab 22. The forms are returned to the closed position by first causing the device 168 to extend its arms 170 and 172 and then causing the device 162 to extend its arms 164 and 166.

Referring now to FIG. 10 another embodiment of the structure discussed in reference to FIG. 9 is shown as comprising the inverted L" shaped side wall forms 140 and 142 pivotally mounted as in the structure of FIG. 9 with the addition of a stop member 174 affixed to the interior surface of the L shaped form 142 and a stop structure 176 rigidly mounted between the L shaped forms 140 and 142 on the slab 30. In place of the pneumatic devices 162 and 168 is a single device 178 which has a first drive arm 180 pivotally mounted to the upper portion of the form 142 and a second drive arm 182 pivotally mounted to the side wall form 140 near the midpoint.

The forms 140 and 142 are stripped from the cast structure by energizing the device 178 so as to retract its driving arms 180 and 182. The L shaped form'142 is swung away from the side wall 24 and the ceiling slab 22 in an inward arc until the stop member 174 engages the stop structure 176 at which point the L shaped form 141) will be swung in an inward arc away from the interiorpartition 26 and the ceiling slab 22.

A hook 184 pivoted to the stop structure 176 is moved to engage an upright pin 186 on the stop member 174 while the forms are in the open position. To close the forms 140 and 142, the device 178 is energized so as to extend its arms 180 and 182. The hook 184 holds the form 142 in the open position while the form 140 is swung back into a closed position. Thereafter the hook 184 is disengaged from the pin 186 and the form 142 is swung into the closed position. Chains 188 connected between each of the forms 140 and 142 and the base may be'used to insure that the forms 140 and 142 are not pushed past their closed positions when they are perpendicular to the base 30.

In FIG. 11 another alternative mold embodiment is shown as comprising two upside-down L shaped interior forms 190 and 191 both of which are pivotally mounted by their shorter legs to a series of parallel, horizontal beams 192 rigidly supported on a scaffold 193. r

The construction of the forms 191) and 191 is substantially the same as the construction of the forms 140 and 142 of the embodiments of FIGS. 9 and 10. The form 190 comprises an upside-down L shaped casting plate 194 backed by a lattice of Welded I beams 195. The corner 196 of the casting plate 194 is rounded to facilitate the initial movement of the forms into the open position. The construction of the form 191 is substantially identical to the construction of the form 190.

The pivot mountings of the form 191) are at the end of upturned legs 197 welded at spaced intervals to the I beam matrix 195 at the tip of the upper leg of the form. The form 191 is mounted to the opposite ends of the beams 192 in a substantially identical manner by upturned legs 197' welded at spaced intervals to the I beammatrix 195 at the tip of the upper leg of the form.

The forms 1911 and 191 are-moved into the open or closed position by pneumatic devices 198 having first retractable drive arms 199 pivotally mounted to the lower portion of the scaffold 193 and second retractable drive arms 200 pivotally mounted to the lower portions of the forms 190 and 191. The forms are moved to the open or closed positions when the devices 198 are energized to retract or extend their arms 199 and 200 (see FIG. 12) Recesses 202 are provided in the base to allow for the arc of the forms 190 and 191 while in the open position.

In other embodiments a single pneumatic device is mounted to the lower portion of the scaffold 193 in such a manner that the vertical position of the device is adjustable. The device has separate retractable drive arms pivotally mounted to the lower portion of the forms 190 and 191 and moves the forms 190 and 191 into the open or the closed position by retracting or extending its arms.

As in the manner of the forms of the embodiments of FIGS. 9 and 10, the L shaped forms 190 and 19.1 in

their closed positions constitute a rectangularly shaped tunnel and serve not only as the interior forms for the side walls 24 and the interior partitions 26 and 27 but also as the interior forms for the ceiling slab 22.

In FIG. 13 a plan view is shown of a modified side wall form 220 of one preferred embodiment of the invention wherein allowance is made for the casting of a corner vertical support column 222 and a vertical support column 223 located intermediate the corners of the boxlike unit. Both of the columns 222 and 223 are cast integral with the side wall 224. The side wall form 220 is mounted on the scaffold 32 by swinging arms 42" in a manner similar to the mounting of the side wall forms 41) and 40'. The construction of the form 220 is similar to that of the form 40 except that an indentation 226 is provided at each end of the form 220 for casting the column 222 and a U shaped recess 227 is provided in the side wall form 220 at a selected location between the ends for casting the column 223. The side portion 228 of each indentation 226 and the side portions 229 of the recess 227 have a slight inward taper. The taper is only an aid in stripping the form 220, the indentation 226 and the recesses 227 from the side wall 224 and .the vertical columns 222 and 223 upon hardening. The ends of the pre-formed walls 76a and 76b serve as the end forms for the side wall 224. Other side wall interior forms may provide for utility recesses in which pipes and electrical wiring are installed. In some embodiments the pipes and wiring are installed prior to casting while in-others the pipes and wiring are installed after the cast structure has hardened.

The embodiment of FIG. 14 is similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6 except that all the side walls are integrally cast with the ceiling slab, pre-formed side walls, such as 76a and 76b, are not used. In FIG. 14 there is shown portions of two integrally cast, perpendicular, concrete side walls 320 and 322 of a boxlike unit. Much of the structure used in casting the embodiment of FIG. 14 is substantially identical to the structure used in casting the embodiment of FIGS. l6, for example the forms 64 are used to cast the exterior surface of the walls 328 and 322.

The construction of the interior forms of the embodiment of FIG. 14 is similar to the construction of the interior forms of the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6. An open frame scaffold 324 is affixed to the base 30 and rises upwardly to a height just short of the top of the side walls 320 and 322.

A vertical interior form 326 is mounted on the side of the scaffold 324 opposite the interior surface of the side wall 321) by means of parallel, pivoted swinging arms 328. Each swinging arm 328 is pivoted at one end to the scaffold 324 and pivoted at the other end to the interior form 326. The swinging arms 328 are located at selected intervals along the top, the middle, and the bottom of the interior form 326 in a manner similar to the way in which the swinging arms 42 are located on the interior forms 40 of the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6. Each swinging arm 328 is parallel to the swinging arm directly beneath it and is parallel to the swinging arms opposite it at the same height on the interior form 326.

The length of each swinging arm 328 is such that each interior form 326 may be swung into an open posi tion away from the side wall 320 or into a closed position in contact with the side wall 320. The interior form 326 may thus be swung into a closed and an open position while still remaining vertically upright. The interior form 326 extends from the top of the side wall 320 to just below the bottom of the side wall 320.

A vertical steel plate 330 constitutes the casting surface of each interior form 326. The outer surface of the casting plate 330 is in contact with the interior surface of the side wall 320 when the form 326 is in a closed position. A series of parallel horizontal I beams 332 are welded to the other surface of the casting plate 330. A series of vertical 1 beams 334 are welded to each set of horizontal I beams 332 at spaced intervals. This lattice of 'I beams prevents the casting plate 330 from bulging inwardly due to the weight of the concrete during casting. An edge 336 of the casting plate 330 which is nearest the corner formed by the intersection of the side walls 320 and 322 is bent inwardly at an acute angle from the wall 320. The swinging arms 328 may be pivoted to selected vertical I beams 334 or at selected points along the top, middle, and bottom horizontal I beams 332.

The form 326 is moved between its open and closed positions by a jack 338 having a rotatable drive arm 340 threaded in a pivot mounting 342. The pivot mounting 342 is supported by a horizontal rail 343. A connecting rod 344 is pivoted at one end to the pivot mounting 342 and at the other end to a selected vertical I beam 334 of the interior form 326. The form 326 is moved to its open position by causing the jack 338 to rotate its drive arm 340 in a predetermined direction thereby causing the pivot mounting 342 and the connecting rod 344 to be withdrawn. The form 326 is moved to its closed position by causing the jack 338 to turn its drive arm 340 in the opposite direction, thereby extending the pivot mounting 342 and the connecting rod 344.

A vertical, interior form 346 which is of substantially the same construction as the interior form 326 is mounted by pivoted swinging arms 328 on the side of the scaffold 324 opposite the interior surface of the side wall 322 in a substantially identical manner as the interior form 326. The swinging arms 328' are pivoted at one end to the interior form 346 and are pivoted at the other end to the scaffold 324. Each swinging arm 328' is parallel to the swinging arm directly beneath it and is parallel to the swinging arms opposite it at the same height on the interior form 346.

The length of each swinging arm 328' is such that each interior form 346 may be swung into an open positon away from the side wall 322 or into a closed position in contact with the side wall 322. The interior form 346 may thus be swung into a closed and an open position while still remaining vertically upright. The interior form 346 extends from the top of the side wall 322 to just below the bottom of the side wall 322.

The interior form 346 has a casting plate 330 in contact with the interior surface of the side wall 322 when the form 346 is in its closed position. The casting plate 330' is backed up by a welded lattice of horizontal I beams 322' and vertical I beams 334'. The casting plate has an edge 336 nearest the corner formed by the intersection of the side walls 320 and 322 which is bent inwardly from the wall 322 at an acute angle.

The form 346 is moved between its open and closed positions by a jack 339 having a rotatable drive arm 341 threaded in a pivot mounting 345. The pivot mounting 345 is supported by a horizontal rail 347. A connecting rod 349 is pivoted at one end to the pivot mounting 345 and at the other end to a selected vertical I beam 334 of the interior form 346. The form 346 is moved to its open position by causing the jack 339 to rotate its drive arm 341 in a predetermined direction thereby causing the pivot mounting 345 and the connecting rod 349 to be withdrawn. The form 346 is moved to its closed position by causing the jack 339 to turn its drive arm 341 in the opposite direction, thereby extending the pivot mounting 345 and the connecting rod 349.

A triangular shaped interior form 348 is used to cast the corner intersection of the side walls 320 and 322. The corner form 348 has an L shaped casting plate 350 in contact with the interior surfaces of the side walls 320 and 322 when the corner form 348 is in its closed position. A series of parallel, horizontal L shaped I beams 352 are welded at spaced intervals to the opposite surface of the casting plate 350. A series of parallel, vertical I beams 354 are welded at spaced intervals to the horizontal I beams 352 to make up a support lattice for the casting plate 350.

A series of parallel, horizontal, triangular steel plates 356 are welded to the vertical 1" beams 354 for additional support. The corner form 348 is supported by pairs of parallel swinging arms 358, each pivoted at one end to the triangular plate 356 and pivoted at the other end to an extension 360 of the scaffold 324.

The casting plate 350 has an edge 362 bent inwardly from the side wall 320 at an obtuse angle which is the complement of the angular bend of the edge 336 of the casting plate 330. When the forms 326 and 348 are in their closed positions the edges 336 and 362 are in a sealed, mating relationship. Likewise the casting plate 350 has an edge 364 bent inwardly from the side wall 322 at an obtuSe angle which is the complement of the angular bend of the edge 336' of the casting plate 330'. When the forms 346 and 348 are in theirclosed positions the edges 336' and 364 are also in a sealed, mating relationship.

While the dimensions of the corner form 348 are not critical, the length of the legs abutting each side wall should be kept relatively short to reduce the force required to strip the form from the cast walls 320 and 322. In the embodiment of FIG. 14 the length of each leg is slightly more than four feet.

The form 348 is moved between its open and closed positions by a jack 366 having a rotatable drive arm 368 threaded in a pivot mounting 370. The pivot mounting 370 is supported by a horizontal rail 372. A connecting rod 374 is pivoted at one end to the mounting 370 and at the other end to a selected triangular steel plate 356. The form 348 is moved between its open and closed positions by causing the jack 366 to rotate its drive arm 368 in a selected direction, thereby withdrawing or extending the pivot mounting 370 and the connecting rod 374.

The swinging arms 328 and 328 are substantially longer than the swinging arms 42 and 42' of the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6, thereby allowing the forms 326 I and 346 to be moved to a greater distance away from the east side walls when in their open positions than the forms 40 and 40' when in their open positions.

In order to remove the east side walls 320 and 322, the interior forms 326 and 346 are first moved to their open positions. Thereafter the corner form 348 is l3 moved to its open position in a direction which is approximately 45 to the directions of opening of the forms 326 and 346. As can be seen in hidden line fashion in FIG. 14 the ends of the form 348 overlap the ends of the forms 326 and 346.

The ceiling slab is cast integral with the side walls 320 and 322 by a horizontal form having substantially the same construction as the horizontal form of FIGS. l6. The side wall forms 326 and 346 and the corner form 348 seal against the horizontal form in the same manner as the sealing arrangement of the edges 52 and 52' of the forms 40 and 40' with the horizontal casting plate edges 38 of the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6. The remaining side walls and interior partitions of the boxlike units are cast in substantially the same manner as the casting of the walls 320 and 322. The integrally cast unit is subsequently removed from the opened forms and transported to a floor slab from where a floor slab is cast in rigid contact with the side walls and interior partitions.

In all the embodiments, heretofore discussed, the floor slab was cast in rigid contact with the side walls and interior partitions to create a sturdy monolithic p 7 l4 such that the second and third forms partially contain the wall.

2. Apparatus for casting successive boxlike units each having at least first and second opposed walls integrally cast with a ceiling slab, comprising a first stationary support, an upsidedown L shaped first form pivotally mounted on the first support such the first form may be swung in an arc between a closed,'casting position in which the first form is in contact with substantially the entire interior surface of the first wall and a first portion of the underside of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the first form is stripped away from the interior surface of the first wall and the first portion of the underside of the ceiling slab, a second stationary support, an upside-down L shaped second form pivotally mounted on the second support such that the second form may be swung in an arc between a closed, casting position in which the second form is in contact with substantially the entire interior surface structure. It is also possible, though less practical, to I affixa precast floor slab to the side walls and interior partitions by welded brackets, post-tensioning rods extending through the floor and the side walls, or by separately casting small portions of the floor slab in contact with the side walls and interior partitions.

It should also be recognized that hydraulic or hand operated mechanical devices may be substituted for the various pneumatic devices and jacks of the embodiments of FIGS. 7-14.

The terms and expressions which have been employed are used as terms of description and not-of limi tation, and there is no intention, in the use of such terms and expressions, of limiting any of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various other modifications may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

a What is claimed is:

1. Apparatus for casting successive boxlike units each having at least one wall integrally cast with a ceiling slab, comprising a horizontal first form for casting the ceiling slab; a vertical second form movable between a closed, casting position in contact with the interior surface of the wall and an open position in which the second form is parallel to, but stripped away from the interior surface of the wall, the upper portion of the second form being in accurate alignment with the edge of the first form closest to the wall when the second form is moved to its closed position; means for supporting the first and second forms; means for moving the second form between its open and closed positions, the means for moving the second form comprising a first support, a guide plate mounted on the first support such that the guide plate slopes downwardly from the bottom of the interior surface of the wall, a roller mounted on the bottom of the second form and supported by the guide plate, and means for exerting both vertical and horizontal forces at the bottom of the second form to push the second form in an upward diagonal direction into its closed position; and a vertical third form in contact with the exterior surface of the wall and in spaced apart casting alignment with the second form when the second' form is in its closed position of the second wall and a second portion of the underside of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the second form is stripped away from the interior surface of the second wall and the second portion of the underside of the ceiling slab, the first and second forms when in their closed positions constituting a tunnelshaped interior form for the integrally cast walls and ceiling slab, means forswinging the first and the second forms between their open and closed positions, a third support, a third form vertically mounted on the third support in contact with the exterior surface of the first wall and in spaced apart casting alignment with the first form when the first form is in its closed position such that the first and third forms partially contain the first wall, a fourth support, and a fourth form vertically mounted on the fourth support in contact with the exterior surface of the second wall in spaced apart casting alignment with the second form when the second form is in its closed position, such that the second and fourth forms partially contain the second wall.

3. Apparatus for casting successive prefabricated units each having both an interior partition and an opposed wall integrally cast together with a ceiling slab, comprising a first stationary support, an upside-down L shaped first form pivotally mounted onthe first support such that the first form may be swung in an are between a closed, casting position in which the first form is in contact with substantially the entire interior surface of the wall and a first portion of the underside of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the first form is stripped away from the interior surface of the wall and the first portion of the underside of the ceiling slab, a second stationary support, an upsidedown L shaped second form pivotally mounted opposite the first form on the second stationary support such that the second form may be swung in an arc between a closed, casting position in which the second form is in contact with a first surface of the interior parthe third support in contact with a second surface of the interior partition and a third portion of the underside of the ceiling slab and in spaced apart casting alignment with the second form when the second form is in its closed position such that the second and third forms partially contain the interior partition, a fourth stationary support, and a fourth form vertically mounted on the fourth support in contact with the exterior surface of the wall in spaced apart casting align ment with the first form when the first form is in its closed position, such that the first and fourth forms partially contain the wall.

4. Apparatus for casting successive boxlike units each having at least first and second opposed walls integrally cast with a ceiling slab for assembly into building structures, comprising a horizontal base, a first upsidedown L shaped form having first and second legs and being pivotally mounted by the second leg to the base such that the first form may be swung in an are between an upright, closed, casting position in which the second leg is in contact with the interior surface of the first wall and the first leg is in contact with a first portion of the underside of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the first leg is stripped away from the underside of the ceiling and the second leg is stripped from the interior surface of the first wall, the first leg having an edge at its tip inclined downwardly at an acute angle to the underside of the ceiling slab, a second upsidedown L" shaped form having third and fourth legs and being pivotally mounted by the fourth leg to the base such that the second form may be swung in an are between an upright, closed, casting position in which the fourth leg is in contact with the interior surface of the second wall and the third leg is in contact with the underside of a second portion of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the third leg is stripped from the underside of the ceiling and the fourth leg is stripped from the interior surface of the second wall, the third leg having an edge at its tip inclined downwardly at an obtuse angle to the underside of the ceiling slab such that when the first and second forms are in their closed positions the inclined edges of the first and third legs are in a sealed mating relationship and such that the first and second forms in their closed positions constitute a tunnel-shaped interior form for the integrally cast walls and ceiling slab, means for swinging the first and the second forms between their open and closed positions, a first support, a vertical third form mounted on the first support in contact with the exterior surface of the first wall and in a spaced apart, casting relationship with the second leg when the first form is in its closed position such that the first and third forms partially contain the first wall, a second support, and a vertical fourth form mounted on the second support in contact with the exterior surface of the second wall and in a spaced part, casting relationship with the fourth leg when the second form is in its closed position such that the second and fourth forms partially contain the second wall.

5. Apparatus as recited in claim 4 comprising a horizontal member rigidly affixed to the bottom of the second leg, the horizontal member extending under the first wall and being pivoted at the end of the horizontal member to the base.

6. Apparatus as recited in claim 4 wherein the means for moving the first and second forms includes a stop member affixed to the lower interior portion of the first form, a stop structure affixed to the base between the first and the second forms and positioned such that the stop member abuts the stop structure when the first form is fully moved to its open position, means extending between the first and the second forms for exerting a force between the first and the second forms, and latching means for holding the stop member in abutting relationship with the stop structure while the second form is moved from its open and its closed position.

7. Apparatus for casting successive boxlike units each having both an interior partition and an opposed wall integrally cast together with a ceiling slab for assembly into building structures, comprising a horizontal base, a first upside-down L shaped form having first and second legs and being pivotally mounted by the second leg to the base such that the first form may be swung in an are between an upright, closed, casting position in which the second leg is in contact with the interior surface of the wall and the first leg is in contact with a first portion of the underside of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the first leg is stripped from the underside of the ceiling and the second leg is stripped from the interior surface of the wall, the first leg having an edge at its tip inclined downwardly when in the closed position at an oblique angle to the underside of the ceiling slab, a second upside-down L" shaped form having third and fourth legs and being pivotally mounted opposite the first form by the fourth leg to the base such that the second form may be swung in an arc between an upright, closed, casting position in which the fourth leg is in contact with a first surface of the interior partition and the third leg is in contact with the underside of a second portion of the ceiling slab and an open position in which the third leg is stripped from the underside of the ceiling and the fourth leg is stripped from the first surface of the interior partition, the third leg having an edge at its tip inclined downwardly when in the closed position at an oblique angle to the underside of the ceiling slab which is complementary to the angle of inclination of the edge on the tip of the first leg, such that when the first and second forms are in their closed positions the inclined edges of the first and third legs are in a sealed parallel-mating relationship and such that the first and second forms in their closed positions constitute a tunnel-shaped interior form for the integrally cast interior partition, wall and ceiling slab, means for swinging the first and the second forms between their open and closed positions, a second support, a third form vertically mounted on the second support in contact with the exterior surface of the first wall and in a spaced apart, casting relationship with the second leg when the first form is in its closed position such that the first and third forms partially contain the first wall, a third support, and a fourth fonn vertically mounted on the third support in contact with a second surface of the interior partition and in a spaced apart, casting relationship with the fourth leg when the second form is in its closed position such that the second and fourth forms partially contain the interior partition.

8. ApparatuS as recited in claim 7 comprising a horizontal member rigidly affixed to the bottom of the fourth leg, the horizontal member extending beneath the interior partition and being pivoted to the base at the tip of the horizontal member.

9. Apparatus for casting successive boxlike units each having first and second opposed walls integrally

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Classifications
U.S. Classification249/27, 249/162, 249/185, 249/180
International ClassificationB28B7/22, E04G11/02
Cooperative ClassificationB28B7/22, E04G11/02
European ClassificationE04G11/02, B28B7/22